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JAEA Reports

Consideration on roles and relationship between observations/measurements and model predictions for environmental consequence assessments for nuclear facilities

Togawa, Orihiko; Okura, Takehisa; Kimura, Masanori

JAEA-Review 2022-049, 76 Pages, 2023/01


Before construction and after operation of nuclear facilities, environmental consequence assessments are conducted for normal operation and an emergency. These assessments mainly aim at confirming safety for the public around the facilities and producing relief for them. Environmental consequence assessments are carried out using observations/ measurements by environmental monitoring and/or model predictions by calculation models, sometimes using either of which and at other times using both them, according to the situations and necessities. First, this report investigates methods, roles, merits/demerits and relationship between observations/measurements and model predictions which are used for environmental consequence assessments of nuclear facilities, especially holding up a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Rokkasho, Aomori as an example. Next, it explains representative examples of utilization of data on observations/measurements and results on model predictions, and considers points of attention at using them. Finally, the report describes future direction, for example, improvements of observations/measurements and model predictions, and fusion of both them.

JAEA Reports

Consideration on utilization of atmospheric dispersion models for a nuclear emergency preparedness and response

Togawa, Orihiko; Okura, Takehisa; Kimura, Masanori; Nagai, Haruyasu

JAEA-Review 2021-021, 61 Pages, 2021/11


Triggered by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, there have been a lot of arguments among various situations and levels about utilization of atmospheric dispersion models for a nuclear emergency preparedness and response. Most of these arguments, however, were alternative and extreme discussions on whether predictions by computational models could be applied or not for protective measures in a nuclear emergency, and it was hard to say that these arguments were politely conducted, based on scientific verification in an emergency response. It was known, on the other hand, that there were not a few potential users of atmospheric dispersion models and/or calculation results by the models within the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and outside. However, they seemed to have a lack of understanding and a misunderstanding on proper use of different kinds of atmospheric dispersion models. This report compares an outline of models and calculation method in atmospheric dispersion models for a nuclear emergency preparedness and response, with a central focus on the models which have been developed and used in the JAEA. Examples of calculations by these models are also described in the report. This report aims at contributing to future consideration and activities for potential users of atmospheric dispersion models within the JAEA and outside.

Journal Articles

Development of an evaluation method for planning of urgent protection strategies in a nuclear emergency using a level 3 probabilistic risk assessment

Kimura, Masanori; Oguri, Tomomi*; Ishikawa, Jun; Munakata, Masahiro

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(3), p.278 - 291, 2021/03

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The authors developed an evaluation method for planning urgent protection strategies in a nuclear emergency by using a Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) code, OSCAAR. For a given accident scenario, the OSCAAR can calculate received doses in the early phase of a nuclear accident and the dose reduction effect of implementing urgent protective actions such as evacuation, sheltering, and iodine thyroid blocking. The authors considered the combination of these urgent protective actions within a precautionary action zone (PAZ) and an urgent protective action planning zone (UPZ) for an accident scenario and then calculated received doses after implementing these protective actions using the OSCAAR. After that, the authors performed sensitivity analysis for protective action models of the OSCAAR and then optimized the protection strategy by reducing doses to below generic criteria of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Consequently, the effective urgent protection strategy for the accident scenario could be designed, such as precautionary evacuation within the PAZ, and the combination of evacuation after sheltering, sheltering in concrete building, or in normal housing and thyroid blocking within the UPZ. The developed evaluation method will be very useful in developing effective urgent protection strategies for an accident scenario.

Journal Articles

Quasifree neutron knockout reaction reveals a small $$s$$-Orbital component in the Borromean nucleus $$^{17}$$B

Yang, Z. H.*; Kubota, Yuki*; Corsi, A.*; Yoshida, Kazuki; Sun, X.-X.*; Li, J. G.*; Kimura, Masaaki*; Michel, N.*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; Yuan, C. X.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 126(8), p.082501_1 - 082501_8, 2021/02


 Times Cited Count:27 Percentile:96.94(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

A quasifree ($$p$$,$$pn$$) experiment was performed to study the structure of the Borromean nucleus $$^{17}$$B, which had long been considered to have a neutron halo. By analyzing the momentum distributions and exclusive cross sections, we obtained the spectroscopic factors for $$1s_{1/2}$$ and $$0d_{5/2}$$ orbitals, and a surprisingly small percentage of 9(2)% was determined for $$1s_{1/2}$$. Our finding of such a small $$1s_{1/2}$$ component and the halo features reported in prior experiments can be explained by the deformed relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory in continuum, revealing a definite but not dominant neutron halo in $$^{17}$$B. The present work gives the smallest $$s$$- or $$p$$-orbital component among known nuclei exhibiting halo features and implies that the dominant occupation of $$s$$ or $$p$$ orbitals is not a prerequisite for the occurrence of a neutron halo.

JAEA Reports

Development of database of dose reduction factor for reducing equivalent doses to the thyroid by implementing iodine thyroid blocking (Contract research)

Kimura, Masanori; Munakata, Masahiro; Hato, Shinji*; Kanno, Mitsuhiro*

JAEA-Data/Code 2020-002, 38 Pages, 2020/03


To consider the method of implementing urgent protective actions in a nuclear accident appropriately, the authors have been assessing the effects of reducing doses by taking urgent protective actions using a Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) code, the OSCAAR, developed by the JAEA. Iodine thyroid blocking is an effective urgent protective action to reduce equivalent doses to the thyroid due to inhalation of radioactive iodine. However, the timing of the administration of stable iodine (SI) is important to maximize the effectiveness for thyroidal blocking. Therefore, the careful consideration should be given to the most effective way of iodine thyroid blocking when preparing off-site emergency plans. In the present study, the authors developed a new metabolic model for thyroid by combining the respiratory tract model (Publ.66) and gastrointestinal tract model (Publ.30) of the ICRP with a metabolic model for thyroid (Johnson's model) in order to calculate the behavior of radioiodine and stable iodine in the body more realistically. The model is useful to evaluate the effect of the administration of SI for reducing equivalent doses to the thyroid depending on the its timing. We also calculated the reduction factor for equivalent doses to the thyroid in order to the thyroid by using the model, and then developed the its database for the OSCAAR. Consequently, the OSCAAR can evaluate the effectiveness for thyroidal blocking realistically and promptly.

Journal Articles

Development of integrated system for accident consequence evaluation using Level 2 and Level 3 PRA codes

Kimura, Masanori; Ishikawa, Jun; Oguri, Tomomi*; Munakata, Masahiro

Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 5 Pages, 2019/05

An integrated system between the THALES2 and the OSCAAR was developed in order to assist in preparing the input file of the OSCAAR. For the result of a state-of-the-art source term analysis with the THALES2, the authors implemented a preliminary analysis using the OSCAAR in order to evaluate the difference in setting of release fraction rates for the radionuclide groups. The effective dose was calculated for some cases by changing of release fraction rates divided into 1h (case 1), 3h (case 2), 5h (case 3), none (case 4) and arbitrary hours (case 5). After that, the ratio of the effective dose for these cases was compared. The result indicates that it was better to set short duration of release stages while the release fraction rates increased sharply. It seems that the case 5 is a better method in order to adapt to various accident scenarios. The method shows that it is useful for reducing the uncertainty in a Level 3 PRA analysis.

Journal Articles

Improvement of a metabolic model for iodine and consideration of a equivalent dose to the thyroid reduction factor for application to the OSCAAR code

Kimura, Masanori; Hato, Shinji*; Matsubara, Takeshi*; Kanno, Mitsuhiro*; Munakata, Masahiro

Proceedings of Asian Symposium on Risk Assessment and Management 2017 (ASRAM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 9 Pages, 2017/11

The authors developed a new metabolic model for iodine by combining the respiratory tract model (Publ.66), the gastrointestinal tract model (Publ.30) of the ICRP and the metabolic model for iodine (Johnson's model) in order to evaluate the behavior of radioiodine and stable iodine in the body more realistically. The developed metabolic model indicated that a reduction factor (RF) depends on dosage of stable iodine, timing of the administration of stable iodine, different iodine isotopes ($$^{131}$$I - $$^{135}$$I), and age groups. Therefore, the RF was calculated by changing these parameters and then a database of the RF was constructed for the application to the OSCAAR code.

JAEA Reports

Survey on evacuation facilities in case of nuclear emergency in Shimane prefecture (Contract research)

Takahara, Shogo; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Oguri, Tomomi; Kimura, Masanori; Hirouchi, Jun; Munakata, Masahiro; Homma, Toshimitsu

JAEA-Data/Code 2016-016, 65 Pages, 2017/02


We surveyed on structural and material data on 22 facilities which are listed in local disaster management plan in Matsue city. These facilities can be divided into educational facilities, communal facilities and gymnastic hall. Height and floor-area of rooms, as well as window-area were collected as the structural data. We also collected information on constructional materials, and density of those. In addition, mass-thicknesses of the constructional materials were evaluated based on our surveys, and compared to the previous studies which were made in Japan, U.S., and European countries. Consequently, it was found that there is no significant difference of mass-thickness of constructional materials between the results of our surveys and the previous studies. However, for gymnastic hall, since thin metal plates are used for roofs, we can point out that the mass-thickness of roofs are much lower than those for other concrete facilities and clay tile roofing wooden houses.

Journal Articles

Impurity effects in the microscopic elastic properties of polycrystalline Mg-Zn-Y alloys with a synchronised long-period stacking ordered phase

Hosokawa, Shinya*; Kimura, Koji*; Yamasaki, Michiaki*; Kawamura, Yoshihito*; Yoshida, Koji*; Inui, Masanori*; Tsutsui, Satoshi*; Baron, A. Q. R.*; Kawakita, Yukinobu; Ito, Shinichi*

Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 695, p.426 - 432, 2017/02

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:18.77(Chemistry, Physical)

JAEA Reports

Actions to protect the public in an emergency due to severe conditions at a light water reactor (Translated document)

Homma, Toshimitsu; Takahara, Shogo; Iijima, Masashi; Sato, Sohei; Kimura, Masanori; Shimada, Kazumasa

JAEA-Review 2016-013, 162 Pages, 2016/07


This is a Japanese translation of "Actions to Protect the Public in an Emergency due to Severe Conditions at a Light Water Reactor", which is published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in May 2013. The original IAEA Publication is available on the IAEA Website (

Journal Articles

Influence of linear energy transfer on the scintillation decay behavior in a lithium glass scintillator

Koshimizu, Masanori*; Iwamatsu, Kazuhiro*; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Kurashima, Satoshi; Kimura, Atsushi; Yanagida, Takayuki*; Fujimoto, Yutaka*; Watanabe, Kenichi*; Asai, Keisuke*

Journal of Luminescence, 169(Part B), p.678 - 681, 2016/01

We analyzed the effects of linear energy transfer (LET) on the scintillation properties of a Li glass scintillator, GS20. The scintillation time profiles were measured by using pulsed ion beams having different LETs. The rise in the scintillation time profiles was faster for higher LET, whereas the decay part was not significantly different for largely different LETs. The LET effects in the rise was ascribed to the effects of excited states interaction during the energy transfer process from the host glass to the luminescent centers, Ce$$^{3+}$$ ions. Supposing that the light yield decreases with LET, the fast rise at high LET was explained in terms of the competition between the energy transfer and the quenching due to the excited states interaction.

Journal Articles

Linear energy transfer effects on time profiles of scintillation of Ce-doped LiCaAlF$$_{6}$$ crystals

Yanagida, Takayuki*; Koshimizu, Masanori*; Kurashima, Satoshi; Iwamatsu, Kazuhiro*; Kimura, Atsushi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Fujimoto, Yutaka*; Asai, Keisuke*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 365(Part B), p.529 - 532, 2015/12

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:67.31(Instruments & Instrumentation)

We measured temporal profiles of scintillation of Ce-doped LiCaAlF$$_{6}$$ scintillator crystals at different linear energy transfers (LETs). Based on the comparison of the high-LET temporal profiles with those at low LET, we found that a fast component was observed only at low LET. The disappearance of the fast component at high LET is tentatively ascribed to quenching of excited states at defects owing to the interaction between excited states via Auger process. In addition, the rise and the initial decay behavior was dependent on the LET. This LET-dependent behavior is explained by a seeming acceleration process and a slowing down process in energy transfer at high LET. The LET-dependent temporal profiles provide a basis of discrimination technique of $$gamma$$-ray and neutron detection events using these scintillators based on the nuclear reaction, $$^{6}$$Li(n,$$alpha$$)t.

Journal Articles

System for measuring temporal profiles of scintillation at high and different linear energy transfers by using pulsed ion beams

Koshimizu, Masanori*; Kurashima, Satoshi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Iwamatsu, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Atsushi; Asai, Keisuke*

Review of Scientific Instruments, 86(1), p.013101_1 - 013101_5, 2015/01

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:45.17(Instruments & Instrumentation)

We have developed a system for measuring the temporal profiles of scintillation at high linear energy transfer (LET) by using pulsed ion beams from a cyclotron. The half width at half maximum time resolution was estimated to be 1.5-2.2 ns, which we attributed mainly to the duration of the pulsed ion beam and timing jitter between the trigger signal and the arrival of the ion pulse. The temporal profiles of scintillation of BaF$$_{2}$$ at different LETs were successfully observed. These results indicate that the proposed system is a powerful tool for analyzing the LET effects in temporal profiles of scintillation.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of averted doses to members of the public by tap water restrictions after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

Kinase, Sakae; Kimura, Masanori; Hato, Shinji*

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 4, p.5 - 8, 2014/04

Journal Articles

Study for shielding efficiency of evacuation facilities in nuclear emergency

Oguri, Tomomi*; Takahara, Shogo; Kimura, Masanori; Homma, Toshimitsu

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 4, p.767 - 770, 2014/04

Sheltering is one of the protective actions in a nuclear emergency. To introduce the actions with effect, preparedness is needed from a point of efficiency of reduction of radiation exposure and also capacity and location. In this study, we surveyed building materials and construction of real facilities listed in prefectural regional emergency prevention plans and then evaluated the shielding efficiency of these facilities for external exposure. As the results, we obtained knowledge of distribution of shielding factor for actual evacuation facilities by cloudshine and groundshine. Moreover, based on the sensitivity analyses, basic data was obtained that easily evaluate the shielding efficiency of facilities with different structures and materials from basic building models.

Journal Articles

Development of internal dosimetry evaluation code for chronic exposure after intake of radionuclides

Kimura, Masanori; Kinase, Sakae; Hato, Shinji*

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 4, p.60 - 63, 2014/04

Journal Articles

Evaluation of retention and excretion function to members of the public for chronic intake of radionuclides

Hato, Shinji*; Kinase, Sakae; Kimura, Masanori

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 4, p.36 - 38, 2014/04

JAEA Reports

Development of the conductive glove for glove box operation; Production of prototypes and their experimental results

Kodato, Kazuo; Enuma, Masahito; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Nogami, Yoshitaka; Kaneko, Kazunori; Kimura, Masanori*; Yasumori, Tomokazu*

JAEA-Research 2013-017, 45 Pages, 2014/02


The glove used at glove boxes in the nuclear fuel plants is usually made with Chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber. The rubber is excellent in terms of resistance to radiation because it has no double bond in its main chain of the component, however, it deteriorates rapidly in high dose environment such as direct contact of alpha ray1). Plutonium oxide powder is treated in glove boxes at plutonium fuel facilities where the alpha ray from plutonium oxide power attached on surface of a glove causes the deterioration of the rubber. Therefore the effective method for prevent of the rapid deterioration is to decrease the amount of attached powder, and the glove with conductive property which can prevent static generation on its surface has been developed and tested. The results showed that the rubber has less adherent property to powder compared with conventional one.

Journal Articles

Probabilistic assessment of doses to the public living in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Takahara, Shogo; Iijima, Masashi; Shimada, Kazumasa; Kimura, Masanori; Homma, Toshimitsu

Radiation Monitoring and Dose Estimation of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident, p.197 - 214, 2014/02


The aim of this study is to provide the scientifically-based quantitative information about a range of received doses to the evacuees from the evacuation areas and the deliberate evacuation areas. To achieve the aim, we adopted a probabilistic approach. The dose assessments were performed based on the measurement data of the surface activity concentrations of $$^{137}$$Cs and the results of actual survey on behavioral patterns of the population groups living in Fukushima Prefecture. As the result of assessments, the 95th percentile of the annual effective doses received by the inhabitants evacuated from the evacuation areas were mainly in the 1-10 mSv dose band in the first year after the contamination. However, the 95th percentile of the doses received by some outdoor workers, inhabitants evacuated from the deliberate evacuation areas and highly contaminated areas were in the 10-50 mSv dose band.

Journal Articles

Research and development of high-performance instruments for safety measure for LWRs

Takeuchi, Tomoaki; Ueno, Shunji; Komanome, Hirohisa*; Otsuka, Noriaki; Shibata, Hiroshi; Kimura, Nobuaki; Matsui, Yoshinori; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Araki, Masanori

Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Material Testing Reactors (ISMTR-6) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2013/10

During the station blackout situation at the Fukushima Dai-ichi (1F) Nuclear Power Plant, conventional in-pile instrumentation systems did not work sufficiently, resulting in the progress of the severe accident. In June 2011, the Japanese government referred to "Enhancement of instrumentation to identify the status of the reactors and PCVs" as a lesson of the accident at the 1F NPP, in the report of Japanese government to the IAEA ministerial conference in accordance with such situation, we started from 2012 a research and development which corresponds to the provisions so as to monitor the NPPs situations during a severe accident. In this research and development, we have been building of technical bases of a radiation-resistant high-definition and high-sensitivity monitoring camera, a wireless transmission system, and radiation- and heat-resistant signal line. The objective and latest progress situations of the R&D including the results of the characteristic experiments will be introduced in this symposium.

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