Nishikiori, Ryo; Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Umeda, Naotaka; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Masafumi; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Hiratsuka, Junichi; et al.
Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 11, p.2401014_1 - 2401014_4, 2016/03
One of critical issues for high-energy high-current beam acceleration in ITER and JT-60SA is the high voltage holding which is dominated by vacuum discharges. The past results suggest that vacuum discharge occurs beyond the threshold of the dark current. The dark current can be derived from F-N theory where electric field enhancement factor beta is included. Though, beta could only be evaluated from the experiment previously. Therefore, the method to decide beta without experiment is required. This time dark currents were measured at three different areas to compare beta in different electric field. As a result, the effective electric field E, where E is average electric field, were found to be almost constant for different areas although the beta is largely different. By applying E, beta can be evaluated analytically, leading to the analytical prediction of the dark current and voltage holding capability without the measurements.
Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Miyamoto, Kenji*; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nishikiori, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; et al.
Review of Scientific Instruments, 87(2), p.02B137_1 - 02B137_3, 2016/02
To understand the physics of the negative ion extraction/acceleration, the heat load density profile on the acceleration grid has been firstly measured in the ITER prototype accelerator where the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV with five acceleration stages. In order to clarify the profile, the peripheries around the apertures on the acceleration grid were separated into thermally insulated 34 blocks with thermocouples. The spatial resolution is as low as 3 mm and small enough to measure the tail of the beam profile with a beam diameter of 16 mm. It was found that there were two peaks of heat load density around the aperture. These two peaks were also clarified to be caused by the intercepted negative ions and secondary electrons from detailed investigation by changing the beam optics and gas density profile. This is the first experimental result, which is useful to understand the trajectories of these particles.
Yoshida, Masafumi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Grisham, L. R.*; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi*; et al.
Review of Scientific Instruments, 87(2), p.02B144_1 - 02B144_4, 2016/02
Time evolution of spatial profile of negative ion production during an initial conditioning phase has been experimentally investigated in the JT-60 negative ion source. Up to 0.4 g Cs injection, there is no enhancement of the negative ion production and no observation of the Cs emission signal in the source, suggesting the injected Cs is mainly deposited on the water-cooled wall near the nozzle. After 0.4 g Cs injection, enhancement of the negative ion production appeared only at the central segment of the PG. The calculation of the Cs neutral/ion trajectories implied that a part of Cs was ionized near the nozzle and was transported to this area. The expansion of the area of the surface production was saturated after ~2 g Cs injection corresponding to 6000 s discharge time. From the results, it is found that Cs ionization and its transport plays an important role for the negative ion production.
Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Nishikiori, Ryo; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Yoshida, Masafumi; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; et al.
Review of Scientific Instruments, 87(2), p.02B304_1 - 02B304_5, 2016/02
Optimization techniques of the vacuum insulation design have been developed in order to realize a reliable voltage holding capability of Multi-Aperture Multi-Grid accelerators for giant negative ion sources for nuclear fusion. In this method, the nested multilayer configuration of each acceleration stage in the MAMuG accelerator can be uniquely designed to satisfy the target voltage within given boundary conditions. The evaluation of the voltage holding capabilities of each acceleration stages were based on the past experimental results of the area effect and the multi-aperture effect on the voltage holding capability. Moreover, total voltage holding capability of multi-stage was estimated by taking the multi-stage effect into account, which was experimentally obtained in this time. In this experiment, the multi-stage effect appeared as the superposition of breakdown probabilities in each acceleration stage, which suggested that multi-stage effect can be considered as the voltage holding capability of the single acceleration gap having the total area and aperture. The analysis on the MAMuG accelerator for JT-60SA agreed with the past gap-scan experiments with an accuracy of less than 10% variation.
Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Nishikiori, Ryo; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Yoshida, Masafumi; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; et al.
Review of Scientific Instruments, 87(2), p.02B322_1 - 02B322_4, 2016/02
In International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60 SA), the D ion beams of 1 MeV, 40 A and 0.5 MeV, 22 A are required to produce 3600 s and 100 s for the neutral beam injection, respectively. In order to realize such as powerful D ion beams for long duration time, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has energetically developed cesium (Cs)-seeded negative ion sources (CsNIS) and electro-static multi-aperture and multi-stage accelerators (MAMuG accelerator) which are chosen as the reference design of ITER and JT-60 SA. In the development of the CsNIS, a 100s production of the H ion beam has been demonstrated with a beam current of 15 A by modifying the JT-60 negative ion source. At the higher current, the long pulse production of the negative ions has been tried by the mitigation of the arcing in the plasma inside the ion source. As for the long pulse acceleration of the negative ions in the MAMuG accelerator, the beam steering angle has been controlled to reduce the power loading of the acceleration grids A pulse duration time has been significantly extended from 0.4 s to 60 s at reasonable beam power for ITER requirement. The achieved pulse duration time is limited by the capacity of the power supplies in the test stand. In the range of 60 s, there are no degradations of beam optics and voltage holding capability in the accelerator. It leads to the further extension of the pulse duration time at higher power density. This paper reports the latest results of development on the negative ion source and accelerator at JAEA.
Yoshida, Masafumi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Grisham, L. R.*; Hatayama, Akiyoshi*; Shibata, Takanori*; Yamamoto, Takashi*; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; et al.
Fusion Engineering and Design, 96-97, p.616 - 619, 2015/10
In JT-60 Super Advanced for the fusion experiment, 22A, 100s negative ions are designed to be extracted from the world largest ion extraction area of 450 mm 1100 mm. One of the key issues for producing such as high current beams is to improve non-uniform production of the negative ions. In order to improve the uniformity of the negative ions, a tent-shaped magnetic filter has newly been developed and tested for JT-60SA negative ion source. The original tent-shaped filter significantly improved the logitudunal uniformity of the extracted H ion beams. The logitudinal uniform areas within a 10 deviation of the beam intensity were improved from 45% to 70% of the ion extraction area. However, this improvement degrades a horizontal uniformity. For this, the uniform areas was no more than 55% of the total ion extraction area. In order to improve the horizontal uniformity, the filter strength has been reduced from 660 Gasuscm to 400 Gasuscm. This reduction improved the horizontal uniform area from 75% to 90% without degrading the logitudinal uniformity. This resulted in the improvement of the uniform area from 45% of the total ion extraction areas. This improvement of the uniform area leads to the production of a 22A H ion beam from 450 mm 1100 mm with a small amount increase of electron current of 10%. The obtained beam current fulfills the requirement for JT-60SA.
Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Hanada, Masaya; Yoshida, Masafumi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akino, Noboru; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 55(6), p.063006_1 - 063006_9, 2015/06
Significant progresses in the extension of pulse durations of powerful negative ion beams have been made to realize the neutral beam injectors for JT-60SA and ITER. In order to overcome common issues of the long pulse production/acceleration of negative ion beams in JT-60SA and ITER, the new technologies have been developed in the JT-60SA ion source and the MeV accelerator in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. As for the long pulse production of high-current negative ions for JT-60SA ion source, the pulse durations have been successfully increased from 30 s at 13 A on JT-60U to 100 s at 15 A by modifying the JT-60SA ion source, which satisfies the required pulse duration of 100 s and 70% of the rated beam current for JT-60SA. This progress was based on the R&D efforts for the temperature control of the plasma grid and uniform negative ion productions with the modified tent-shaped filter field configuration. Moreover, the each parameter of the required beam energy, current and pulse has been achieved individually by these R&D efforts. The developed techniques are useful to design the ITER ion source because the sustainment of the cesium coverage in large extraction area is one of the common issues between JT-60SA and ITER. As for the long pulse acceleration of high power density beams in the MeV accelerator for ITER, the pulse duration of MeV-class negative ion beams has been extended by more than 2 orders of magnitude by modifying the extraction grid with a high cooling capability and a high-transmission of negative ions. A long pulse acceleration of 60 s has been achieved at 70 MW/m (683 keV, 100 A/m) which has reached to the power density of JT-60SA level of 65 MW/m.
Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Yoshida, Masafumi; Umeda, Naotaka; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Grisham, L. R.*; NB Heating Technology Group
AIP Conference Proceedings 1655, p.060002_1 - 060002_10, 2015/04
In this paper, the recent activities on the new test stand are reported toward demonstration of the long pulse production for 22A, 100s negative ion beams. As for the temperature control of the plasma grid, a prototype of the grid with cooling/heating by circulating a high-temperature fluorinated fluid has been improved to cover the full extraction area by using 5 segments of the PG. These grids were found to have a capability to control the temperature with a time constant of 10s as well as the prototype grid. As a result, 15A negative ion beams for 100s have been achieved.
Umeda, Naotaka; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Dairaku, Masayuki; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Hanada, Masaya
AIP Conference Proceedings 1655, p.050001_1 - 050001_10, 2015/04
For ITER neutral beam system, negative deuterium ion beam of 1 MeV, 40 A (current density of 200 A/m) is required for 3600 s. To demonstrate ITER relevant negative ion beam acceleration, beam acceleration test has been carried out at MeV test facility in JAEA. The present target is H ion beam acceleration up to 1 MeV with 200 A/m for 60 s, which beam energy and pulse length are the present facility limit. To extend pulse duration time up to facility limit at high power density beam, new extraction grid has been developed with high cooling capability, which electron suppression magnet is placed under cooling channel. In addition, the aperture size of the electron suppression grid is enlarged from 14 mm to 16 mm and the aperture displacement is modified to reduce collision of negative ion beam on the grid. By these modifications, total grid power loading has reduced from 14% to 11%. As a result, beam acceleration up to 60 s which is the facility limit, has achieved at 700 kV, 100 A/m of negative ion beam without breakdown.
Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanada, Masaya; Umeda, Naotaka; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Masafumi
Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 10(Sp.2), p.3405045_1 - 3405045_4, 2015/04
To produce high current density ( 200 A/m), high-energy ( 1 MeV) negative ion beams for long pulse duration time (1 hour) for International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the suppression of the direct interception of the negative ions with the grids has been carefully investigated with studying the deflection angle by aperture displacement technique. The non-linear dependence of the deflection angle appears at the aperture diameter of 14 mm on a steering control grid (SCG). From this dependence, the aperture diameter and the offset distance of the SCG has been designed to be 16 mm and 0.7 mm, respectively and tested in a prototype accelerator for ITER. Each of the beamlets on the multiple apertures is properly steered with compensation of the deflection due to the residual magnetic field in the accelerator and the grid power loading was significantly reduced. It resulted in a 10% enhancement of the accelerated beam current.
Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Maejima, Tetsuya; Terunuma, Yuto; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Hanada, Masaya
JAEA-Technology 2014-037, 12 Pages, 2014/12
Resistivity of a high temperature pure water has been measured up to 180C which is the maximum water temperature in the ITER Neutral Beam Injector. The resistivity of the pure water is decreased by increasing the water temperature. It was found that even different resistivity water of 9 Mcm and 5 Mcm showed almost the same resistivity at the higher temperature region of 100C. The resistivity of 0.36 Mcm was measured at the temperature of 180C. This resistivity agreed well to the calculated value for the theoretical pure water.
Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Yoshida, Masafumi; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Grisham, L. R.*
Review of Scientific Instruments, 85(2), p.02B312_1 - 02B312_5, 2014/02
The negative ion source for JT-60SA is designed to produce high power and long pulse beams with a beam energy of 500 keV, a negative ion current of 22A and a pulse duration of 100s. One of the key issues toward long pulse production of such high-current beams is the control of the surface temperature on the plasma grid (PG) where cesium is layered. In order to optimize cesium layer on PG for long pulse duration, we have developed an actively cooled PG where fluorinated fluids having high boiling point of 270C is circulated. While the surface temperature of the PG in the JT-60 negative ion source has been kept at 170C for 100s with ramp-up time of 7s, stable long pulse beam extractions of 100s have been obtained. This current density is 90% of the required current density for JT-60 SA. The further increase of the current density is expected by optimizing the arc discharge power.
Yoshida, Masafumi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Grisham, L. R.*; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Nemoto, Shuji; et al.
Review of Scientific Instruments, 85(2), p.02B314_1 - 02B314_4, 2014/02
Non-uniformity of the negative ion beams in the JT-60 negative ion source was improved by modifying an external magnetic field to a tent-shaped magnetic field for reduction of the local heat loads in the source. Distributions of the source plasmas (H ions and H atoms) of the parents of H ions converted on the cesium covered plasma grids were measured by Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy. Beam intensities of the H ions extracted from the plasma grids were measured by IR camera from the back of the beam target plate. The tent-shaped magnetic field prevented the source plasmas to be localized by B grad B drift of the primary electrons emitted from the filaments in the arc chamber. As a result, standard derivation of the H ions beams was reduced from 14% (the external magnetic field) to 10% (the tent-shaped magnetic field) without reduction of an activity of the H ion production.
Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Taniguchi, Masaki; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Dairaku, Masayuki; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Inoue, Takashi; Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya
Review of Scientific Instruments, 85(2), p.02B304_1 - 02B304_3, 2014/02
In order to realize neutral beam systems in ITER whose target is to produce D ion beam of 1 MeV, 200 A/m during 3600s, the electrostatic five-stages negative ion accelerator has been developed at JAEA. To extend pulse length, heat load of the acceleration grids was reduced by controlling the ion beam trajectory. Namely, the beam deflection due to the residual magnetic filter in the accelerator was suppressed with the newly developed extractor with a 0.5 mm off-set aperture displacement. The use of new extractor improved the deflection angle from 6 mrad to 1 mrad, resulting in the reduction of direct interception of negative ions from 23% to 15% of the total acceleration power, respectively. As a result, the pulse length of 130 A/m, 881 keV H ion beam has been successfully extended from a previous value of 0.4s to 8.7s.
Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Atsushi; Yoshida, Masafumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Dairaku, Masayuki; Maejima, Tetsuya; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; et al.
Review of Scientific Instruments, 85(2), p.02B320_1 - 02B320_3, 2014/02
The negative ion extractor for high power and long-pulse operations is newly developed toward the neutral beam injector (NBI) for heating & current drive of future fusion machines such as ITER, JT-60 Super Advanced (SA) and DEMO reactor. The satisfactory cooling capability is designed in the thermal analysis. A negative ion production and a suppression of electrons are experimentally validated for this new extractor. As the results, the negative ion current shows increases by a factor of 1.3 with suppressing the electron current. The beam divergence angle is also maintained small enough, 4 mrad.
Yoshida, Masafumi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Inoue, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Grisham, L. R.*; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; et al.
Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 8(Sp.1), p.2405146_1 - 2405146_4, 2013/11
Distributions of H and H in the source plasmas produced at the end-plugs of JT-60 negative ions source were measured by Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy in order to experimentally investigate the cause of lower density of the negative ions extracted from end-plugs in the source. Densities of H and H in end-plugs of the plasma grid in the source were compared with those in the center regions. As a result, lower density of the negative ion at the edge was caused by lower beam optics due to lower and higher density of the H and H.
Tobari, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takashi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Dairaku, Masayuki; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Keishi; Kuriyama, Masaaki*; et al.
Fusion Engineering and Design, 88(6-8), p.975 - 979, 2013/10
The HV bushing, one of the ITER NB components, which is to be procured by JADA, is a multi-conductor feed through composed of five-stage double-layered insulator columns with large brazed ceramic ring and fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) ring. The HV bushing is a bulk head between insulation gas at 0.6 MPa and vacuum. The FRP ring is required to sustain the pressure load, seismic load and dead weight. Brazing area of the ceramic ring with Kovar is required to maintain vacuum leak tightness and pressure tightness against the air filled at 0.6 MPa. To design the HV bushing satisfying the safety factor of 3.5, mechanical analyses were carried out. As for the FRP ring, it was confirmed that isotropic fiber cloth FRP rings should be used for sufficient strength against shear stress. Also, shape and fixation area of the Kovar sleeve were modified to lower the stress at the joint area. As a result, a design of the insulator for the HV bushing was established satisfying the requirement.
Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Yoshida, Masafumi; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Grisham, L. R.*; et al.
Fusion Engineering and Design, 88(6-8), p.918 - 921, 2013/10
In this paper, the recent activities are reported toward demonstration of the long pulse production. As for the improvement of uniform beam current profile, a symmetric magnetic field configuration for the source plasma production, a so-called tent-shaped filter, was found to be effective to improve the uniformity of the beam current profile. A similar configuration is applied to the JT-60 negative ion source whose plasma size is 1220 mm 564 mm. An estimation from trajectory calculations of primary electrons with the symmetric magnetic field configuration showed that the primary electrons were distributed uniformly in a longitudinal direction. As for the temperature control of the plasma grid, a prototype of the grid with cooling/heating by circulating a high-temperature fluorinated fluid has been developed. This grid was found to have a capability to control the temperature with a time constant of 10 s by considering the physical properties of the fluid.
Kashiwagi, Mieko; Taniguchi, Masaki; Umeda, Naotaka; Dairaku, Masayuki; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; DeEsch, H. P. L.*; Grisham, L. R.*; et al.
AIP Conference Proceedings 1515, p.227 - 236, 2013/02
In a five stage multi-aperture multi-grid (MAMuG) accelerator for the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI), 1 MeV, 40 A D ion beam is required for 1 hour. However, beamlets are deflected due to (1) magnetic field for electron suppression and (2) space charge repulsion between beamlets, and consequently, cause excess grid heat load. A three dimensional beam analysis has been carried out to compensate the beamlet deflections. This paper shows that the beamlet deflections due to (1) and (2) are compensated by an aperture offset of only 0.6 mm applied to the aperture of 17 mm in diameter in the extractor and by a metal bar attached around aperture area beneath the extractor, respectively. When the metal bar is increased to 3 mm in thickness and installed 30 mm away from the aperture area, the beamlet is steered gently by the weaker electric field distortion. The beam optics was confirmed not deteriorated by those compensations. The presentation also discusses application of these compensation techniques to the ITER design.
Shibata, Takanori; Terasaki, Ryo*; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Inoue, Takashi; Dairaku, Masayuki; Taniguchi, Masaki; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Naotaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Keishi; et al.
AIP Conference Proceedings 1515, p.177 - 186, 2013/02
In the neutral beam injector in JT-60SA, one of issues is that negative ion beam is partially intercepted at acceleration grids due to a spatial non-uniformity of negative ion production on large extraction area (0.90.45m). Previous experiments showed that fast electrons emitted from filament cathodes are transported in a longitudinal direction by drift and the spatial distribution of electron temperature () strongly relates with the non-uniformity. In this study, a three-dimensional electron transport analysis has been developed. Electron temperature in the analysis agreed well with measurements in JAEA 10A ion source. This study clarified that the bias of distribution are caused by the following reasons; (1) fast electrons drifted in the longitudinal direction survives near the end wall with energy up to = 25-60 eV and (2) they produces thermal electrons by collision with plasma particles there.