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Journal Articles

Visualizing cation vacancies in Ce:Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$ scintillators by gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

Fujimori, Kosuke*; Kitaura, Mamoru*; Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Zen, H.*; Watanabe, Shinta*; Kamada, Kei*; Okano, Yasuaki*; Kato, Masahiro*; Hosaka, Masahito*; et al.

Applied Physics Express, 13(8), p.085505_1 - 085505_4, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:24.67(Physics, Applied)

To clarify the existence of cation vacancies in Ce-doped Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$ (Ce:GAGG) scintillators, we performed gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (GiPALS). GiPAL spectra of GAGG and Ce:GAGG comprised two exponential decay components, which were assigned to positron annihilation at bulk and defect states. By an analogy with Ce:Y$$_{3}$$Al$$_{5}$$O$$_{12}$$, the defect-related component was attributed to Al/Ga-O divacancy complexes. This component was weaker for Ce, Mg:GAGG, which correlated with the suppression of shallow electron traps responsible for phosphorescence. Oxygen vacancies were charge compensators for Al/Ga vacancies. The lifetime of the defect-related component was significantly changed by Mg co-doping. This was understood by considering aggregates of Mg$$^{2+}$$ ions at Al/Ga sites with oxygen vacancies, which resulted in the formation of vacancy clusters.

Journal Articles

Assembly study for JT-60SA tokamak

Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Arai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Koichi; Hoshi, Ryo; Kamiya, Koji; Kawashima, Hisato; Kubo, Hirotaka; Masaki, Kei; Saeki, Hisashi; Sakurai, Shinji; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 88(6-8), p.705 - 710, 2013/10

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:59.34(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Analysis of $$T$$$$_{rm e}$$/$$T$$$$_{rm i}$$ effect on confinement properties

Narita, Emi*; Takizuka, Tomonori*; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Fujita, Takaaki; Ide, Shunsuke; Honda, Mitsuru; Isayama, Akihiko; Itami, Kiyoshi; Kamada, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yasuyuki*; et al.

Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 7(Sp.1), p.2403102_1 - 2403102_5, 2012/07

Journal Articles

Basic concept of JT-60SA tokamak assembly

Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Arai, Takashi; Kawashima, Hisato; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Hoshi, Ryo; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Sawai, Hiroaki; Masaki, Kei; Sakurai, Shinji; Shibama, Yusuke; et al.

Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.9, p.276 - 281, 2010/08

The JT-60 SA project is a combined project of JA-EU satellite tokamak program under the Broader Approach (BA) agreement and JA domestic program. Major components of JT-60SA for assembly are vacuum vessel (VV), superconducting coils (TF coils, EF coils and CS coil), in-vessel components such as divertor, thermal shield and cryostat. An assembly frame (with the dedicated cranes), which is located around the tokamak, is adopted to carry out effectively the assembly of tokamak components in the tokamak hall, independently of the facility cranes in the building. The assembly frame also provides assembly tools and jigs with jacks to support temporarily the components as well as to adjust the components at right positions. In this paper, the assembly scenario and scequence of the major components such as VV and TFC and the concept of the assembly frame including special jigs and fixtures are discussed.

Journal Articles

Development of negative ion based neutral beam injector toward JT-60SA

Tanaka, Yutaka; Hanada, Masaya; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kamada, Masaki; Kisaki, Masashi

Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.8, p.1547 - 1550, 2009/09

This paper reports recent R&D results on negative ion-based NBI system for JT-60 Super Advanced where 10 MW neutral beams is designed to be injected for 100 seconds. There are major two issues to realize such as a high-power and long-pulse injection, i.e., the improvement of voltage holding capability and the reduction of the grid power loading of the JT-60U negative ion source with three acceleration stages. As the first step for improving voltage holding capability, the breakdown location has been examined on site of JT-60U by measuring the lights emitted from spark gaps that are installed outside of the ion source in parallel with acceleration stages. To reduce the grid power to an allowable level, outward deflection of outmost beamlets, due to space charge of the inner beamlets, was suppressed by distorting the acceleration electric field at the edge of the grids. This allowed to reduce the highest grid power loading to acceptable level of 5 %.

Journal Articles

Dynamics of ion internal transport barrier in LHD heliotron and JT-60U tokamak plasmas

Ida, Katsumi*; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Yoshinuma, Mikiro*; Takenaga, Hidenobu; Nagaoka, Kenichi*; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Oyama, Naoyuki; Osakabe, Masaki*; Yokoyama, Masayuki*; Funaba, Hisamichi*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 49(9), p.095024_1 - 095024_9, 2009/09

 Times Cited Count:26 Percentile:72.4(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Dynamics of ion internal transport barrier (ITB) formation and impurity transport both in the Large Helical Device (LHD) heliotron and JT-60U tokamak are described. Significant differences between heliotron and tokamak plasmas are observed. The location of the ITB moves outward during the ITB formation regardless of the sign of magnetic shear in JT-60U and the ITB becomes more localized in the plasma with negative magnetic shear. In LHD, the low Te/Ti ratio ($$<$$ 1) of the target plasma for the high power heating is found to be necessary condition to achieve the ITB plasma and the ITB location tends to expand outward or inward depending on the condition of the target plasmas. Associated with the formation of ITB, the carbon density tends to be peaked due to inward convection in JT-60U, while the carbon density becomes hollow due to outward convection in LHD. The outward convection observed in LHD contradicts the prediction by neoclassical theory.

Journal Articles

Energy spectra of bremsstrahlung X-rays emitted from an FRP insulator

Tanaka, Yutaka; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Hanada, Masaya; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kamada, Masaki; Kisaki, Masashi; Akino, Noboru; Yamano, Yasushi*; Kobayashi, Shinichi*; Grisham, L. R.*

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 37(8), p.1495 - 1498, 2009/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:4.64(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Voltage holding capability of the JT-60 negative ion source is limited by surface flashover on the FRP insulator. To improve the voltage holding capability of the ion source, the understanding of the surface flashover is required. In this study, electron energy is estimated by measuring the bremsstrahlung X-ray emitted from an FRP insulator. Energy spectra of X-ray were measured for 3 different positions and compared with those of the vacuum gap between electrodes. Near the anode, X-ray spectrum was dominated by the monoenergetic electron. Near the cathode, spectrum peak shifted to low energy compared with that near the anode. This result showed that a large amount of low energy electrons was generated on the surface of the FRP insulator near the cathode.

Journal Articles

The Characteristics of the internal transport barrier under reactor relevant conditions in JT-60U weak shear plasmas

Takenaga, Hidenobu; Oyama, Naoyuki; Urano, Hajime; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Kamiya, Kensaku; Miyo, Yasuhiko; Nishiyama, Tomokazu; Sasajima, Tadayuki; Masaki, Kei; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 49(7), p.075012_1 - 075012_11, 2009/07

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:36.96(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Characteristics of internal transport barrier (ITB) have been investigated under reactor relevant condition with edge fuelling and electron heating in JT-60U weak shear plasmas. High confinement was sustained at high density with edge fuelling by shallow pellet injection or supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI). The ion temperature (T$$_{i}$$) in the central region inside the ITB decreased due to cold pulse propagation even with edge fuelling. By optimizing the injection frequency and the penetration depth, the decreased central T$$_{i}$$ was recovered and good ITB was sustained with enhanced pedestal pressure. The T$$_{i}$$-ITB also degraded significantly with electron cyclotron heating (ECH), when stiffness feature was strong in the electron temperature (T$$_{e}$$) profile. The ion thermal diffusivity in the ITB region increased with the electron thermal diffusivity, indicating existence of clear relation between ion and electron thermal transport. On the other hand, T$$_{i}$$-ITB unchanged or even grew, when stiffness feature was weak in the T$$_{e}$$ profile. Density fluctuation level at ITB seemed to be unchanged during ECH, however, correlation length became longer in the T$$_{i}$$-ITB degradation case and shorter in the T$$_{i}$$-ITB unchanging case.

Journal Articles

Steering of multiple beamlets in the JT-60U negative ion source

Kamada, Masaki; Hanada, Masaya; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Grisham, L. R.*

AIP Conference Proceedings 1097, p.412 - 420, 2009/03

To reduce heat loading of large-area, multi-aperture grids due to interception of negative ion beam, newly-designed field-shaping plates (FSPs) were installed in JT-60U negative ion source. Design of the FSPs based on results of 3D simulation of multiple-beamlets trajectory. It was found that overfocusing of outermost beamlet can be improved by thinner and farther FSP than previous FSP. Furthermore, positions of FSPs were adjusted in each horizontal row of apertures to suppress deflection of the ion beam due to dipole magnetic field for electron suppression. As test results of the newly-designed FSP, the newly-designed FSP significantly reduced the overfocusing of the outermost beamlet from -10 mrad to -5 mrad at 350 kV in acceleration voltage and the power loading of grounded grid from 9% to 7% of drain power. This level of the power loading is allowable in JT-60SA where the negative ion beam with 500 keV, 22 A for 100 s is required.

Journal Articles

Compensation of beamlet repulsion in a large negative ion source with a multi aperture accelerator

Kashiwagi, Mieko; Inoue, Takashi; Grisham, L. R.*; Hanada, Masaya; Kamada, Masaki; Taniguchi, Masaki; Umeda, Naotaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

AIP Conference Proceedings 1097, p.421 - 430, 2009/03

One of the issues in long pulse operation of large negative ion source with multiaperture accelerator is an excess heat loads on to grids by the beamlet deflection due to their space charge repulsion. To compensate this beamlet deflection, the beamlet steering technique by aperture offset was examined in a three dimensional beam analyses simulating D$$^{-}$$ negative ion source of JT-60U. The result shows that proper aperture offsets of $$leq$$ 1.0 mm were enough to compensate each beamlet deflection. When the magnetic field for suppression of co-extracted electrons was applied, necessary aperture offset of 0.5 mm was necessary for 500 keV D$$^{-}$$ ion beam in JT-60U in addition to the offset for compensation of space charge repulsion. The numerical analyses showed good agreement with the former experimental results and design study.

Journal Articles

Electrons in the negative-ion-based NBI on JT-60U

Kisaki, Masashi; Hanada, Masaya; Kamada, Masaki; Tanaka, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Sasao, Mamiko*

AIP Conference Proceedings 1097, p.344 - 352, 2009/03

The stripped electron trajectories in a large negative ion accelerator with multi-apertures and three acceleration stages, where non-uniform stray magnetic field is horizontally created, are calculated in the JT-60 negative ion source by the 3-D numerical code. The horizontal non-uniform stray field results in a significant power loss of the stripped electrons in the outmost acceleration channel on the grounded grid (GRG). The power loss in the outmost acceleration channel is more than twice higher than that in the central channel due to the weaker stray field although the total power loading on the GRG is by 25% larger than that by assuming a uniform stray field.

Journal Articles

Status of JT-60SA tokamak under the EU-JA broader approach agreement

Matsukawa, Makoto; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Fujii, Tsuneyuki; Fujita, Takaaki; Hayashi, Takao; Higashijima, Satoru; Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Ide, Shunsuke; Ishida, Shinichi; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 83(7-9), p.795 - 803, 2008/12

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:74.37(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Characteristics of internal transport barrier under reactor relevant condition in JT-60U weak shear plasmas

Takenaga, Hidenobu; Oyama, Naoyuki; Urano, Hajime; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Kamiya, Kensaku; Miyo, Yasuhiko; Nishiyama, Tomokazu; Sasajima, Tadayuki; Masaki, Kei; Kaminaga, Atsushi; et al.

Proceedings of 22nd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2008) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2008/10

Characteristics of internal transport barrier (ITB) have been investigated under reactor relevant condition with edge fuelling and electron heating in JT-60U weak shear plasmas. High confinement was sustained at high density with edge fuelling by shallow pellet injection or supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI). The ion temperature ($$T_{i}$$) in the central region decreased even with edge fuelling. The $${it T}_{i}$$ decrease with edge fuelling was larger inside the ITB than that outside the ITB, which can be described by cold pulse propagation using the ion thermal diffusivity ($$chi_{i}$$) estimated from power balance analysis in the SMBI case. By optimizing the injection frequency and the penetration depth, the decreased $$T_{i}$$ was recovered and good ITB was sustained with enhanced pedestal pressure. The $$T_{i}$$-ITB also degraded significantly when stiffness feature was strong in the electron temperature ($$T_{e}$$) profile against electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The value of $$chi_{i}$$ in the ITB region increased with the electron thermal diffusivity ($${it chi}_{e}$$), indicating existence of clear relation between ion and electron thermal transport. On the other hand, $$T_{i}$$-ITB unchanged or even grew, when stiffness feature was weak in the $$T_{e}$$ profile. Density fluctuation level seemed to be unchanged during ECH, however, correlation length became longer in the $${it T}_{i}$$-ITB degradation case and shorter in the $$T_{i}$$-ITB unchanging case.

Journal Articles

Recent R&D activities of negative-ion-based ion source for JT-60SA

Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Hanada, Masaya; Kamada, Masaki; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Umeda, Naotaka; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru; Inoue, Takashi; Honda, Atsushi; Kawai, Mikito; et al.

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 36(4), p.1519 - 1529, 2008/08

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:34.65(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The JT-60SA N-NBI system is required to inject 10 MW for 100 s at 500 keV. Three key issues should be solved for the JT-60SA N-NBI ion source. One is to improve the voltage holding capability. Recent R&D tests suggested that the accelerator with a large area of grids may need a high margin in the design of electric field and a long time for conditioning. The second issue is to reduce the grid power loading. It was found that some beamlets were strongly deflected due to beamlet-beamlet interaction and strike on the grounded grid. The grids are to be designed by taking account of beamlet-beamlet interaction in three-dimensional simulation. Third is to maintain the D- production for 100 s. A simple cooling structure is proposed for the active cooled plasma grid, where a key is the temperature gradient on the plasma grid for uniform D- production. The modified N-NBI ion source will start on JT-60SA in 2015.

Journal Articles

Power loading of electrons ejected from the JT-60 negative ion source

Hanada, Masaya; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Kamada, Masaki; Grisham, L. R.*

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 36(4), p.1530 - 1535, 2008/08

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:9.77(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Power loading of the electrons ejected from the negative ion accelerator to the beam-line was first measured in the negative-ion-based neutral beam injector on JT-60U. At 0.3 Pa of the operating pressure in the arc chamber, the heat flux and the total power load for the single segment were about 8 W/cm$$^{2}$$ and 27 kW for the D$$^{-}$$ ion beam of 300 keV, 3.4 A, respectively. The normalized total power loading on the electron dump was no more than 2.6% of the electric power in the acceleration power supply. About 70% of the total power is originated by the electrons stripped from D$$^{-}$$ ions due to the collisions with residual gas molecules in the accelerator. The calculation of the stripped electron trajectories shows that the electrons stripped in the second acceleration gap are the main origin of the power loading in the beam-line.

JAEA Reports

Breakdown location without beam acceleration in the JT-60U negative ion source

Kobayashi, Kaoru; Hanada, Masaya; Kamada, Masaki; Akino, Noboru; Sasaki, Shunichi; Ikeda, Yoshitaka

JAEA-Technology 2008-042, 25 Pages, 2008/06

JAEA-Technology-2008-042.pdf:4.16MB

Breakdown locations of a JT-60U negative ion source were investigated to improve the voltage holding capability. The accelerator is characterized by three acceleration stages with large grids 0.45 m $$times$$ 1.1 m and large FRP insulators 1.8 m in inner diameter. High voltages were applied to each acceleration stage independently. Voltage holding capabilities of each stage were almost the same, $$sim$$ 120-130 kV, which was lower than the design acceleration voltage of 167 kV. Then, in order to identify whether the breakdowns occur in the gaps between grids or on the surface of the FRP insulators, high voltages were also applied to the accelerator with the grids and their support flanges removed. The voltage holding capabilities of three FRP insulators rapidly achieved 167 kV. These results indicate that the breakdowns mainly occur in the gaps between the acceleration grids and/or their support flanges.

Journal Articles

Beamlet deflection due to beamlet-beamlet interaction in a large-area multiaperture negative ion source for JT-60U

Kamada, Masaki; Hanada, Masaya; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Grisham, L. R.*; Jiang, W.*

Review of Scientific Instruments, 79(2), p.02C114_1 - 02C114_3, 2008/02

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:60.53(Instruments & Instrumentation)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Long pulse production of high current D$$^{-}$$ ion beams in the JT-60 negative ion source

Hanada, Masaya; Kamada, Masaki; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru; Honda, Atsushi; Kawai, Mikito; Kazawa, Minoru; Kikuchi, Katsumi; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; et al.

Review of Scientific Instruments, 79(2), p.02A519_1 - 02A519_4, 2008/02

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:30.02(Instruments & Instrumentation)

A long pulse production of high-current, high-energy D$$^{-}$$ ion beams was studied in the JT-60U negative ion source that was designed to produce 22 A, 500 keV D$$^{-}$$ ion beams. Prior to the long pulse production, the short pulse beams were produced to examine operational ranges for a stable voltage holding capability and an allowable grid power loading. From a correlation between the voltage holding capability and a light intensity of cathodoluminescence from the insulator made of Fiber Reinforced Plastic insulator, the voltage holding was found to be stable at $$<$$ 340 kV where the light was sufficiently suppressed. The grid power loading for the long pulse operation was also decreased to the allowable level of $$<$$ 1 MW without a significant reduction of the beam power by tuning the extraction voltage (Vext) and the arc power (Parc). These allow the production of 30 A D$$^{-}$$ ion beams at 340 keV from two ion sources at Vacc = 340 kV. The pulse length was extended step by step, and finally reached up to 21 s, where the beam pulse length was limited by the surface temperature of the beam scraper without water cooling. The D$$^{-}$$ ion beams were neutralized to via a gas cell, resulting in a long pulse injection of 3.2 MW D$$^{0}$$ beams for 21 s. This is the first long injection of $$>$$ 20 s in a power range of $$>$$ 3 MW.

Journal Articles

Technical design of NBI system for JT-60SA

Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru; Hanada, Masaya; Inoue, Takashi; Honda, Atsushi; Kamada, Masaki; Kawai, Mikito; Kazawa, Minoru; Kikuchi, Katsumi; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 82(5-14), p.791 - 797, 2007/10

 Times Cited Count:19 Percentile:79.3(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Modification of JT-60U to a superconducting device (so called JT-60SA) has been planned to contribute to ITER and DEMO. The NBI system is required to inject 34 MW for 100 s. The upgraded NBI system consists of twelve positive ion based NBI (P-NBI) units and one negative ion based NBI (N-NBI) unit. The injection power of the P-NBI units are 2 MW each at 85 keV, and the N-NBI unit will be 10 MW at 500 keV, respectively. On JT-60U, the long pulse operation of 30 s at 2 MW (85 keV) and 20 s at 3.2 MW (320 keV) have been achieved on P-NBI and N-NBI units, respectively. Since the temperature increase of the cooling water in both ion sources is saturated within 20 s, further pulse extension up to 100 s is expected to mainly modify the power supply systems in addition to modification of the N-NBI ion source for high acceleration voltage. The detailed technical design of the NBI system for JT-60SA is presented.

Journal Articles

Correlation between voltage holding capability and light emission in a 500 keV electrostatic accelerator utilized for fusion application

Hanada, Masaya; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Kamada, Masaki; Kikuchi, Katsumi; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Umeda, Naotaka; Usui, Katsutomi; Grisham, L. R.*; Kobayashi, Shinichi*

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 14(3), p.572 - 576, 2007/06

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:34.99(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

Voltage holding capability of a 500 keV 22 A negative ion accelerator for JT-60U was experimentally examined. Voltage holding capability was strongly correlated with intensity of the light emitted inside the accelerator by applying the acceleration voltage. Namely, stable voltage holding was realized when the light emission was well suppressed. To examine the origin of the light emission, the correlation between the light intensity and the dark current was measured. The light intensity was linearly varied with the dark current. Further, it was indicated from the direction of the dark current that electrons were emitted from cathode grids by applying the acceleration voltage. In addition, the spectroscopy measurement of the light showed that the light had a broad peak at 420 nm. No particular spectra of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon have been observed. Therefore, the light emission seemed to be originated by electron excitation of FRP itself. From these results, it was thought that the voltage holding capability of the JT-60U negative ion accelerator could be improved by suppressing the electron emission from the cathode grids.

42 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)