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Journal Articles

Bend-fatigue properties of JPCA and Alloy800H specimens irradiated in a spallation environment

Saito, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Kenji*; Hamaguchi, Dai; Endo, Shinya; Sakuraba, Naotoshi; Miyai, Hiromitsu; Kawai, Masayoshi*; Dai, Y.*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 450(1-3), p.27 - 31, 2014/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Pitting damage in metals by mercury cavitation with MIMTM

Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi; Komatsu, Masao*; Sato, Koichi*; Xu, Q.*; Kawai, Masayoshi*

Materia, 52(8), p.390 - 394, 2013/08

In the liquid mercury target for the spallation neutron source, pressure waves occurs owing to the high-intense proton beam bombardment. The pressure waves induces the cavitation in the interface between the mercury and the target vessel through the propagation process. Erosion damage composed of micro-pits clusters is formed by the micro-jets and shock waves emitted from cavitation bubble collapse. In this paper, researches for damage structure of the material that was examined using the electroMagnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM) form the viewpoint of high-speed deformation. The result showed that the 200$$sim$$300 m/s of collision velocity for micro-jet impacting which was estimated from the numerical simulation is reasonable value.

Journal Articles

Tensile mechanical properties of a stainless steel irradiated up to 19 dpa in the Swiss spallation neutron source

Saito, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Kenji*; Hamaguchi, Dai; Usami, Koji; Endo, Shinya; Ono, Katsuto; Matsui, Hiroki; Kawai, Masayoshi*; Dai, Y.*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 431(1-3), p.44 - 51, 2012/12

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:20.56(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

To evaluate the lifetime of the beam window of an accelerator-driven transmutation system (ADS), post irradiation examination (PIE) of the STIP (SINQ target irradiation program, SINQ; Swiss spallation neutron source) specimens was carried out. The specimens tested in this study were made from the austenitic steel JPCA (Japan primary candidate alloy). The specimens were irradiated at SINQ Target 4 (STIP-II) with high-energy protons and spallation neutrons. The irradiation conditions were as follows: the proton energy was 580 MeV, irradiation temperatures ranged from 100 to 430$$^{circ}$$C, and displacement damage levels ranged from 7.1 to 19.5 dpa. Tensile tests were performed in air at room temperature (R.T.), 250$$^{circ}$$C and 350$$^{circ}$$C. Fracture surface observation after the tests was done by SEM (Scanning electron microscope). Results of the tensile tests performed at R.T. showed the extra hardening of JPCA at higher dose compared to the fission neutron irradiated data. At the higher temperatures, 250$$^{circ}$$C and 350$$^{circ}$$C, the extra hardening was not observed. Degradation of ductility bottomed around 10 dpa, and specimens kept their ductility until 19.5 dpa. All specimens fractured in ductile manner. The result from a microstructure observation on a specimen irradiated to 19.3 dpa at 420$$^{circ}$$C indicates that some agglomeration of bubbles on grain boundaries was observed in the specimen irradiated to 19.3 dpa at 420$$^{circ}$$C. However the tensile specimen irradiated up to 18.4 dpa at 425$$^{circ}$$C still exhibited little loss of ductility. Since He/dpa was very high on SINQ target irradiations, the formation of highly dense small bubbles in the matrix consequently avoided the accumulation of He on grain boundaries, which might have resulted in avoiding grain boundary embrittlement.

Journal Articles

Measurements of time-dependent stress distribution on material after HP impact

Kawai, Masayoshi*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi; Xu, C.-N.*; Yamada, Hiroshi*

Proceedings of 7th International Symposium on Impact Engineering (ISIE 2010) (CD-ROM), p.380 - 385, 2010/07

We have proposed a sophisticated novel method of the SHB experiment to measure the time-dependent local strain distributions on a surface of the specimen by using mechanoluminescent materials combined with a high-speed camera and an image intensifier. The feasibility study was made for the aluminum specimens pasted with a typical mechanoluminescent material -Eu doped SrAl$$_2$$O$$_4$$ film, in order to obtain the fundamental data for the method. Our results showed that SrAl$$_2$$O$$_4$$: Eu emitted lights as a response to the strain. Rise up of the light intensity was swift enough to follow the strain change due to HP impact. The luminescence intensity was experimentally verified and expressed as product of strain and strain rate. Accordingly, it can be said that this method gives a good tool for measuring time variation of local strain distributions.

Journal Articles

Proton irradiation effects on tensile and bend-fatigue properties of welded F82H specimens

Saito, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Kenji*; Hamaguchi, Dai; Usami, Koji; Ishikawa, Akiyoshi; Nishino, Yasuharu; Endo, Shinya; Kawai, Masayoshi*; Dai, Y.*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 398(1-3), p.49 - 58, 2010/03

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:43.83(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

In several institutes, R&D for an ADS have been progressed. Ferritic / martensitic (F/M) steels are the candidate material for the beam window. To obtain the irradiation data, the PIE work of the SINQ target irradiation program (STIP) specimens was carried out at JAEA. In this study, the results of PIE on F/M steel F82H and its welded joint will be reported. The results of tensile tests indicate that the irradiation hardening occurred with increasing dpa up to 10.1 dpa below 320$$^{circ}$$C irradiation. At higher dose (- 11.8 dpa) and higher temperature (- 380$$^{circ}$$C), irradiation hardening and degradation of ductility relaxed. In this study, all specimens kept its ductility after irradiation and fractured in ductile manner. The fatigue life of F82H base metal is almost the same as that of unirradiated specimens. Though the number of specimen is limited, the fatigue life of F82H EB welded joints seems to increase after irradiation. The fracture surfaces of the specimens showed transgranular morphology. While F82H TIG welded specimens were not fractured by 10$$^{7}$$ cycles.

Journal Articles

Mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels irradiated at SINQ target 4

Saito, Shigeru; Hamaguchi, Dai; Usami, Koji; Endo, Shinya; Ono, Katsuto; Matsui, Hiroki; Kikuchi, Kenji*; Kawai, Masayoshi*; Yong, D.*

Proceedings of 1st International Workshop on Technology and Components of Accelerator-driven Systems (TCADS-1) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2010/03

The research and development for an accelerator-driven system (ADS) to transmute minor actinide (MA) have been progressed. The target beam window of ADS submerged in the reactor will be subjected to high-energy proton and spallation neutron irradiation. To evaluate mechanical properties of irradiated materials, post irradiation examination (PIE) of the STIP (SINQ target irradiation program) specimens was carried out at JAEA. In the present study, PIE on austenitic steels JPCA and Alloy800H irradiated at SINQ target 4 (STIP-II) was conducted. Austenitic steels are preferable as the material for the target beam window of ADS from the view point of DBTT shift, which should be taken into consideration for ferritic / martensitic steels. The irradiation conditions were as follows: proton energy was 580 MeV, irradiation temperatures were ranged from 100 to 450$$^{circ}$$C, and displacement damage levels were ranged from 6.5 to 19.5 dpa. Tensile tests were performed in air at R.T. to 350$$^{circ}$$C. Results of the tensile tests performed at R.T. indicate that irradiation hardening occurred with increasing displacement damage level up to 10 dpa. At higher doses, irradiation hardening seemed to tend to saturate. Degradation of ductility was bottomed around 10 dpa and specimens kept its ductility until 19.5 dpa. All the specimens fractured in ductile manner.

Journal Articles

Mitigation technologies for damage induced by pressure waves in high-power mercury spallation neutron sources, 1; Material surface improvement

Naoe, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Shobu, Takahisa; Wakui, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Hirotsugu*; Kawai, Masayoshi*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 45(7), p.698 - 703, 2008/07

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:65.48(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Liquid-mercury target systems for MW-class spallation neutron sources are being developed in the world. At the moment the proton beam hits the target, pressure waves are generated in the mercury because of the abrupt heat deposition. The pressure waves interact with the target vessel leading to negative pressure that may cause cavitation along the vessel wall. Localized impacts by micro-jets and/or shock waves which are caused by cavitation bubble collapse impose pitting damage on the vessel wall. Bubble collapse behavior was observed by using a high-speed video camera, as well as simulated numerically. Localized impact due to cavitation bubble collapse was quantitatively estimated through comparison between numerical simulation and experiment. A novel surface treatment technique which consists of carburizing and nitriding processes was developed and the treatment condition was optimized to mitigate the pitting damage due to localized impacts.

Journal Articles

Reaction kinetics analysis of damage evolution in accelerator driven system beam windows

Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Xu, Q.*; Sato, Koichi*; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kawai, Masayoshi*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 377(1), p.132 - 135, 2008/06

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:59.39(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Reaction kinetic analysis was used to estimate the damage evolution in window materials of 800 MWth ADS. Parameters were fitted to F82H of the STIP-II experiment and EC316LN of the STIP-I experiment. In F82H, the concentration of bubbles was almost constant and the bubble size increased, while the concentration of interstitial type dislocation loops increased and their size was constant between 3$$times$$10$$^{-3}$$ and 300 dpa. EC316LN showed almost the same behavior. Swelling increased almost linearly with irradiation dose above 3 dpa between 673 K and 773 K.

Journal Articles

Materials technology deploying high-energy quantum beam application; 8th International Workshop on Spallation Materials Technology

Kikuchi, Kenji; Kawai, Masayoshi*

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 49(3), p.205 - 206, 2007/03

This is a report from the eighth international workshop on spallation materials technology, held in October 2006. Since the first meeting started in April 1996 in Oak Ridge, U.S.A., related materials studies has been reported and discussed for helping development on spallation neutron and high energy particles sources. In 2003 JAERI organized the sixth workshop in Japan. Los Alamos National Laboratory sponsored the meeting in Taos U.S.A.. The achievement of JSNS, SNS and MEGAPIE projects as well as the latest data on spallation materilas technology were eported.

Journal Articles

Development of aluminum (Al5083)-clad ternary Ag-In-Cd alloy for JSNS decoupled moderator

Teshigawara, Makoto; Harada, Masahide; Saito, Shigeru; Oikawa, Kenichi; Maekawa, Fujio; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kato, Takashi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Naoe, Takashi*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 356(1-3), p.300 - 307, 2006/09

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:56.05(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

We adopted silver-indium-cadmium (Ag-In-Cd) alloy as a material of decoupler for decoupled moderator in JSNS. However, from the heat removal and corrosion protection points of view, the Ag-In-Cd alloy is needed to clad between Al alloys (Al5083). We attempted to obtain good bonding conditions for between Al5083 and ternary Ag-In-Cd alloys by HIPing tests. The good HIP condition was found for small test piece ($$Phi$$20mm). Though a hardened layer due to the formation of AlAg$$_{2}$$ was found in the bonding layer, the rupture strength of the bonding layer was more than 20 MPa, which was the calculated design stress. Bonding tests of a large size piece (200$$times$$200$$times$$30 mm$$^{3}$$), which simulated the real scale, were also performed according to the results of small size tests. The result also gave good bonding and enough required-mechanical-strength, however the rupture strength of the large size test was smaller than that of small one.

Journal Articles

7th Spallation Materials Technology Workshop with streamlines from the Alps

Kikuchi, Kenji; Kawai, Masayoshi*

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 47(12), p.852 - 853, 2005/12

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Tensile properties of austenitic stainless steels irradiated at SINQ target 3

Saito, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Kenji; Usami, Koji; Ishikawa, Akiyoshi; Nishino, Yasuharu; Kawai, Masayoshi*; Dai, Y.*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 343(1-3), p.253 - 261, 2005/08

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:55.58(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

A beam window of a spallation target will be subjected to proton/neutron irradiation, pressure wave and thermal stresses accompanied by high-energy proton beam injection. To obtain the irradiation data, the SINQ target irradiation program (STIP) was initiated in 1996 at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and has been progressing. JAERI takes part in STIP and shares the PIE work. In this study, the results of tensile tests on austenitic stainless steels, JPCA and 316F SS, will be reported. The results indicate that the irradiation causes considerable hardening and degradation of ductility. The YS increases in this study are slightly large in comparison with those irradiated at fission reactor. Strain-to-necking (STN) values show sufficient large ductility of the irradiated JPCA-SA and 316F-SA. The trends of the STN decrease in this study are slightly abrupt in comparison with those irradiated at fission reactor. All specimens, including irradiated at embrittlement temperature for austenitic steels, fractured in ductile manner.

Journal Articles

Cladding technique for development of Ag-In-Cd decoupler

Teshigawara, Makoto; Harada, Masahide; Saito, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Yujiro; Kawai, Masayoshi*; Kurishita, Hiroaki*; Konashi, Kenji*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 343(1-3), p.154 - 162, 2005/08

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:59.05(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

For decoupled and poisoned moderator, a thermal neutron absorber, i.e., decoupler, is located around the moderator to give neutron beam with a short decay time. A B4C decoupler is already utilized, however, it is difficult to use in a MW class source because of He void swelling and local heating by (n,a) reaction. Therefore, a Ag-In-Cd (AIC) alloy which gives energy-dependence of macroscopic neutron cross section like that of B$$_{4}$$C was chosen. However, from heat removal and corrosion protection points of view, AIC is needed to bond between an Al alloy (A6061-T6), which is the structural material of a moderator. An AIC plate is divided into a Ag-In (15wt%) and Ag-Cd (35wt%) plate to extend the life time, shorten by burn up of Cd. We performed bonding tests by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing). We found out that a better HIP condition was holding at 803 K, 100 MPa for 1 h for small test pieces (f20mm). Though a hardened layer is found in the bonding layer, the rupture strength of the bonding layer is more than 20 MPa, which is less than that of the design stress.

Journal Articles

Review of neutron cross-section evaluations for fission products

Oblozinsk$'y$, P.*; Herman, M.*; Mughabghab, S. F.*; Sirakov, I.*; Chang, J.*; Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Shibata, Keiichi; Kawai, Masayoshi*; Ignatyuk, A. V.*; Pronyaev, V. G.*; et al.

AIP Conference Proceedings 769, p.438 - 441, 2005/05

Review of neutron cross-section evaluations for fission products included in 5 major evaluated nuclear-data libralies was performed. The aim of the project, conducted under the WPEC Subgroup 21 during 2001-2004, was to prepare recommendations for best evaluations of nuclei in the range Z=1-68. Altogether, existing evaluations for 211 materials were reviewd, 7 new materials were added, and recommendations were prepared for 218 materials.

Journal Articles

Bend-fatigue properties of 590 MeV proton irradiated JPCA and 316F SS

Saito, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Kenji; Usami, Koji; Ishikawa, Akiyoshi; Nishino, Yasuharu; Kawai, Masayoshi*; Dai, Y.*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 329-333(Part1), p.1093 - 1097, 2004/08

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:42.52(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

In several institutes, research and development for an accelerator-driven spallation neutron source have been progressed. A beam window of a target will be subjected to proton/neutron irradiation, pressure wave and thermal stresses accompanied by high-energy proton beam injection. To obtain the irradiation data, the SINQ target irradiation program (STIP) at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) has been progressing. JAERI takes part in STIP and shares the PIE work. The STIP specimens are very small so that we developed a new fatigue-testing machine with ceramic piezoelectric actuator. The results showed that the numbers of cycles to failure (Nf) on the irradiated specimens were less than that of unirradiated specimens. Dpa dependence of Nf was not clearly seen in the irradiation conditions. On the other hand, fracture surface varied with irradiation conditions. Specimens irradiated at low temperature fractured in ductile manner. However, interglanular fractured surface was observed for 316F SS irradiated up to 12.5 dpa at 360$$^{circ}$$C.

Journal Articles

Spallation terget materials development

Kikuchi, Kenji; Kawai, Masayoshi*; Ikeda, Yujiro

Proceedings of 6th International Meeting on Nuclear Applications of Accelerator Technology (AccApp '03) (CD-ROM), p.17 - 25, 2004/00

Spallation target being developed for high intensity neutron source of MW incident proton power. Mercury is a primary target material in pulsed spallation neutron sources, lead-bismuth is a candidate target material in the accelerator-driven system (ADS) for nuclear transmutation, and tungsten is a back-up solid target for pulsed spallation neutron sources and a candidate for ADS target. Current status of these project and materials issues are stated.

Journal Articles

Current status of the AGS spallation target experiment

Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takada, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Meigo, Shinichiro; Maekawa, Fujio; Kai, Tetsuya; Konno, Chikara; Ikeda, Yujiro; Oyama, Yukio; Watanabe, Noboru; et al.

Proceedings of 6th Meeting of the Task Force on Shielding Aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities (SATIF-6), (OECD/NEA No.3828), p.27 - 36, 2004/00

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Evaluations of heavy nuclide data for JENDL-3.3

Kawano, Toshihiko*; Matsunobu, Hiroyuki*; Murata, Toru*; Zukeran, Atsushi*; Nakajima, Yutaka*; Kawai, Masayoshi*; Iwamoto, Osamu; Shibata, Keiichi; Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Osawa, Takaaki*; et al.

JAERI-Research 2003-026, 53 Pages, 2003/12

JAERI-Research-2003-026.pdf:2.48MB

New evaluations of neutron nuclear data for Uranium, Plutonium, and Thorium isotopes which are essential for applications to nuclear technology were carried out for the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, JENDL-3.3. The objectives of the current release of JENDL were to fix several problems which have been reported for the previous version, to improve the accuracy of the data, and to evaluate covariances for the important nuclides. Quantities in JENDL-3.2 were extensively re-evaluated or replaced by more reliable values. The heavy nuclide data in JENDL-3.3 were validated with several benchmark tests, and it was reported that the current release gave a good prediction of criticalities.

Journal Articles

Strength proof evaluation of diffusion-jointed W/Ta interfaces by small punch test

Li, J.-F.*; Kawai, Masayoshi*; Kikuchi, Kenji; Igarashi, Tadashi*; Kurishita, Hiroaki*; Watanabe, Ryuzo*; Kawasaki, Akira*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 321(2-3), p.129 - 134, 2003/09

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:64.02(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

For the development of tantalum-clad tungsten targets for spallation neutron sources, the bonding strength of tantalum-tungsten interface was investigated by means of an easy-to-use and miniaturized small punch (SP) test, in which a punching load is vertically applied to the center of a jointed disk. Cracks initiated and propagated in the tungsten side for all the samples hot-isostatically pressed (HIPed) at temperatures from 1673 to 2073 K, whereas nocrack and debonding were observed in the interface, indicating that the jointed interface is strongly bonded. The re-crystallization of tungsten occurs and results in its strength reduction, consequently the crack-initiating load decreases with HIPing temperature. The finite element analysis of the measured SP testing results shows that the maximum bonding strength can exceed 1000 MPa. The present study shows that SP test is suitable for the strength evaluation of jointed tantalum-tungsten interfaces.

Journal Articles

Silver-indium-cadmium decoupler and liner

Harada, Masahide; Saito, Shigeru; Teshigawara, Makoto; Kawai, Masayoshi*; Kikuchi, Kenji; Watanabe, Noboru; Ikeda, Yujiro

Proceedings of ICANS-XVI, Volume 2, p.677 - 687, 2003/07

As a decoupler material for intense neutron sources, we proposed a new composite material based on the (n,$$gamma$$) reaction, silver-indium-cadmium alloy (AIC), which had lettle helium gas production rate and higher decoupling energy ($$sim$$1eV). We compared an AIC decoupler with Cd and B$$_4$$C decouplers from various viewpoints and finally selected AIC as decoupler and liner materials. In the current design, we adopted AIC of 2.5mm thick with a composition of Ag-35wt%Cd and 0.5mm thick with Ag-15wt%In. A decoupler and a liner can be bonded to structural material (Al-alloy) by HIP for water cooling through Al-alloy. To find the optimal HIP condition, small pieces of Ag-Cd and Ag-In ($$phi$$20$$times$$2mm) were enclosed in Al-alloy capsules ($$phi$$22mm, 3mm thick bottom plate and 1mm thick cap) of several Al-alloys. The optimal condition was found to be 500$$^{circ}$$C with a holding time of 60 minutes under a fixed pressure of 100MPa. Large pieces (Ag-Cd: 200$$times$$200$$times$$2.5mm, Ag-In: 200$$times$$200$$times$$0.5mm, A5083 and A6061: 210$$times$$210$$times$$21mm) were also tested aiming at more realistic size conditions.

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