Gens, A.*; Alcoverro, J.*; Blaheta, R.*; Hasal, M.*; Michalec, Z.*; Takayama, Yusuke; Lee, C.*; Lee, J.*; Kim, G. Y.*; Kuo, C.-W.*; et al.
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 137, p.104572_1 - 104572_19, 2021/01
Bentonite-based engineered barriers are a key component of many repository designs for the confinement of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. Given the complexity and interaction of the phenomena affecting the barrier, coupled hydro-mechanical (HM) and thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) numerical analyses are a potentially useful tool for a better understanding of their behaviour. In this context, a Task (INBEB) was undertaken to study, using numerical analyses, the hydro-mechanical and thermohydro-mechanical Interactions in Bentonite Engineered Barriers within the international cooperative project DECOVALEX 2019. Two large scale tests, largely complementary, were selected for modelling: EB and FEBEX. The EB experiment was carried out under isothermal conditions and artificial hydration and it was dismantled after 10.7 years. The FEBEX test was a temperature-controlled non-isothermal test combined with natural hydration that underwent two dismantling operations, a partial one after 5 years of heating and a final one after a total of 18.4 years of heating. Direct observation of the state of the barriers was possible during the dismantling operations. Four teams performed the HM and THM numerical analyses using a variety of computer codes, formulations and constitutive laws. For each experiment, the basic features of the analyses are described and the comparison between calculations and field observations are presented and discussed. Comparisons involve measurements performed during the performance of the test and data gathered during dismantling. A final evaluation of the performance of the modelling closes the paper.
Plompen, A. J. M.*; Cabellos, O.*; De Saint Jean, C.*; Fleming, M.*; Algora, A.*; Angelone, M.*; Archier, P.*; Bauge, E.*; Bersillon, O.*; Blokhin, A.*; et al.
European Physical Journal A, 56(7), p.181_1 - 181_108, 2020/07
The Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion nuclear data library 3.3 is described. New evaluations for neutron-induced interactions with the major actinides U, U and Pu, on Am and Na, Ni, Cr, Cu, Zr, Cd, Hf, W, Au, Pb and Bi are presented. It includes new fission yileds, prompt fission neutron spectra and average number of neutrons per fission. In addition, new data for radioactive decay, thermal neutron scattering, gamma-ray emission, neutron activation, delayed neutrons and displacement damage are presented. JEFF-3.3 was complemented by files from the TENDL project. The libraries for photon, proton, deuteron, triton, helion and alpha-particle induced reactions are from TENDL-2017. The demands for uncertainty quantification in modeling led to many new covariance data. A comparison between results from model calculations using the JEFF-3.3 library and those from benchmark experiments for criticality, delayed neutron yields, shielding and decay heat, reveals that JEFF-3.3 is excellent for a wide range of nuclear technology applications, in particular nuclear energy.
Tang, T. L.*; Uesaka, Tomohiro*; Kawase, Shoichiro; Beaumel, D.*; Dozono, Masanori*; Fujii, Toshihiko*; Fukuda, Naoki*; Fukunaga, Taku*; Galindo-Uribarri. A.*; Hwang, S. H.*; et al.
Physical Review Letters, 124(21), p.212502_1 - 212502_6, 2020/05
The structure of a neutron-rich F nucleus is investigated by a quasifree () knockout reaction. The sum of spectroscopic factors of orbital is found to be 1.0 0.3. The result shows that the O core of F nucleus significantly differs from a free O nucleus, and the core consists of 35% O, and 65% excited O. The result shows that the O core of F nucleus significantly differs from a free O nucleus. The result may infer that the addition of the proton considerably changes the neutron structure in F from that in O, which could be a possible mechanism responsible for the oxygen dripline anomaly.
Corts, M. L.*; Rodriguez, W.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Holt, J. D.*; Lenzi, S. M.*; Menndez, J.*; Nowacki, F.*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; Poves, A.*; et al.
Physics Letters B, 800, p.135071_1 - 135071_7, 2020/01
Excited states in the = 40 isotone Ti were populated via the V(,)Ti reaction at 200 MeV/nucleon at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory and studied using -ray spectroscopy. The energies of the and transitions, observed here for the first time, indicate a deformed Ti ground state. These energies are increased compared to the neighboring Cr and Fe isotones, suggesting a small decrease of quadrupole collectivity. The present measurement is well reproduced by large-scale shell-model calculations based on effective interactions, while ab initio and beyond mean-field calculations do not yet reproduce our findings.
Woo, W.*; Jeong, J. S.*; Kim, D.-K.*; Lee, C. M.*; Choi, S.-H.*; Suh, J.-Y.*; Lee, S. Y.*; Harjo, S.; Kawasaki, Takuro
Scientific Reports (Internet), 10(1), p.1350_1 - 1350_15, 2020/01
Carter, L. M.*; Crawford, T. M.*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Furuta, Takuya; Choi, C.*; Kim, C. H.*; Brown, J. L.*; Bolch, W. E.*; Zanzonico, P. B.*; Lewis, J. S.*
Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 60(12), p.1802 - 1811, 2019/12
Voxel human phantoms have been used for internal dose assessment. More anatomically accurate representation become possible for skins or layer tissues owing to recent developments of advanced polygonal mesh-type phantoms and thus internal dose assessment using those advanced phantoms are desired. However, the Monte Carlo transport calculation by implementing those phantoms require an advanced knowledge for the Monte Carlo transport codes and it is only limited to experts. We therefore developed a tool, PARaDIM, which enables users to conduct internal dose calculation with PHITS easily by themselves. With this tool, a user can select tetrahedral-mesh phantoms, set radionuclides in organs, and execute radiation transport calculation with PHITS. Several test cases of internal dosimetry calculations were presented and usefulness of this tool was demonstrated.
Jung, W.*; Ahn, J. K.*; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Hicks, K.*; Hwang, S.*; Ichikawa, Yudai; Kim, S.*; Sako, Hiroyuki; Sato, Susumu; Tanida, Kiyoshi
JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 27, p.011007_1 - 011007_6, 2019/11
Chen, S.*; Lee, J.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Barbieri, C.*; Chazono, Yoshiki*; Navrtil, P.*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; Otsuka, Takaharu*; Raimondi, F.*; et al.
Physical Review Letters, 123(14), p.142501_1 - 142501_7, 2019/10
no abstracts in English
Yamamoto, Kei; Thiang, G. C.*; Pirro, P.*; Kim, K.-W.*; Everschor-Sitte, K.*; Saito, Eiji*
Physical Review Letters, 122(21), p.217201_1 - 217201_5, 2019/05
Bandodkar, A. J.*; Gutruf, P.*; Choi, J.*; Lee, K.-H.*; Sekine, Yurina; Reeder, J. T.*; Jeang, W. J.*; Aranyosi, A. J.*; Lee, S. P.*; Model, J. B.*; et al.
Science Advances (Internet), 5(1), p.eaav3294_1 - eaav3294_15, 2019/01
Interest in advanced wearable technologies increasingly extends beyond systems for biophysical measurements to those that enable continuous, non-invasive monitoring of biochemical markers in biofluids. Here, we introduce battery-free, wireless microelectronic platforms that perform sensing via schemes inspired by the operation of biofuel cells. Combining these systems in a magnetically releasable manner with chrono-sampling microfluidic networks that incorporate assays based on colorimetric sensing yields thin, flexible, lightweight, skin-interfaced technologies with broad functionality in sweat analysis. A demonstration device allows simultaneous monitoring of sweat rate/loss, along with quantitative measurements of pH and of lactate, glucose and chloride concentrations using biofuel cell and colorimetric approaches.
Finsterle, S.*; Lanyon, B.*; kesson, M.*; Baxter, S.*; Bergstrm, M.*; Bockgrd, N.*; Dershowitz, W.*; Dessirier, B.*; Frampton, A.*; Fransson, .*; et al.
Geological Society, London, Special Publications, No.482, p.261 - 283, 2019/00
Nuclear waste disposal in geological formations relies on a multi-barrier concept that includes engineered components which in many cases includes a bentonite buffer surrounding waste packages and the host rock. An SKB's (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.) Modelling Task Force project facilitated to improve the overall understanding of rock - bentonite interactions, as 11 teams used different conceptualisations and modelling tools to analyse the in-situ experiment at the ps Hard Rock Laboratory. The exercise helped identify conceptual uncertainties that led to different assessments of the relative importance of the engineered and natural barrier subsystems and of aspects that need to be better understood to arrive at reliable predictions of bentonite wetting.
Kobayashi, Hideki*; Suzuki, Rikie*; Yang, W.*; Ikawa, Hiroki*; Inoue, Tomoharu*; Nagano, Hirohiko; Kim, Y.*
Polar Data Journal (Internet), 2, p.14 - 29, 2018/11
The Arctic and boreal regions have been experiencing a rapid warming in the 21st century. It is important to understand the dynamics of boreal forest at the continental scale under the climate and environmental changes. While the role of understory vegetation in boreal forest ecosystems on carbon and nutrient cycling cannot be ignored, they are still one of least understood components in boreal ecosystems. Spectroscopic measurements of vegetation are useful to identify species and their biochemical characteristics. In this data paper, we present spectral reflectances of 44 typical understory formations and five 30-m long transects. The spectral reflectance covers the spectral region of visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared (350-2500 nm). For the transect measurements, we decided the length of transect at 30 m, similar to the scale of one pixel of a Landsat type satellite imagery. The photographs at all positions, where spectral reflectances were obtained, are included to understand the structure and status of each sample. The data set contains six dwarf shrubs (blueberry (), cowberry (), feltleaf willow (), young birch (), young aspen (), and young black spruce ()), two herbaceous (cottongrass () and marsh Labrador tea ()), three mosses (Sphagnum moss, splendid feather moss (), and polytrichum moss ()), and reindeer lichen (). Spectral reflectances from several non-vegetative such as snow, litter, and soil are also included. This spectral and photographic data set can be used for understanding the spectral characteristics of understory formations, designing newly planned spectral observations, and developing and validating the remote sensing methodology of large scale understory monitoring.
Nguyen, T.-L.*; Lee, M.-W.*; Hasegawa, Kunio; Kim, Y.-J.*
Proceedings of 2018 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2018), 7 Pages, 2018/07
The effect of longitudinal distance H between non-aligned twin cracks is investigated using finite element damage analysis. It is shown that the failure bending stresses are raised by increasing longitudinal distance H for deep short cracks. On the contrary, shallow long cracks are unaffected by the distance H.
Kobayashi, Hideki*; Nagai, Shin*; Kim, Y.*; Yan, W.*; Ikeda, Kyoko*; Ikawa, Hiroki*; Nagano, Hirohiko; Suzuki, Rikie*
Remote Sensing, 10(7), p.1071_1 - 1071_19, 2018/07
Plant phenology timings, such as spring green-up and autumn senescence, are essential state information characterizing biological responses and terrestrial carbon cycles. Current efforts for the in situ reflectance measurements are not enough to obtain the exact interpretation of how seasonal spectral signature responds to phenological stages in boreal evergreen needleleaf forests. This study shows the first in situ continuous measurements of canopy scale (overstory + understory) and understory spectral reflectance and vegetation index in an open boreal forest in interior Alaska. Two visible and near infrared spectroradiometer systems were installed at the top of the observation tower and the forest understory, and spectral reflectance measurements were performed in 10 min intervals from early spring to late autumn. We found that canopy scale normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) varied with the solar zenith angle. On the other hand, NDVI of understory plants was less sensitive to the solar zenith angle. Due to the influence of the solar geometry, the annual maximum canopy NDVI observed in the morning satellite overpass time (10-11 am) shifted to the spring direction compared with the standardized NDVI by the fixed solar zenith angle range (60-70 degree). We also found that the in situ NDVI time-series had a month-long high NDVI plateau in autumn, which was completely out of photosynthetically active periods when compared with eddy covariance net ecosystem exchange measurements. The result suggests that the onset of an autumn high NDVI plateau is likely to be the end of the growing season. In this way, our spectral measurements can serve as baseline information for the development and validation of satellite-based phenology algorithms in the northern high latitudes.
Kim, S. B.*; Zhang, Y.*; Won, S. M.*; Bandodkar, A. J.*; Sekine, Yurina; Xue, Y.*; Koo, J.*; Harshman, S. W.*; Martin, J. A.*; Park, J. M.*; et al.
Small, 14(12), p.1703334_1 - 1703334_11, 2018/03
Chadwick, M. B.*; Capote, R.*; Trkov, A.*; Herman, M. W.*; Brown, D. A.*; Hale, G. M.*; Kahler, A. C.*; Talou, P.*; Plompen, A. J.*; Schillebeeckx, P.*; et al.
Nuclear Data Sheets, 148, p.189 - 213, 2018/02
The CIELO collaboration has studied neutron cross sections on nuclides that significantly impact criticality in nuclear facilities - U, U, Pu, Fe, O and H - with the aim of improving the accuracy of the data and resolving previous discrepancies in our understanding. This multi-laboratory pilot project, coordinated via the OECD/NEA Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) Subgroup 40 with support also from the IAEA, has motivated experimental and theoretical work and led to suites of new evaluated libraries that accurately reflect measured data and also perform well in integral simulations of criticality. This report summarizes our results and outlines plans for the next phase of this collaboration.
Chadwick, M. B.*; Capote, R.*; Trkov, A.*; Kahler, A. C.*; Herman, M. W.*; Brown, D. A.*; Hale, G. M.*; Pigni, M.*; Dunn, M.*; Leal, L.*; et al.
EPJ Web of Conferences, 146, p.02001_1 - 02001_9, 2017/09
The CIELO collaboration has studied neutron cross sections on nuclides (O, Fe, U and Pu) that significantly impact criticality in nuclear technologies with the aim of improving the accuracy of the data and resolving previous discrepancies in our understanding. This multi-laboratory pilot project, coordinated via the OECD/NEA Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) Subgroup 40 with support also from the IAEA, has motivated experimental and theoretical work and led to suites of new evaluated libraries that accurately reflect measured data and also perform well in integral simulations of criticality.
Furuta, Takuya; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Han, M. C.*; Yeom, Y. S.*; Kim, C. H.*; Brown, J. L.*; Bolch, W. E.*
Physics in Medicine & Biology, 62(12), p.4798 - 4810, 2017/06
A new function to treat tetrahedral-mesh geometry, a type of polygon-mesh geometry, was implemented in the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code Systems (PHITS). Tetrahedral-mesh is suitable to describe complex geometry including curving shapes. In addition, construction of three-dimensional geometry using CAD software becomes possible with file format conversion. We have introduced a function to create decomposition maps of tetrahedral-mesh objects at the initial process so that the computational time for transport process can be reduced. Owing to this function, transport calculation in tetrahedral-mesh geometry can be as fast as that for the geometry in voxel-mesh with the same number of meshes. Due to adaptability of tetrahedrons in size and shape, dosimetrically equivalent objects can be represented by tetrahedrons with much fewer number of meshes compared with the voxels. For dosimetric calculation using computational human phantom, significant acceleration of the computational speed, about 4 times, was confirmed by adopting the tetrahedral mesh instead of the voxel.
Sako, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Hosomi, Kenji; Ichikawa, Yudai; Imai, Kenichi; Hicks, K.*; Ahn, J. K.*; Kim, S. H.*; Lee, J. W.*; Hwang, S. H.*
Proceedings of Science (Internet), 5 Pages, 2017/05
Although baryon resonances have been studied for a long time, our knowledge on their properties are still limited. Recently a Dynamical-Couple Channel (DCC) model shows there are significant contributions of reactions to these baryon resonances. However, there are only 240 thousand events of reaction data measured in 1970's. Thus, we proposed an experiment E45 to study baryon resonances in reaction utilizing Hz beams at J-PARC. We aim at clarifying most of baryon mass levels. We measure these reactions in a large acceptance Time Projection Chamber inside a Helmholtz dipole magnet. We will measure these reactions in small momentum steps over a large beam momentum range and perform partial wave analysis to extract properties of each resonance. In this presentation, we will show the experimental design, expected results in simulations, and the status of the detectors.
Shigyo, Nobuhiro*; Uozumi, Yusuke*; Imabayashi, Yoichi*; Itashiki, Yutaro*; Satoh, Daiki; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi*; Sanami, Toshiya*; Koba, Yusuke*; Takada, Masashi*; Matsufuji, Naruhiro*; et al.
JAEA-Conf 2014-002, p.81 - 87, 2015/02
Cancer therapy using heavy ion beam has been adopted as highly advanced medical treatment by reason of its clinical advantages. It has become more important to estimate the risk of secondary cancer from recent survey. During treatment, secondary particles such as neutrons and -rays are producedby heavy ion induced nuclear reactions in a patient body as well as beam delivery apparatuses. For the risk assessment of secondary cancer, it is essential to know contribution of secondary neutrons by extra dose to organs in the vicinity of the irradiated tumor because the secondary neutron has a long flight path length and gives undesired dose to normal tissues in a wide volume. The experimental data of neutron energy spectra are required for dose estimations with high accuracy. Especially, precise data around neutron energy of 1 MeV is required because neutron of the energy region has a large relative biological eectiveness. Estimation of the secondary neutron yield data is important for estimation of radiation safety on both of workers and public in treatment facilities.