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Journal Articles

Hydrogen production using thermochemical water-splitting iodine-sulfur process test facility made of industrial structural materials; Engineering solutions to prevent iodine precipitation

Noguchi, Hiroki; Kamiji, Yu; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Takegami, Hiroaki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kasahara, Seiji; Myagmarjav, O.; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Shinji

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 46(43), p.22328 - 22343, 2021/06

An iodine-sulfur process offers the potential for mass producing hydrogen with high-efficiency, and it uses high-temperature heat sources, including HTGR, solar heat, and waste heat of industries. R&D tasks are essential to confirm the integrity of the components that are made of industrial materials and the stability of hydrogen production in harsh working conditions. A test facility for producing hydrogen was constructed from corrosion-resistant components made of industrial materials. For stable hydrogen production, technical issues for instrumental improvements (i.e., stable pumping of the HIx solution, improving the quality control of glass-lined steel, prevention of I$$_{2}$$ precipitation using a water removal technique in a Bunsen reactor) were solved. The entire process was successfully operated for 150 h at the rate of 30 L/h. The integrity of components and the operational stability of the hydrogen production facility in harsh working conditions were demonstrated.

Journal Articles

High temperature gas-cooled reactors

Takeda, Tetsuaki*; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Aihara, Jun; Aoki, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Ho, H. Q.; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Imai, Yoshiyuki; et al.

High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors; JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation, Vol.5, 464 Pages, 2021/02

As a general overview of the research and development of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in JAEA, this book describes the achievements by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) on the designs, key component technologies such as fuel, reactor internals, high temperature components, etc., and operational experience such as rise-to-power tests, high temperature operation at 950$$^{circ}$$C, safety demonstration tests, etc. In addition, based on the knowledge of the HTTR, the development of designs and component technologies such as high performance fuel, helium gas turbine and hydrogen production by IS process for commercial HTGRs are described. These results are very useful for the future development of HTGRs. This book is published as one of a series of technical books on fossil fuel and nuclear energy systems by the Power Energy Systems Division of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Journal Articles

Reliability improvements of corrosion-resistant equipment for thermochemical water splitting hydrogen production iodine-sulfur process

Kamiji, Yu; Noguchi, Hiroki; Takegami, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 361, p.110573_1 - 110573_6, 2020/05

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:84.6(Nuclear Science & Technology)

JAEA has been conducting R&D on the thermochemical iodine-sulfur (IS) process for nuclear-powered hydrogen production. The IS process is one of the promising candidates of heat application of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The glass-lined steel is one of the candidate materials which has both corrosion resistance and structural strength. This paper reveals technical matters to improve reliability of the glass-lined steel equipment. It found that the improved glass-lined steel showed soundness in the process environment from the results of stress analyses for the glass layer by FEM, tests for heat cycle, bending load and corrosion.

Journal Articles

Development of strength evaluation method of ceramic reactor for iodine-sulfur process and hydrogen production test in Japan Atomic Energy Agency

Takegami, Hiroaki; Noguchi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kamiji, Yu; Kasahara, Seiji; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Kubo, Shinji

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 360, p.110498_1 - 110498_6, 2020/04

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:93.25(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting R&D on the thermochemical iodine-sulfur (IS) process for nuclear-powered hydrogen production. The IS process is one of the promising candidates of heat application of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. JAEA fabricated main chemical reactors made of industrial structural materials and confirmed their integrity in practical corrosive environments in the IS process. Based on the results of these confirmation tests, JAEA have constructed a 100 NL/h-H$$_{2}$$-scale test facility made of industrial structural materials. In this report, we succeeded in extending the hydrogen production time from 8 hours to 31 hours by developing a stable hydrogen iodide solution transfer technology in a continuous hydrogen production test. In addition, using the fracture test data of the ceramic specimen, an equation for estimating the strength of the ceramic component was developed.

Journal Articles

Development of new corrosion test equipment simulating sulfuric acid decomposition gas environment in a thermochemical hydrogen production process

Hirota, Noriaki; Kasahara, Seiji; Iwatsuki, Jin; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Yan, X.; Tachibana, Yukio

Zairyo To Kankyo, 68(6), p.137 - 142, 2019/06

New corrosion test equipment for high temperature gas of decomposed sulfuric acid was manufactured in order to ascertain flow rate of sulfuric acid in the piping, occurrence of sulfuric acid decomposition reaction in the equipment, and temperature distribution inside the furnace tube. The flow rate of the sulfuric acid solution was constantly measured using an ultrasonic flowmeter. The SO$$_{3}$$ concentration at the inlet of the test equipment was almost the same as that at the inlet of the sulfuric acid decomposer in the hydrogen production plant assuming a high-temperature gas cooled reactor hydrogen-power cogeneration system (GTHTR300C). On the other hand, during a test, leakage of sulfuric acid occurred from the fitting part at the outlet side. Hence the temperature distribution of the fitting part at the outlet side was investigated using fluid analysis. As a result, it was found that the temperature at the fitting was low enough to use fluorine joint grease when the distance was 0.05 m or more away from the outlet side pipe. An improved furnace tube was manufactured and the temperature was measured again at fitting part of the outlet side. The temperature was lower that the temperature limit of the joint grease and almost the same as the temperature distribution in the fluid analysis, and leakage of sulfuric acid has not occurred to date.

Journal Articles

R&D status of hydrogen production test using IS process test facility made of industrial structural material in JAEA

Noguchi, Hiroki; Takegami, Hiroaki; Kamiji, Yu; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44(25), p.12583 - 12592, 2019/05

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:46.26(Chemistry, Physical)

JAEA has been conducting R&D on thermochemical water-splitting hydrogen production IS process to develop one of heat applications of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. A test facility was constructed using corrosion-resistant industrial materials to verify integrity of the IS process components and to demonstrate continuous and stable hydrogen production. The performance of components installed in each section was confirmed. Subsequently, a trial operation of integration of the processing sections was successfully carried out for 8 hours with hydrogen production rate of approximately 10 NL/h. After that, hydrogen production operation was extended to 31 hours (approximately hydrogen production rate of 20 NL/h) by introducing a corrosion-resistance pump system with a developed shaft seal technology.

Journal Articles

Current R&D status of thermochemical water splitting hydrogen production iodine-sulfur process in Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1; Hydrogen production test and component development

Takegami, Hiroaki; Noguchi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kamiji, Yu; Kasahara, Seiji; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Kubo, Shinji

Proceedings of 9th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2018) (USB Flash Drive), 7 Pages, 2018/10

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting R&D on the thermochemical iodine-sulfur (IS) process for nuclear-powered hydrogen production. The IS process is one of the promising candidates of heat application of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. JAEA fabricated main chemical reactors made of industrial structural materials and confirmed their integrity in practical corrosive environments in the IS process. Based on the results of these confirmation tests, JAEA have constructed a 100 NL/h-H$$_{2}$$-scale test facility made of industrial structural materials. This report will present an outline and results of hydrogen production tests and reliability improvements of operation stability and components, such as development of a strength estimation method for heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant ceramics components made of silicon carbide.

Journal Articles

Current R&D status of thermochemical water splitting hydrogen production iodine-sulfur process in Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2; Reliability improvements of corrosion-resistant equipment

Kamiji, Yu; Noguchi, Hiroki; Takegami, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji

Proceedings of 9th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2018) (USB Flash Drive), 7 Pages, 2018/10

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting R&D on the thermochemical iodine-sulfur (IS) process for nuclear-powered hydrogen production. The IS process is one of the promising candidates of heat application of the HTGR. JAEA achieved continuous hydrogen production for one week with a hydrogen production rate of 30 NL/h by using a test apparatus made of glass and fluororesin material. Subsequently, JAEA fabricated main chemical reactors made of industrial materials and confirmed their integrity in corrosive environments in the IS process. Based on the results, JAEA has constructed a 100 NL/h-H$$_{2}$$-scale test facility made of industrial materials; one of the important materials is the glass-lined steel for corrosion resistant components such as vessels, pipes and protective sheaths of sensors. This report will present technical matters to improve reliability of the glass-lined protective sheaths of thermocouple. In addition, results of quality confirmation will be presented, which are stress analyses for the glass layer by FEM, tests for heat cycle, bending load and corrosion.

Journal Articles

Conceptual plant system design study of an experimental HTGR upgraded from HTTR

Ohashi, Hirofumi; Goto, Minoru; Ueta, Shohei; Sato, Hiroyuki; Fukaya, Yuji; Kasahara, Seiji; Sasaki, Koei; Mizuta, Naoki; Yan, X.; Aoki, Takeshi*

Proceedings of 9th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2018) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2018/10

Conceptual design study of an experimental HTGR is performed to upgrade the plant system from Japanese High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) to a commercial HTGR. Safety systems of HTTR are upgraded to demonstrate the commercial HTGR concept, such as a passive reactor cavity cooling system, a confinement, etc. An intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is replaced by a steam generator (SG) for a process heat supply to demonstrate the technology for a commercial use. This paper describes the conceptual design study results of the plant system of the experimental HTGR.

JAEA Reports

Research on demand of HTGR for investigation of introduction scenario and investigation on heat balance of HTGR

Fukaya, Yuji; Kasahara, Seiji; Mizuta, Naoki; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Shibata, Taiju; Nishihara, Tetsuo

JAEA-Research 2018-004, 38 Pages, 2018/06

JAEA-Research-2018-004.pdf:1.81MB

The demand of HTGR to investigate its introduction scenario and heat balance of HTGR have been researched. First, previous studies of HTGR demand were researched. Next, heat balance of GTHTR300, a commercial scale HTGR design, and its characteristics were researched. By using this information, installation number of HTGR to suit for demand in Japan are evaluated. In addition, heat balance evaluation code was developed in this study.

Journal Articles

Conceptual design of the iodine-sulfur process flowsheet with more than 50% thermal efficiency for hydrogen production

Kasahara, Seiji; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Koichi*; Iwatsuki, Jin; Terada, Atsuhiko; Yan, X.

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 329, p.213 - 222, 2018/04

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:84.45(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A conceptual design of a practical large scale plant of the thermochemical water splitting iodine-sulfur (IS) process flowsheet was carried out as a heat application of JAEA's commercial high temperature gas cooled reactor GTHTR300C plant design. Innovative techniques proposed by JAEA were applied for improvement of hydrogen production thermal efficiency; depressurized flash concentration H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{4}$$ using waste heat from Bunsen reaction, prevention of H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{4}$$ vaporization from a distillation column by introduction of H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{4}$$ solution from a flash bottom, and I$$_{2}$$ condensation heat recovery in an HI distillation column. Hydrogen of about 31,900 Nm$$^{3}$$/h would be produced by 170 MW heat from the GTHTR300C. A thermal efficiency of 50.2% would be achievable with incorporation of the innovative techniques and high performance HI concentration and decomposition components and heat exchangers expected in future R&D.

Journal Articles

Design of HTTR-GT/H$$_{2}$$ test plant

Yan, X.; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sumita, Junya; Nomoto, Yasunobu*; Horii, Shoichi*; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Kasahara, Seiji; Suzuki, Koichi*; Iwatsuki, Jin; Terada, Atsuhiko; et al.

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 329, p.223 - 233, 2018/04

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:87.34(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The pre-licensing design of an HTGR cogeneration test plant to be coupled to JAEA's existing test reactor HTTR is presented. The plant is designed to demonstrate the system of JAEA commercial plant design GTHTR300C. With construction planned to be completed around 2025, the test plant is expected to be the first-of-a-kind nuclear system operating on two of the advanced energy conversion systems attractive for the HTGR closed cycle helium gas turbine for power generation and thermochemical iodine-sulfur water-splitting process for hydrogen production.

Journal Articles

R&D status in thermochemical water-splitting hydrogen production iodine-sulfur process at JAEA

Noguchi, Hiroki; Takegami, Hiroaki; Kasahara, Seiji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kamiji, Yu; Iwatsuki, Jin; Aita, Hideki; Kubo, Shinji

Energy Procedia, 131, p.113 - 118, 2017/12

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:99.72

The IS process is the most deeply investigated thermochemical water-splitting hydrogen production cycle. It is in a process engineering stage in JAEA to use industrial materials for components. Important engineering tasks are verification of integrity of the total process and stability of hydrogen production in harsh environment. A test facility using corrosion-resistant materials was constructed. The hydrogen production ability was 100 L/h. Operation tests of each section were conducted to confirm basic functions of reactors and separators, etc. Then, a trial operation for integration of the sections was successfully conducted to produce hydrogen of about 10 L/h for 8 hours.

Journal Articles

Current R&D status of thermochemical water splitting iodine-sulfur process in Japan Atomic Energy Agency

Kasahara, Seiji; Iwatsuki, Jin; Takegami, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kamiji, Yu; Onuki, Kaoru; Kubo, Shinji

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 42(19), p.13477 - 13485, 2017/05

 Times Cited Count:37 Percentile:83.54(Chemistry, Physical)

Current R&D on the thermochemical water splitting iodine-sulfur (IS) process in Japan Atomic Energy Agency is summarized. Reactors were fabricated with industrial materials and verified by test operations: a Bunsen reactor, a H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{2}$$ decomposer, and a HI decomposer. Reactors of industrial materials showed corrosion stability. Demonstration of the test facility verified integrity of process components and stability of hydrogen production. An 8 hours continuous operation of the total IS process was performed in February 2016 with H$$_{2}$$ production rate of 10 L/h.

Journal Articles

IS process hydrogen production test for components and system made of industrial structural material, 2; H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{4}$$ decomposition, HI distillation, and HI decomposition section

Noguchi, Hiroki; Takegami, Hiroaki; Kamiji, Yu; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji

Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (CD-ROM), p.1029 - 1038, 2016/11

JAEA has been conducting R&D on the IS process for nuclear-powered hydrogen production. We have constructed a 100 NL/h-H$$_2$$-scale test apparatus made of industrial materials. At first, we investigated performance of components in this apparatus. In this paper, the test results of H$$_2$$SO$$_4$$ decomposition, HI distillation, and HI decomposition were shown. In the H$$_2$$SO$$_4$$ section, O$$_2$$ production rate is proportional to H$$_2$$SO$$_4$$ feed rate and SO$$_3$$ decomposition ratio was estimated about 80%. In HI distillation section, we confirmed to acquire a concentrated HI solution over azeotropic HI composition in the condenser. In HI decomposition section, H$$_2$$ could be produced stably by HI decomposer and decomposition ratio was about 18%. The H$$_2$$SO$$_4$$ decomposer, the HI distillation column, and the HI decomposer were workable. Based on the results added to that shown in Series I, we conducted a trial continuous operation and succeeded it for 8 hours.

Journal Articles

IS process hydrogen production test for components and system made of industrial structural material, 1; Bunsen and HI concentration section

Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Takegami, Hiroaki; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kamiji, Yu; Iwatsuki, Jin; Aita, Hideki; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji

Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (CD-ROM), p.1022 - 1028, 2016/11

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has manufactured 100 NL/h-H$$_2$$-scale hydrogen test apparatus. In advance to conduct the continuous operation, we investigated performance of the components in each section of the IS process. In this paper, the results of test of Bunsen and HI concentration sections was shown. In Bunsen reaction, section, we confirmed that outlet gas flow rate included no SO$$_{2}$$ gas, indicating that all the feed SO$$_{2}$$ gas was absorbed to the solution in the Bunsen reactor for the Bunsen reaction. On the basis of these results, we evaluated that Bunsen reactor was workable. In HI concentration section, HI concentration was conducted by EED stack. As a result, it can concentrate HI in HIx solution as theoretically predicted on the basis of the previous paper. Based on the results added to that shown in Series II, we have conducted a trial continuous operation and succeeded it for 8 hours.

Journal Articles

Conceptual design of iodine-sulfur process flowsheet with more than 50% thermal efficiency for hydrogen production

Kasahara, Seiji; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Koichi*; Iwatsuki, Jin; Terada, Atsuhiko; Yan, X.

Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (CD-ROM), p.491 - 500, 2016/11

A conceptual design of a practical large scale plant of the thermochemical water splitting iodine-sulfur (IS) process flowsheet was carried out as a heat application of Japan Atomic Energy Agency's commercial Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor Cogeneration (GTHTR300C) plant design. Innovative techniques proposed by JAEA were applied for improvement of hydrogen production thermal efficiency; flash concentration of H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{4}$$ using waste heat from Bunsen reaction, prevention of H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{4}$$ vaporization from a distillation column by introduction of H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{4}$$ solution, and I$$_{2}$$ condensation heat recovery by direct contact heat exchange in the HI distillation column. A simulation of material and heat balance showed hydrogen of about 31,900 Nm$$^{3}$$/h was produced by 170 MW heat from the GTHTR300C. A process thermal efficiency of 50.2% was achievable with incorporation of the innovative techniques and several high performance components expected in future R&D.

Journal Articles

HTTR-GT/H$$_{2}$$ test plant; System design

Yan, X.; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sumita, Junya; Nomoto, Yasunobu; Horii, Shoichi; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Kasahara, Seiji; Suzuki, Koichi*; Iwatsuki, Jin; Terada, Atsuhiko; et al.

Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (CD-ROM), p.827 - 836, 2016/11

Pre-licensing basic design for a cogenerating HTGR test plant system is presented. The plant to be coupled to existing 30 MWt 950$$^{circ}$$C test reactor HTTR is intended as a system technology demonstrator for GTHTR300C plant design. More specifically the test plant of HTTR-GT/H$$_{2}$$ aims to (1)demonstrate the licensability of the GTHTR300C for electricity production by gas turbine and hydrogen cogeneration by thermochemical process and (2) confirm the operation control and safety of such cogeneration system. With construction and operation completion by 2025, the test plant is expected to be the first of a kind HTGR-powered cogeneration plant operating on the two advanced energy conversion systems of closed cycle helium gas turbine for power generation and thermochemical iodine-sulfur water-splitting process for hydrogen production.

Journal Articles

Heat transport analysis in a district heating system applying waste heat from GTHTR300, a commercial design of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

Kasahara, Seiji; Murata, Tetsuya*; Kamiji, Yu; Terada, Atsuhiko; Yan, X.; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Mori, Michitsugu*

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 3(3), p.15-00616_1 - 15-00616_16, 2016/06

A district heating system for household heating and road snow melting utilizing waste heat from GTHTR300, a heat-electricity cogeneration design of high temperature gas-cooled reactor, was analyzed. The application area was Sapporo and Ishikari, cities with heavy snowfall in northern Japan. The heat transport analyses were performed by modeling components to estimate heat supply profile; the secondary loops between the GTHTR300s and the heat-application area; heat exchangers connecting the secondary loops to the tertiary loops of the district-heating pipes; and the tertiary loops between the heat exchangers and houses and roads. Though double pipes for the secondary loops were advantageous for having less heat loss and a smaller excavation area, these advantages did not compensate for the higher construct cost of the pipes. To satisfy heat demand in the month of maximum requirement, 520-529 MW of heat were supplied by 3 GTHTR300s and delivered by 6 secondary loops, 3,450 heat exchangers about 90 m long, and 3,450 tertiary loops. Heat loss to the ground from the tertiary loops comprised 80%-90% of the heat loss. More than 90% of the construction cost went into thermal insulators. The thickness and properties of the thermal insulator must be reevaluated for economical heat delivery.

JAEA Reports

Proceedings of 7th KAERI-JAEA Information Exchange Meeting on HTGR and Nuclear Hydrogen Technology; November 5th-6th, 2015, JAEA Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Japan

Inaba, Yoshitomo; Lee, T.*; Ueta, Shohei; Kasahara, Seiji; Honda, Yuki; Lee, H.*; Kim, E.*; Cho, M.*; Bae, K.*; Sakaba, Nariaki

JAEA-Review 2015-043, 96 Pages, 2016/03

JAEA-Review-2015-043.pdf:79.27MB

The information exchange meeting on HTGR and hydrogen production technology between Korea Atomic Energy research Institute (KAERI) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was held in the Oarai Research and Development Center of JAEA on November 5th - 6th, 2015 based on the cooperative research program of the KAERI-JAEA implementation of "Development of HTGR and Nuclear Hydrogen Technology" under "The Implementation of Cooperative Program in the Field of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy between KAERI and JAEA." In order to facilitate efficient technology development on the HTGR and nuclear hydrogen by the IS process, both sides mutually showed the present status and future plan of the research and development on the HTGR and nuclear hydrogen technology, respectively. This proceeding summarizes all materials of the presented technical discussions on the HTGR and hydrogen production technology based on the open documents as well as the meeting briefing including collaboration items.

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