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Journal Articles

Reliability improvements of corrosion-resistant equipment for thermochemical water splitting hydrogen production iodine-sulfur process

Kamiji, Yu; Noguchi, Hiroki; Takegami, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 361, p.110573_1 - 110573_6, 2020/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

JAEA has been conducting R&D on the thermochemical iodine-sulfur (IS) process for nuclear-powered hydrogen production. The IS process is one of the promising candidates of heat application of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The glass-lined steel is one of the candidate materials which has both corrosion resistance and structural strength. This paper reveals technical matters to improve reliability of the glass-lined steel equipment. It found that the improved glass-lined steel showed soundness in the process environment from the results of stress analyses for the glass layer by FEM, tests for heat cycle, bending load and corrosion.

Journal Articles

Development of strength evaluation method of ceramic reactor for iodine-sulfur process and hydrogen production test in Japan Atomic Energy Agency

Takegami, Hiroaki; Noguchi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kamiji, Yu; Kasahara, Seiji; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Kubo, Shinji

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 360, p.110498_1 - 110498_6, 2020/04

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:24.17(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting R&D on the thermochemical iodine-sulfur (IS) process for nuclear-powered hydrogen production. The IS process is one of the promising candidates of heat application of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. JAEA fabricated main chemical reactors made of industrial structural materials and confirmed their integrity in practical corrosive environments in the IS process. Based on the results of these confirmation tests, JAEA have constructed a 100 NL/h-H$$_{2}$$-scale test facility made of industrial structural materials. In this report, we succeeded in extending the hydrogen production time from 8 hours to 31 hours by developing a stable hydrogen iodide solution transfer technology in a continuous hydrogen production test. In addition, using the fracture test data of the ceramic specimen, an equation for estimating the strength of the ceramic component was developed.

Journal Articles

Research and development on membrane IS process for hydrogen production using solar heat

Myagmarjav, O.; Iwatsuki, Jin; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kamiji, Yu; Ioka, Ikuo; Kubo, Shinji; Nomura, Mikihiro*; Yamaki, Tetsuya*; Sawada, Shinichi*; et al.

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44(35), p.19141 - 19152, 2019/07

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:32.44(Chemistry, Physical)

Journal Articles

R&D status of hydrogen production test using IS process test facility made of industrial structural material in JAEA

Noguchi, Hiroki; Takegami, Hiroaki; Kamiji, Yu; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44(25), p.12583 - 12592, 2019/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:84.47(Chemistry, Physical)

JAEA has been conducting R&D on thermochemical water-splitting hydrogen production IS process to develop one of heat applications of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. A test facility was constructed using corrosion-resistant industrial materials to verify integrity of the IS process components and to demonstrate continuous and stable hydrogen production. The performance of components installed in each section was confirmed. Subsequently, a trial operation of integration of the processing sections was successfully carried out for 8 hours with hydrogen production rate of approximately 10 NL/h. After that, hydrogen production operation was extended to 31 hours (approximately hydrogen production rate of 20 NL/h) by introducing a corrosion-resistance pump system with a developed shaft seal technology.

Journal Articles

Current R&D status of thermochemical water splitting hydrogen production iodine-sulfur process in Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1; Hydrogen production test and component development

Takegami, Hiroaki; Noguchi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kamiji, Yu; Kasahara, Seiji; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Kubo, Shinji

Proceedings of 9th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2018) (USB Flash Drive), 7 Pages, 2018/10

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting R&D on the thermochemical iodine-sulfur (IS) process for nuclear-powered hydrogen production. The IS process is one of the promising candidates of heat application of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. JAEA fabricated main chemical reactors made of industrial structural materials and confirmed their integrity in practical corrosive environments in the IS process. Based on the results of these confirmation tests, JAEA have constructed a 100 NL/h-H$$_{2}$$-scale test facility made of industrial structural materials. This report will present an outline and results of hydrogen production tests and reliability improvements of operation stability and components, such as development of a strength estimation method for heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant ceramics components made of silicon carbide.

Journal Articles

Current R&D status of thermochemical water splitting hydrogen production iodine-sulfur process in Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2; Reliability improvements of corrosion-resistant equipment

Kamiji, Yu; Noguchi, Hiroki; Takegami, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji

Proceedings of 9th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2018) (USB Flash Drive), 7 Pages, 2018/10

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting R&D on the thermochemical iodine-sulfur (IS) process for nuclear-powered hydrogen production. The IS process is one of the promising candidates of heat application of the HTGR. JAEA achieved continuous hydrogen production for one week with a hydrogen production rate of 30 NL/h by using a test apparatus made of glass and fluororesin material. Subsequently, JAEA fabricated main chemical reactors made of industrial materials and confirmed their integrity in corrosive environments in the IS process. Based on the results, JAEA has constructed a 100 NL/h-H$$_{2}$$-scale test facility made of industrial materials; one of the important materials is the glass-lined steel for corrosion resistant components such as vessels, pipes and protective sheaths of sensors. This report will present technical matters to improve reliability of the glass-lined protective sheaths of thermocouple. In addition, results of quality confirmation will be presented, which are stress analyses for the glass layer by FEM, tests for heat cycle, bending load and corrosion.

Journal Articles

Corrosion resistance of nickel-based alloy to gaseous hydrogen iodide decomposition environment in thermochemical water-splitting iodine-sulfur process

Kamiji, Yu; Onuki, Kaoru; Kubo, Shinji

Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Chemical and Biological Sciences (ICCBS 2018) (USB Flash Drive), p.51 - 54, 2018/03

As one of the evaluation of corrosion resistance of structural materials for HI decomposition environment in the iodine-sulfur (IS) thermochemical water-splitting process, we fabricated a HI decomposer which produce practical corrosion environment for the corrosion test using test specimens and examined corrosion resistance of test specimens made of Hastelloy C-276. In the corrosion test, dry HI as the feed gas were used to realize practical environment with copresence of no steam. The experiments were carried out at 500$$^{circ}$$C and atmospheric pressure for 100h in total. Corrosion rates were evaluated from the weight change of each specimen after exposure. Test specimens set in the catalyst layer suffered relatively severe corrosion ($$<$$ 0.75 mm/y) in comparison with those set before the catalyst layer ($$<$$ 0.52 mm/y).

Journal Articles

R&D status in thermochemical water-splitting hydrogen production iodine-sulfur process at JAEA

Noguchi, Hiroki; Takegami, Hiroaki; Kasahara, Seiji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kamiji, Yu; Iwatsuki, Jin; Aita, Hideki; Kubo, Shinji

Energy Procedia, 131, p.113 - 118, 2017/12

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:0.22

The IS process is the most deeply investigated thermochemical water-splitting hydrogen production cycle. It is in a process engineering stage in JAEA to use industrial materials for components. Important engineering tasks are verification of integrity of the total process and stability of hydrogen production in harsh environment. A test facility using corrosion-resistant materials was constructed. The hydrogen production ability was 100 L/h. Operation tests of each section were conducted to confirm basic functions of reactors and separators, etc. Then, a trial operation for integration of the sections was successfully conducted to produce hydrogen of about 10 L/h for 8 hours.

Journal Articles

Current R&D status of thermochemical water splitting iodine-sulfur process in Japan Atomic Energy Agency

Kasahara, Seiji; Iwatsuki, Jin; Takegami, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kamiji, Yu; Onuki, Kaoru; Kubo, Shinji

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 42(19), p.13477 - 13485, 2017/05

 Times Cited Count:25 Percentile:19.73(Chemistry, Physical)

Current R&D on the thermochemical water splitting iodine-sulfur (IS) process in Japan Atomic Energy Agency is summarized. Reactors were fabricated with industrial materials and verified by test operations: a Bunsen reactor, a H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{2}$$ decomposer, and a HI decomposer. Reactors of industrial materials showed corrosion stability. Demonstration of the test facility verified integrity of process components and stability of hydrogen production. An 8 hours continuous operation of the total IS process was performed in February 2016 with H$$_{2}$$ production rate of 10 L/h.

Journal Articles

IS process hydrogen production test for components and system made of industrial structural material, 2; H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{4}$$ decomposition, HI distillation, and HI decomposition section

Noguchi, Hiroki; Takegami, Hiroaki; Kamiji, Yu; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji

Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (CD-ROM), p.1029 - 1038, 2016/11

JAEA has been conducting R&D on the IS process for nuclear-powered hydrogen production. We have constructed a 100 NL/h-H$$_2$$-scale test apparatus made of industrial materials. At first, we investigated performance of components in this apparatus. In this paper, the test results of H$$_2$$SO$$_4$$ decomposition, HI distillation, and HI decomposition were shown. In the H$$_2$$SO$$_4$$ section, O$$_2$$ production rate is proportional to H$$_2$$SO$$_4$$ feed rate and SO$$_3$$ decomposition ratio was estimated about 80%. In HI distillation section, we confirmed to acquire a concentrated HI solution over azeotropic HI composition in the condenser. In HI decomposition section, H$$_2$$ could be produced stably by HI decomposer and decomposition ratio was about 18%. The H$$_2$$SO$$_4$$ decomposer, the HI distillation column, and the HI decomposer were workable. Based on the results added to that shown in Series I, we conducted a trial continuous operation and succeeded it for 8 hours.

Journal Articles

IS process hydrogen production test for components and system made of industrial structural material, 1; Bunsen and HI concentration section

Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Takegami, Hiroaki; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kamiji, Yu; Iwatsuki, Jin; Aita, Hideki; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji

Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (CD-ROM), p.1022 - 1028, 2016/11

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has manufactured 100 NL/h-H$$_2$$-scale hydrogen test apparatus. In advance to conduct the continuous operation, we investigated performance of the components in each section of the IS process. In this paper, the results of test of Bunsen and HI concentration sections was shown. In Bunsen reaction, section, we confirmed that outlet gas flow rate included no SO$$_{2}$$ gas, indicating that all the feed SO$$_{2}$$ gas was absorbed to the solution in the Bunsen reactor for the Bunsen reaction. On the basis of these results, we evaluated that Bunsen reactor was workable. In HI concentration section, HI concentration was conducted by EED stack. As a result, it can concentrate HI in HIx solution as theoretically predicted on the basis of the previous paper. Based on the results added to that shown in Series II, we have conducted a trial continuous operation and succeeded it for 8 hours.

Journal Articles

GTHTR300 cost reduction through design upgrade and cogeneration

Yan, X.; Sato, Hiroyuki; Kamiji, Yu; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 306, p.215 - 220, 2016/09

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:69.72(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The latest design upgrade has incorporated several major technological advances made in the past ten years to both reactor and balance of plant in GTHTR300. As described in this paper, these advances have enabled raising the design basis reactor core outlet temperature to 950$$^{circ}$$C and increasing power generating efficiency by nearly 5% point. Further implementation of seawater desalination cogeneration is made through employing a newly-proposed multi-stage flash process. Through efficient waste heat recovery of the reactor gas turbine power conversion cycle, a large cost credit is obtained against the conventionally produced water prices. Together, the design upgrade and the cogeneration are shown to reduce the GTHTR300 cost of electricity to under 2.7 cent/kW h.

JAEA Reports

Study of HTGR contribution to Japan's CO$$_{2}$$ emission reduction goal in 2050

Kamiji, Yu; Suzuki, Koichi*; Yan, X.

JAEA-Technology 2016-010, 24 Pages, 2016/07

JAEA-Technology-2016-010.pdf:1.05MB

Japanese government has set the goal of reducing CO$$_{2}$$ emission by 26% in 2030 below the 2013 level, in longer term, by 80% below the 1990 level. To achieve the goals, various measures should be taken. The GTHTR300, a commercial High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design being developed by JAEA offers spectrum of heat applications by using its high temperature heat up to 950$$^{circ}$$C. The potential contribution of CO$$_{2}$$ emission reduction by HTGR is estimated considering domestic and overseas deployment of the GTHTR300. The best estimate for domestic CO$$_{2}$$ reduction is 2.07$$times$$10$$^{8}$$ ton- CO$$_{2}$$/yr and that from oversea is 2.25$$times$$10$$^{8}$$ ton- CO$$_{2}$$/yr. The sum of these is about 47% of 9.13$$times$$10$$^{8}$$ ton- CO$$_{2}$$/yr which is CO$$_{2}$$ reduction target in 2050, for which deployment of 52 plants in Japan and 113 plants abroad, with each plant containing four 600 MWt reactor units, is required.

Journal Articles

Heat transport analysis in a district heating system applying waste heat from GTHTR300, a commercial design of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

Kasahara, Seiji; Murata, Tetsuya*; Kamiji, Yu; Terada, Atsuhiko; Yan, X.; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Mori, Michitsugu*

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 3(3), p.15-00616_1 - 15-00616_16, 2016/06

A district heating system for household heating and road snow melting utilizing waste heat from GTHTR300, a heat-electricity cogeneration design of high temperature gas-cooled reactor, was analyzed. The application area was Sapporo and Ishikari, cities with heavy snowfall in northern Japan. The heat transport analyses were performed by modeling components to estimate heat supply profile; the secondary loops between the GTHTR300s and the heat-application area; heat exchangers connecting the secondary loops to the tertiary loops of the district-heating pipes; and the tertiary loops between the heat exchangers and houses and roads. Though double pipes for the secondary loops were advantageous for having less heat loss and a smaller excavation area, these advantages did not compensate for the higher construct cost of the pipes. To satisfy heat demand in the month of maximum requirement, 520-529 MW of heat were supplied by 3 GTHTR300s and delivered by 6 secondary loops, 3,450 heat exchangers about 90 m long, and 3,450 tertiary loops. Heat loss to the ground from the tertiary loops comprised 80%-90% of the heat loss. More than 90% of the construction cost went into thermal insulators. The thickness and properties of the thermal insulator must be reevaluated for economical heat delivery.

JAEA Reports

Research and development on chemical reactors made of industrial structural materials and hydriodic acid concentration technique for thermochemical hydrogen production IS process

Kubo, Shinji; Iwatsuki, Jin; Takegami, Hiroaki; Kasahara, Seiji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kamiji, Yu; Onuki, Kaoru

JAEA-Technology 2015-028, 32 Pages, 2015/10

JAEA-Technology-2015-028.pdf:23.69MB

JAEA has been conducting a study on IS process for thermochemical hydrogen production in order to develop massive hydrogen production technology for hydrogen society. Integrity of the chemical reactors and concentration technology of hydrogen iodide in HIx solution were studied. In the former study, the chemical reactors were trial-fabricated using industrial materials. A test of 30 times of thermal cycle test under circulating condition of the Bunsen reaction solution showed integrity of the Bunsen reactor made of fluororesin lined steel. Also, 100 hours of reaction tests showed integrity of the sulfuric acid decomposer made of silicon carbide and of the hydrogen iodide decomposer made of Hastelloy C-276. In the latter study, concerning electro-electrodialysis using cation-exchange membrane, sulfuric acid in the anolyte had little influence on the concentration performance. These results suggest the purification system of HIx solution can be simplified. Based on the Nernst-Planck equation and the Smoluchowski equation, proton transport number, water permeance, and IR drop of the cation exchange membrane were formulated. The derived equations enable quantitative estimation for the performance indexes of Nafion membrane and, also, of ETFE-St membranes made by radiation-induced graft polymerization method.

Journal Articles

Development of hydrogen behavior simulation code system

Terada, Atsuhiko; Matsumoto, Masaaki*; Sugiyama, Hitoshi*; Kamiji, Yu; Hino, Ryutaro

Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS 2015) (CD-ROM), 11 Pages, 2015/10

To improve the safety performance of the Nuclear Power Station, especially on the hydrogen safety under severe accident conditions, a simulation code system has been developed to analyze hydrogen behavior including diffusion, combustion, explosion and structural integrity evaluation. This developing system consists of CFD and FEM tools in order to support various hydrogen user groups consisting of students, researchers and engineers. Preliminary analytical results obtained with above mentioned tools, especially with open source codes including buoyancy turbulent model and condensation model, agreed well with the existing test data.

Journal Articles

Heat transport analysis in a district heating and snow melting system in Sapporo and Ishikari, Hokkaido applying waste heat from GTHTR300

Kasahara, Seiji; Murata, Tetsuya*; Kamiji, Yu; Terada, Atsuhiko; Yan, X.; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Mori, Michitsugu*

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 11 Pages, 2015/05

A heat transport analysis of a district heating and snow melting system in Sapporo and Ishikari, Hokkaido was carried out assuming application of waste heat from GTHTR300, a design of high temperature gas-cooled reactor. The following components in the system were modeled; pipelines of the water loops between GTHTR300 and heat demand district and heat exchangers to transport the heat from the water loops to water loops in the district. Double pipes for the pipeline has disadvantage that pumping electricity consumption was 2.74 times to that of single pipes due to pressure loss in annulus channel. On the other hand, the double pipe was advantageous in less heat loss and excavation load. Heat loss was 33% smaller because heat loss from inner tube was recovered in annulus channel. Excavation area was 23% smaller because water loop was made by one double pipe. Total heat loss from the GTHTR300s to the water loop in the district was 4.2% and ratio of pump electricity to power generation from the GTHTR300s was 0.8%. In January, the maximum heat demand in a year, 97.0% of the heat demand was supplied by 2 GTHTRs. Less distance between GTHTR300 and heat demand district from 40 km to 20 km would make cost of the heat transfer system 22% smaller.

Journal Articles

Development of new type passive autocatalytic recombiner, 1; Experimental study on degradation of catalyst

Kamiji, Yu; Matsumura, Daiju; Taniguchi, Masashi*; Nishihata, Yasuo; Tanaka, Hirohisa*; Hirata, Shingo*; Hara, Mikiya; Hino, Ryutaro

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 4 Pages, 2015/05

In a severe accident at a nuclear power plant, a large amount of hydrogen can be released to primary containment vessel or reactor building. Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is one of the most effective systems for hydrogen mitigation and safety accident management. The new type PAR is under developing to improve conventional PARs, especially its size and weight. In this study, the influence of steam coexistence for the automotive catalyst activity was experimentally examined. These results show that the steam slightly affects the reaction start up and catalyst activity.

Journal Articles

Development of hydrogen behavior simulation code system; Outline of code system and validation using existing data

Terada, Atsuhiko; Matsumoto, Masaaki*; Sugiyama, Hitoshi*; Kamiji, Yu; Kadowaki, Satoshi*; Hino, Ryutaro

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2015/05

In the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) accident, hydrogen was generated by oxidation reaction of the cladding and water etc, then leaked into the NPS building, and finally led to occurrence of hydrogen explosion in the building. This resulted in serious damage to the environment. To improve the safety performance of the NPS, especially on the hydrogen safety under severe accident conditions, a simulation code system has been developed to analyze hydrogen behaviors including diffusion, combustion, explosion and structural integrity evaluation. This developing system consists of CFD and FEM tools in order to support various hydrogen user groups of students, researchers and engineers. Preliminary calculated results obtained with above mentioned tools, damage of piping induced by hydrogen combustion, agreed well with existing test data.

Journal Articles

Development of new type passive autocatalytic recombiner, 1; Characterization of monolithic catalyst

Kamiji, Yu; Taniguchi, Masashi*; Nishihata, Yasuo; Nagaishi, Ryuji; Tanaka, Hirohisa*; Hirata, Shingo*; Hara, Mikiya; Hino, Ryutaro

Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Maintenance Science and Technology (ICMST-Kobe 2014), p.87 - 88, 2014/11

For hydrogen mitigation, a new type passive autocatalytic recombiner is under development. In this study, the activation energy of hydrogen-oxygen recombination reaction was examined to clarify the basic characteristics of the catalyst. In addition, the degradation of the catalyst by $$gamma$$-ray irradiation simulating the environmental condition in nuclear power plants was also examined. As a result, the activation energy was experimentally estimated at 5.75 kJ/mol. Besides, no significant differences were observed in the compositional distribution from the EPMA results between the non-irradiated and the irradiated catalyst. However, the irradiated catalyst showed much more activity because of larger specific surface area of the catalyst and surface area of the precious metals. It showed that $$gamma$$-ray irradiation up to 1.0 MGy can increase activity of the catalyst.

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