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Journal Articles

Evaluation of acoustic anisotropy of granite by surface wave measurements

Okano, Aoi*; Kimoto, Kazushi*; Matsui, Hiroya

Dai-15-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), p.633 - 636, 2021/01

This study evaluates the acoustic anisotropy of granite using surface waves. It is well-known that granite shows acoustic anisotropy due to preferentially oriented microcracks. Therefore it may be possible to gain information on the microcracks from the measurement of the acoustic anisotropy. In the conventional rock core elastic wave test, acoustic anisotropy has been evaluated by the ultrasonic transmission test. However, it is difficult to apply this method to field measurement and irregularly-shaped specimens. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to evaluate the acoustic anisotropy of granite using surface waves. By this method, the acoustic anisotropy was evaluated based on the changes in the surface wave amplitude, velocity, and frequency when the transmission direction was varied stepwise at a constant angle. As a result, the proposed surface wave technique evaluated acoustic anisotropy successfully. Furthermore, it was found that the acoustic anisotropy emerges because the microcracks change the apparent rigidity of the granite specimen.

Journal Articles

A Study on the propagation characteristics of surface waves in granite based on ultrasonic measurements

Kimoto, Kazushi*; Okano, Aoi*; Saito, Takayasu*; Sato, Tadanobu*; Matsui, Hiroya

Doboku Gakkai Rombunshu, A2 (Oyo Rikigaku) (Internet), 76(2), p.I_97 - I_108, 2020/00

AA2020-0209.pdf:2.72MB

This study investigates the propagation characteristics of surface wave traveling in a random heterogeneous medium. For this purpose, ultrasonic measurements are performed on a granite block as a typical randomly heterogeneous medium. In this measurement, a line-focus transducer is used to excite ultrasonic waves, whereas a laser Doppler vibrometer is used to pickup the ultrasonic motion on the surface of the granite block. The measured waveforms are analysed in the frequency domain to evaluate the travel-time for each measurement point based on the Fermat's principle. From the ensemble of travel-times, the probability distribution is established as a function of travel-distance. The uncertainty of the travel-time and its spatial evolution are then investigated using the standard deviation of the travel-time as a measure of the uncertainty. As a result, it was found that the uncertainty is approximately proportional to the mean travel-time divided by the square root travel-distance.

Journal Articles

Texture analysis of water-hydrated montmorillonite clay by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation

Kimoto, Kazushi*; Kawamura, Katsuyuki*; Makino, Hitoshi

Journal of Computer Chemistry, Japan, 19(2), p.46 - 49, 2020/00

This study proposes a 2D coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) method for the compaction simulation of montmorillonite clay. In the CGMD method, a unit structure of a water-hydrated clay molecule is coarse-grained into a particle. Thus, the deformable molecules are modeled as a set of linearly connected coarse-grained particles. As the inter-particle forces, the intra-molecular bonding and inter-molecular van der Waals forces are considered. For simplicity, the intra-molecular bonding is modeled as a linear harmonic oscillator, while the Lenard-Jones potential is used to define the van der Waals force field. With this model, the mechanical compaction of moistured montmorillonite is numerically simulated to find that 4-6 considerably deformed molecules are layered as a result of the compaction. It is alsofound that the simulated XRD pattern agrees to the experiment in terms of the peak angle.

JAEA Reports

Study on effects of coupled phenomenon on long-term behavior for crystalline rock in fiscal year 2017 and 2018 (Joint research)

Ichikawa, Yasuaki*; Kimoto, Kazushi*; Matsui, Hiroya

JAEA-Research 2019-005, 32 Pages, 2019/10

JAEA-Research-2019-005.pdf:6.13MB

It is important to evaluate the mechanical stability around the geological repository for high-level radioactive waste, during not only the design, construction and operation phases, but also the post-closure period over several millennia. The rock mass around the tunnels could be deformed in response to time dependent behaviors such as creep and stress relaxation. Therefore, this study has started as a joint research with Okayama University from 2016. This report summarize the results of the joint research performed in fiscal year 2017 and 2018. Based on the research results obtained in fiscal year 2016, automatic measurement system was developed, which can collect very large data on surface elastic wave propagation in a short time, also the applicability of various kinds of parameters derived from measured elastic wave data was examined.

JAEA Reports

Study on effects of coupled phenomenon on long-term behavior for crystalline rock (Joint research)

Kimoto, Kazushi*; Ichikawa, Yasuaki*; Matsui, Hiroya

JAEA-Research 2017-009, 18 Pages, 2017/11

JAEA-Research-2017-009.pdf:6.5MB

JAEA has started this study as joint research with Okayama University from 2016. In fiscal year 2016, several kinds of elastic wave velocity were measured using ultra sonic sensors and laser Doppler vibrometer to evaluate the anisotropy of different elastic wave in granite. The velocity measurements were carried out focused on transmitted wave and surface wave. The results showed that strong anisotropy was observed in transmitted P- wave velocity while weak anisotropy was observed in transmitted S-wave and group velocity estimated by surface velocity measurement. In addition, data obtained from surface velocity measurement was partitioned into transmitted and reflected waves and analyzed them in detail. It resulted that elastic wave due to mineral particles consist of granite was dispersed; however, significant dispersion was only observed at specific location.

JAEA Reports

Study on effects of coupled phenomenon on long-term behavior for crystalline rock; FY2015 (Contract research)

Ichikawa, Yasuaki*; Kimoto, Kazushi*; Matsui, Hiroya; Kuwabara, Kazumichi; Ozaki, Yusuke

JAEA-Research 2016-018, 23 Pages, 2016/12

JAEA-Research-2016-018.pdf:4.41MB

It is important to evaluate the stability of a repository for high-level radioactive waste not only during the design, construction and operation phases, but also during the post-closure period, for time frames likely exceeding several millennia or longer. The rock mass around the tunnels could be deformed through time in response to time dependent behavior. On the other hand, it was revealed that the chemical reaction of groundwater in a rock had an influence on the long-term behavior. An evaluation of the microcracks to have an influence on this mechanical and chemical coupled phenomena should be worked on chiefly. In fiscal year 2015, using a laser Doppler vibrometer that extends a frequency band up to 20 MHz, and measuring the surface wave transmitted through the granite specimens were estimated group velocity. As a result, group velocity until 100 kHz $$sim$$ 500 kHz, revealed that tends to decrease while vibrating. The group speed estimate from a group delay was shown to be easier than the estimate by wave number - frequency spectrum. This is because in order to improve reliability, the estimated frequency band is by using a spatially averaged waveform. As a result obtained, in the case of the modeling by the viscoelastic theory of the granite and a microcrack nondestructiveness evaluation, it is thought that it is useful information in the future. In order to use the knowledge of this study, there is a need to clarify the correspondence between the microscopic properties of the medium such as a crack and crystal grain and the change of the group velocity.

JAEA Reports

Study on effects of coupled phenomenon on long-term behavior for crystalline rock; FY2014 (Contract research)

Ichikawa, Yasuaki*; Kimoto, Kazushi*; Sato, Toshinori; Kuwabara, Kazumichi; Takayama, Yusuke

JAEA-Research 2015-025, 31 Pages, 2016/03

JAEA-Research-2015-025.pdf:13.0MB

It is important to evaluate the stability of a repository for high-level radioactive waste not only during the design, construction and operation phases, but also during the post-closure period, for time frames likely exceeding several millennia or longer. The rock mass around the tunnels could be deformed through time in response to time dependent behavior. On the other hand, it was revealed that the chemical reaction of groundwater in a rock had an influence on the long-term behavior. An evaluation of the microcracks to have an influence on these mechanical and chemical coupled phenomena should be worked on chiefly. In fiscal year 2014, this study performed numerical analysis to examine the supersonic scattering attenuation decrement behavior in the crystalline rock and a measurement sequentially last year. The measurement of the head and surface waves were carried out. As a result, group speed was provided. On the other hand, the spread scattering analysis of the elastic wave by the FDTD (Finite Difference Time-Domain) method made a numerical analysis. However, a laboratory finding is different from expectation of the simulation, and crystal anisotropic influence of a microcrack and rock-forming minerals is thought about as a cause of this estrangement. Therefore it was revealed that it was necessary to examine these two points of influence more in future.

JAEA Reports

Study on effects of coupled phenomenon on long-term behavior for crystalline rock; FY2013 (Contract research)

Ichikawa, Yasuaki*; Kimoto, Kazushi*; Sato, Toshinori; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Kuwabara, Kazumichi

JAEA-Research 2014-027, 25 Pages, 2015/02

JAEA-Research-2014-027.pdf:16.92MB

The rock and the rock mass are known to show time-dependent behavior such as creep and the stress-relaxation. It is to evaluate long-term rock mechanics stability that the important theme understanding the property. From the research study until now, it is rock mechanics and chemical coupled phenomenon to have an influence on the long-term behavior. It is a theme to develop technique to model this coupled phenomenon, and to analyze. About an evaluation of the microcrack to have an influence on this coupled phenomenon, it is the theme that we should work on in a long-term rock mass behavior study chiefly. This study developed numerical analysis to check the ultrasonic scattering decrement behavior by the microcrack of the crystalline rock and the measurement technique. The FDTD method which modelled a crack was used for numerical analysis by split node. It depends on the simulation technique that it developed that useful knowledge was provided by elastic wave modeling. On the other hand, the ultrasonic measurement in a rock sample was measured by the water immersion method. As a result, we understood that we could acquire useful information to evaluate the scattering decrement of an elastic wave in a rock sample.

JAEA Reports

Theoretical study of rock for estimating long-term behavior; FY2012 (Contract research)

Ichikawa, Yasuaki*; Kimoto, Kazushi*; Sato, Toshinori; Tanno, Takeo; Hikima, Ryoichi; Sanada, Hiroyuki

JAEA-Research 2013-045, 69 Pages, 2014/03

JAEA-Research-2013-045.pdf:9.51MB

Rock mass is a complex material including several classes of discontinuities and inhomogeneous/anisotropic minerals. If observing rock samples, we know that crystalline rock is a complex of minerals, grain boundaries and microcracks. In this study, the series of experiments were managed by a flow-through type changing temperature, pH and applied stress. Attenuation of ultrasonic waves in rock is investigated experimentally using an intact but coarse-grained granite core sample. For ultrasonic measurements, piezoelectric transducers are used in a through-transmission mode. With the estimated response function, phase and amplitude spectra of the transmitted ultrasonic waves are investigated quantitatively to evaluate the attenuation and change in travel time.

Oral presentation

Estimation of water infiltration using ground temperature distribution at the downstream of the Mill Tailings Pond, Ningyo-toge Uranium Mine

Iwasaki, keisuke*; Kimoto, Kazushi*; Okubo, Kenji*; Awai, Sohei*; Sakao, Ryota; Taki, Tomihiro

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Study on evaluation of the properties of a crystalline rock using of surface wave

Matsui, Hiroya; Ozaki, Yusuke; Kimoto, Kazushi*; Ichikawa, Yasuaki*

no journal, , 

The quantitative estimation of the time dependent behavior of a host rock is important to confident the design of a plug in HLW repository. On the other hand, interaction between rock and groundwater may affect with the time dependent behavior. Therefore, it is need to establish the model such a coupling process and estimate a distribution of micro crack in rock quantitatively. The paper report the results of the study on evaluation of the properties of a crystalline rock using of surface wave for these purpose.

Oral presentation

A Study on the propagation characteristics of surface waves in a granite based on ultrasonic measurement

Kimoto, Kazushi*; Okano, Aoi*; Saito, Takayasu*; Sato, Tadanobu*; Matsui, Hiroya

no journal, , 

This study investigates the propagation characteristics of high frequency surface wave in a granite block by ultrasonic measurements. To this end, a surface wave field excited by a line-focus transducer is scanned finely over a rectangular aperture with a laser Doppler vibrometer. From the measured waveforms, the spatial distribution of Fourier phase is reconstructed, and the structure of the wave front system is investigated. Due to the heterogeneity of the granite, the wave fronts fluctuate spatially at a rate dependent on the ultrasonic frequency. The intensity of the fluctuation is then quantified as a local wavenumber vector. It was found as a result that the granite sample can be characterized by a random wave number whose probability density is frequency dependent, asymmetric and non-Gaussian having a finite support.

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