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Journal Articles

Oxygen potential, oxygen diffusion, and defect equilibria in UO$$_{2 pm x}$$

Watanabe, Masashi; Kato, Masato

Frontiers in Nuclear Engineering (Internet), 1, p.1082324_1 - 1082324_9, 2023/01

Since the oxygen potential and the oxygen coefficient of UO$$_{2}$$ have a significant impact on fuel performance, many experimental data have been obtained. However, experimental data of the oxygen potential and the oxygen diffusion coefficient in the high temperature region above 1673 K are very limited. In the present study, we aimed to obtain these data and analyze them by defect chemistry. The oxygen potentials and the oxygen chemical diffusion coefficient of UO$$_{2}$$ were measured by the gas equilibrium method in the near stoichiometric region at temperatures ranging from 1673 to 1873 K. A data set of oxygen potentials was made together with literature data and analyzed by defect chemistry. The oxygen potential of UO$$_{2}$$ was determined as a function of O/U ratio and temperature, and an equation representing the relationship was derived. The oxygen chemical diffusion coefficient values obtained in this study were reasonably close to the literature values. The oxygen partial pressure dependence of the oxygen chemical diffusion coefficients was predicted from the evaluated results of the oxygen potential data, but no clear dependence was observed.

Journal Articles

Cation interdiffusion in uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuels; Where are we now?

Vauchy, R.; Hiroka, Shun; Matsumoto, Taku; Kato, Masato

Frontiers in Nuclear Engineering (Internet), 1, p.1060218_1 - 1060218_18, 2022/12

Journal Articles

Materials science and fuel technologies of uranium and plutonium mixed oxide

Kato, Masato; Machida, Masahiko; Hiroka, Shun; Nakamichi, Shinya; Ikusawa, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Keita; Ozawa, Takayuki; Maeda, Koji; Sasaki, Shinji; et al.

Materials Science and Fuel Technologies of Uranium and Plutonium mixed Oxide, 171 Pages, 2022/10

Innovative and advanced nuclear reactors using plutonium fuel has been developed in each country. In order to develop a new nuclear fuel, irradiation tests are indispensable, and it is necessary to demonstrate the performance and safety of nuclear fuels. If we can develop a technology that accurately simulates irradiation behavior as a technology that complements the irradiation test, the cost, time, and labor involved in nuclear fuel research and development will be greatly reduced. And safety and reliability can be significantly improved through simulation of nuclear fuel irradiation behavior. In order to evaluate the performance of nuclear fuel, it is necessary to know the physical and chemical properties of the fuel at high temperatures. And it is indispensable to develop a behavior model that describes various phenomena that occur during irradiation. In previous research and development, empirical methods with fitting parameters have been used in many parts of model development. However, empirical techniques can give very different results in areas where there is no data. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a scientific descriptive model that can extrapolate the basic characteristics of fuel to the composition and temperature, and to develop an irradiation behavior analysis code to which the model is applied.

Journal Articles

Design and actual performance of J-PARC 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron for high-intensity operation

Yamamoto, Kazami; Kinsho, Michikazu; Hayashi, Naoki; Saha, P. K.; Tamura, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Tani, Norio; Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Kamiya, Junichiro; Shobuda, Yoshihiro; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(9), p.1174 - 1205, 2022/09

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:77.67(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, the purpose of the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) is to accelerate a 1 MW, high-intensity proton beam. To achieve beam operation at a repetition rate of 25 Hz at high intensities, the RCS was elaborately designed. After starting the RCS operation, we carefully verified the validity of its design and made certain improvements to establish a reliable operation at higher power as possible. Consequently, we demonstrated beam operation at a high power, namely, 1 MW. We then summarized the design, actual performance, and improvements of the RCS to achieve a 1 MW beam.

Journal Articles

Plant system study of France-Japan common concept on Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

Kato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Tomohiko; Ando, Masato; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Murakami, Hisatomo*; Oyama, Kazuhiro*; Kaneko, Fumiaki*; Higurashi, Koichi*; Chanteclair, F.*; Chenaud, M.-S.*; et al.

EPJ Nuclear Science & Technologies (Internet), 8, p.11_1 - 11_10, 2022/06

This paper provides an overview of plant system studies to establish a common technical view for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor concept between France and Japan based on ASTRID600 and the new concept with downsized output called ASTRID150. One of important issues on a reactor structure design is to enhance seismic resistance to be tolerable against strong earthquake such that postulated in Japan. A concept of High Frequency Design is shared, and the design options related to HFD have been examined and design recommendations are established. In addition, this paper include results of studies for a steam generator, a decay heat removal system, a fuel handling system and a containment vessel.

Journal Articles

Revealing the ion dynamics in Li$$_{10}$$GeP$$_{2}$$S$$_{12}$$ by quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements

Hori, Satoshi*; Kanno, Ryoji*; Kwon, O.*; Kato, Yuki*; Yamada, Takeshi*; Matsuura, Masato*; Yonemura, Masao*; Kamiyama, Takashi*; Shibata, Kaoru; Kawakita, Yukinobu

Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 126(22), p.9518 - 9527, 2022/06

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:63.19(Chemistry, Physical)

Journal Articles

Measurements of thermal conductivity for near stoichiometric (U$$_{0.7-z}$$Pu$$_{0.3}$$Am$$_{z}$$)O$$_{2}$$ (z = 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15)

Yokoyama, Keisuke; Watanabe, Masashi; Tokoro, Daishiro*; Sugimoto, Masatoshi*; Morimoto, Kyoichi; Kato, Masato; Hino, Tetsushi*

Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 31, p.101156_1 - 101156_7, 2022/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In current nuclear fuel cycle systems, to reduce the amount of high-level radioactive waste, minor actinides (MAs) bearing MOX fuel is one option for burning MAs using fast reactor. However, the effects of Am content in fuel on thermal conductivity are unclear because there are no experimental data on thermal conductivity of high Am bearing MOX fuel. In this study, The thermal conductivities of near stoichiometric (U$$_{0.7-z}$$Pu$$_{0.3}$$Am$$_{z}$$)O$$_{2}$$ solid solutions(z = 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15) have been measured between room temperature (RT) and 1473 K. The thermal conductivities decreased with increasing Am content and satisfied the classical phonon transport model ((A+BT)$$^{-1}$$) up to about 1473 K. A values increased linearly with increasing Am content because the change in ionic radius affects the conduction of the phonon due to the solid solution in U$$^{5+}$$ and Am$$^{3+}$$. B values were independent of Am content.

Journal Articles

Approach to elucidate corrosion mechanism on metal surface using first-principles calculations

Igarashi, Takahiro; Otani, Kyohei; Komatsu, Atsushi; Kato, Chiaki; Sakairi, Masatoshi*

Bosei Kanri, 66(4), p.141 - 145, 2022/04

Metal corrosion is a material deterioration phenomenon based on electrochemical reactions on an atomic scale. In this paper, various methods for acquiring physical properties on metal surfaces using first-principles calculations were described. As examples of applying first-principles calculation to metal corrosion, the effect of hydrogen adsorption on the metal surface on the potential change and the effect of cation atoms in the aqueous solution on the corrosion resistance of the metal were reported.

Journal Articles

${it Operando}$ structure observation of pyroelectric ceramics during power generation cycle

Kawasaki, Takuro; Fukuda, Tatsuo; Yamanaka, Satoru*; Sakamoto, Tomokazu*; Murayama, Ichiro*; Kato, Takanori*; Baba, Masaaki*; Hashimoto, Hideki*; Harjo, S.; Aizawa, Kazuya; et al.

Journal of Applied Physics, 131(13), p.134103_1 - 134103_7, 2022/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Physics, Applied)

Journal Articles

Recent studies on fuel properties and irradiation behaviors of Am/Np-bearing MOX

Hiroka, Shun; Yokoyama, Keisuke; Kato, Masato

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2022/04

Property studies on Am/Np-bearing MOX were carried out and how the properties influences on the irradiation behaviors was discussed. Both Am and Np inclusions increase the oxygen potential of MOX. Inter-diffusion coefficients obtained by using diffusion couple technique indicate that the inter-diffusion coefficient is larger in the order of U-Am, U-Pu and U-Np. Also, the inter-diffusion coefficients were evaluated to be larger at the O/M = 2 than those of O/M $$<$$ 2 by several orders. The increase of oxygen potential with Am/Np leads to higher vapor pressure of UO$$_{3}$$ and the acceleration of the pore migration along temperature gradient during irradiation. The redistributions of actinide elements were also considered with the relationship of the pore migration and diffusion in solid state. Thus, the obtained inter-diffusion coefficients directly influence on the redistribution rate. The obtained properties were modelled and can be installed in a fuel irradiation simulation code.

Journal Articles

Advanced reactor experiments for sodium fast reactor fuels (ARES) project; Transient irradiation experiments for metallic and MOX fuels

Jensen, C. B.*; Wachs, D. M.*; Woolstenhulme, N. E.*; Ozawa, Takayuki; Hiroka, Shun; Kato, Masato

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2022/04

Journal Articles

Progress in conceptual design of a pool-type sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan

Kato, Atsushi; Kubo, Shigenobu; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Miyagawa, Takayuki*; Uchita, Masato*; Suzuno, Tetsuji*; Endo, Junji*; Kubo, Koji*; Murakami, Hisatomo*; Uzawa, Masayuki*; et al.

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2022/04

The authors are carrying out conceptual design studies for a pool-type sodium-cooled fast reactor. There are main challenges such as measures against severe earthquake in Japan, thermal hydraulic in a reactor vessel (RV), a decay heat removal system design. When the JP-pool SFR of 650 MWe is installed in Japan, it shall be designed against the severe seismic conditions. Additionally, a newly three-dimensional seismic isolation system is under development.

Journal Articles

Defect equilibria and thermophysical properties of CeO$$_{2-x}$$ based on experimental data and density functional theory calculation result

Watanabe, Masashi; Nakamura, Hiroki; Suzuki, Kiichi; Machida, Masahiko; Kato, Masato

Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 105(3), p.2248 - 2257, 2022/03

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Materials Science, Ceramics)

Properties of CeO$$_{2}$$ were evaluated by DFT simulation to determine band gap, Frenkel defect formation energy and defect migration energy. Band gap and Frenkel defect formation energy were used to analyze defect equilibria. Oxygen partial pressure dependence of defect equilibria was evaluated based on oxygen potential experimental data and DFT calculation, and a Brouwer diagram was derived. The defect formation energies, including Frenkel defect, electron-hole pair and so on, were determined and used to evaluate the properties, including oxygen diffusion coefficients, electrical conduction, heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Mechanisms of various properties were discussed for a deeper understanding based on defect chemistry, and the relationship among properties were systematically described.

Journal Articles

Nanosecond laser-induced coloration of radiation resistant lead glasses

Yamasaki, Kazuhiko*; Kato, Hironori*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Teshigawara, Makoto

Jikken Rikigaku, 21(4), p.308 - 313, 2021/12

In this study, coloration and damage of radiation-resistant lead glasses by nanosecond pulse laser with visible wavelength are evaluated. Three kinds of radiation resistance glasses with different lead content: PbO-55 wt%, 71 wt% and PbO free glass are used. As a result, the transitional coloration and damage formation with phase differences had observed by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation at peak power of 1 kW. Although high-lead concentration glass has lower thresholds for coloration in laser intensity, damage-formation thresholds for both PbO glasses were almost the same. On the other hand, no change was observed after laser-irradiation to PbO-free glass. In addition, photochemical and thermal reaction of PbO by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation is considered from the result of intensity change at wave numbers 200-500$$^{-1}$$ and 1000 cm$$^{-1}$$ in Raman spectrums.

Journal Articles

Modeling and simulation of atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel considering environmental factor

Igarashi, Takahiro; Komatsu, Atsushi; Kato, Chiaki; Sakairi, Masatoshi*

Tetsu To Hagane, 107(12), p.998 - 1003, 2021/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering)

In order to clarify the effect of environmental factors on the amount of atmospheric corrosion of steel, novel model for predicting the reduction of atmospheric corrosion considering relative humidity and rain falls was developed. We conducted a one-year calculation simulation of atmospheric corrosion in Miyakojima City, Choshi City, and Tsukuba City using the developed model. Corrosion weight loss by the simulation could reproduce the measured value well. Corrosion weight loss at each point was greatly affected by the amount of flying sea salt, relative humidity, and rain falls.

Journal Articles

Development of atmospheric corrosion model considering meteorological data and airborne sea salt

Igarashi, Takahiro; Komatsu, Atsushi; Kato, Chiaki; Sakairi, Masatoshi*

Bosei Kanri, 65(10), p.365 - 370, 2021/10

We have developed a new atmospheric simulation model considering important environmental factors such as airborne sea salt, temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall. The developed model was verified by comparing predicted values by the simulation and measured data for the weight loss by atmospheric corrosion. In addition, atmospheric corrosion simulations under open and sheltered exposure condition were conducted, and it was confirmed that the air corrosion weight loss was strongly suppressed by the surface cleaning effect due to rainfall.

Journal Articles

Development of fuel performance analysis code, BISON for MOX, named Okami; Analyses of pore migration behavior to affect the MA-bearing MOX fuel restructuring

Ozawa, Takayuki; Hiroka, Shun; Kato, Masato; Novascone, S.*; Medvedev, P.*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 553, p.153038_1 - 153038_16, 2021/09

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:57.99(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

To evaluate the O/M dependence of pore migration regarding fuel restructuring at the beginning of irradiation, we are developing BISON for MOX in cooperation with INL and have installed pore migration model considering vapor pressure of vapor species and thermal conductivity for MOX. The O/M dependence of fuel restructuring observed in MA-bearing MOX irradiation experiment in Joyo was evaluated by the 2-dimensional analyses. Four MA-bearing MOX pins with different O/M ratio and pellet/cladding gap size were irradiated in Joyo B14 experiment. Remarkable restructuring of stoichiometric MA-bearing MOX fuels was observed in PIE, and could be evaluated by considering the influence of O/M ratio on vapor pressure. Also, a central void assumes to move toward wide-gap side when the pellet eccentricity taking place, but 2-dimentional analyses on pellet transverse section revealed that the central void formation observed in PIE would be inconsistent with a direction of the pellet eccentricity.

Journal Articles

Hydrogen absorption mechanism into iron in aqueous solution including metal cations by laser ablation tests and first-principles calculations

Igarashi, Takahiro; Otani, Kyohei; Kato, Chiaki; Sakairi, Masatoshi*; Togashi, Yusuke*; Baba, Kazuhiko*; Takagi, Shusaku*

ISIJ International, 61(4), p.1085 - 1090, 2021/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering)

In order to clarify the effect of metal cations (Zn$$^{2+}$$, Mg$$^{2+}$$, Na$$^{+}$$) in aqueous solution on hydrogen permeation into iron, the amount of hydrogen permeation from iron surface was measured by electrochemical tests with a laser ablation. Moreover, in order to obtain the basic mechanism of hydrogen permeation with metal cation, first-principles calculations were used to acquire the adsorption potential of the metal cation and the electronic state around iron surface. By Zn$$^{2+}$$ in solution, anodic reaction on ablated surface by laser irradiation was suppressed. Also, by quantum analysis Zn atoms were chemically bonded stronger than Na and Mg atoms to iron surface. It was suggested that the dissolution reaction of iron was suppressed by the formation of the Zn layer, and that lead suppression of hydrogen permeation into iron.

Journal Articles

Fuel design and fabrication; Pellet-type fuel

Kato, Masato

Encyclopedia of Nuclear Energy, Vol.2, p.298 - 307, 2021/00

Journal Articles

Oxygen potential measurement of (U,Pu,Am)O$$_{2 pm x}$$ and (U,Pu,Am,Np)O$$_{2 pm x}$$

Hiroka, Shun; Matsumoto, Taku; Kato, Masato; Sunaoshi, Takeo*; Uno, Hiroki*; Yamada, Tadahisa*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 542, p.152424_1 - 152424_9, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:49.92(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The measurement of oxygen potential was conducted at 1,673, 1,773, and 1,873 K for (U$$_{0.623}$$Pu$$_{0.350}$$Am$$_{0.027}$$)O$$_{2}$$ and at 1,873 and 1,923 K for (U$$_{0.553}$$Pu$$_{0.285}$$Am$$_{0.015}$$Np$$_{0.147}$$)O$$_{2}$$ by using a thermo-gravimeter and an oxygen sensor. Am inclusion in terms of substituting the U significantly increased the oxygen potential. Similarly, the inclusion of Np as a substitute for U increased the oxygen potential; however, the effect was not as large as that with the Pu or Am addition at the same rate. The results were analyzed via defect chemistry and certain defect formations were suggested in the reducing region and the near-stoichiometric region by plotting the relationship between PO$$_{2}$$ and the deviation from the stoichiometry. The equilibrium constants of the defect reactions were arranged to reproduce the experiment such that Am/Np contents were included in the entropy with coefficients fitting the experimental data.

454 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)