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Journal Articles

Progress report of Japanese simulation research projects using the high-performance computer system Helios in the International Fusion Energy Research Centre

Ishizawa, Akihiro*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Imadera, Kenji*; Kasuya, Naohiro*; Kanno, Ryutaro*; Satake, Shinsuke*; Tatsuno, Tomoya*; Nakata, Motoki*; Nunami, Masanori*; Maeyama, Shinya*; et al.

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 92(3), p.157 - 210, 2016/03

The high-performance computer system Helios which is located at The Computational Simulation Centre (CSC) in The International Fusion Energy Research Centre (IFERC) started its operation in January 2012 under the Broader Approach (BA) agreement between Japan and the EU. The Helios system has been used for magnetised fusion related simulation studies in the EU and Japan and has kept high average usage rate. As a result, the Helios system has contributed to many research products in a wide range of research areas from core plasma physics to reactor material and reactor engineering. This project review gives a short catalogue of domestic simulation research projects. First, we outline the IFERC-CSC project. After that, shown are objectives of the research projects, numerical schemes used in simulation codes, obtained results and necessary computations in future.

Journal Articles

Voltage holding capability of large-size acceleration grid with multiple-apertures and multiple-stage for negative ion source

Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Inoue, Takashi; NB Heating Technology Group; Yamano, Yasushi*; Kobayashi, Shinichi*

Journal of the Vacuum Society of Japan, 56(12), p.502 - 506, 2013/12

Voltage holding capability of a large negative ion source for fusion application is experimentally examined, which is characterized by multiple-stage acceleration with multiple-apertures over 1000 on large-area grids of 2 m$$^{2}$$ for the multiple-beamlet accelerations. From the observation of the vacuum discharge between the grids, it was found that the aperture generated 10 times larger dark current than the flat region and initiated the vacuum discharge associated with the breakdown. As a result, it was found that the sustainable voltages were dominated by not only the surface area but also the number of the apertures. Because these effects were originated in the area effects by weak and strong electric field profiles, these results implied the surface integration of the electric field were the key parameter for the vacuum insulation.

Journal Articles

Improvement of voltage holding capability in a giant negative ion source for fusion application

Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; JT-60NBI Group; Yamano, Yasushi*; Kobayashi, Shinichi*

Denki Gakkai Kenkyukai Shiryo, Hoden Kenkyukai (ED-12-35), 6 Pages, 2012/03

Negative ion accelerator for neutral beam injectors for fusion appliaction has large-area acceleration grids of $$>$$ 1 m$$^{2}$$ and an insulator made of Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP), which are extremely larger than those used in the accelerators for industrial and acceleration applications. This paper reports vacuum insulation character its and development for the improvement of voltage holding capability towards JT-60SA.

Journal Articles

Vacuum insulation characteristics of the large negative ion source with the multi-aperture grids

Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Hilmi, A.*; Haruyama, Hirochika*; Yamano, Yasushi*; Kobayashi, Shinichi*

Denki Gakkai Kenkyukai Shiryo, Hoden Kenkyukai (ED-12-36), 5 Pages, 2012/03

Vacuum insulation of a large negative ion source for fusion application is experimentally examined, which is characterized by large-area grids with multiple-apertures. The experimental results showed that sustainable voltages were found to be dominated by the electric field profiles generated around the apertures and grid area. These empirical laws are applied to the modification of the ion source.

Journal Articles

Vacuum insulation of the high energy negative ion source for fusion application

Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Hilmi, A.*; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Shinichi*; et al.

Review of Scientific Instruments, 83(2), p.02B117_1 - 02B117_5, 2012/02

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:59.63(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Production of 500 keV, 3 A beams has been successfully achieved in the JT-60 negative by overcoming the low voltage holding of the accelerator. Toward the design of next ion source, database for the voltage holding capability based on experimental results is required and obtained. As a result, the voltage holding capability was found to vary with 67 N power of -0.15 and with 31.7 S power of -0.125 where N is the aperture number and S is the anode surface area. When N = 1100 and S = 2 m$$^{2}$$ are applied to the design of JT-60SA ion source, the factors C are estimated to be 23 and 29, respectively. Therefore, the influence of the local electric field around the apertures is stronger than that of the surface area.

Journal Articles

Acceleration of 500 keV negative ion beams by tuning vacuum insulation distance on JT-60 negative ion source

Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Tanaka, Yutaka*; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Inoue, Takashi; Umeda, Naotaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Shinichi*; et al.

AIP Conference Proceedings 1390, p.466 - 475, 2011/09

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:54.36

Voltage holding tests by using JT-60 negative ion source and small electrodes was carried out because JT-60 negative ion source had a critical problem about low voltage holding capability for long time. As a result, the voltage holding capability is decreased with the increase of area where local electric field is generated, as well as the surface area according to existing scaling low about surface area. Therefore, in order to improve the voltage holding without changing the existing accelerator, the voltage holding test was carried out by extending gap lengths of the negative ion source. In order to improve the voltage holding, beam radiation shield needs to be optimized additionally. As a result, the voltage holding has been improved to 500 kV and stabilized. By using this modified ion source, negative ion beams of 500 keV up to 3A has been successfully produced.

Journal Articles

Achievement of 500 keV negative ion beam acceleration on JT-60U negative-ion-based neutral beam injector

Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Tanaka, Yutaka*; Kawai, Mikito*; Akino, Noboru; Kazawa, Minoru; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Usui, Katsutomi; Sasaki, Shunichi; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 51(8), p.083049_1 - 083049_8, 2011/08

 Times Cited Count:45 Percentile:88.19(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Hydrogen negative ion beams of 490 keV, 3 A and 510 keV, 1 A have been successfully produced in the JT-60 negative ion source with three acceleration stages. These successful productions of the high-energy beams at high current have been achieved by overcoming the most critical issue, i.e., a poor voltage holding of the large negative ion sources with the grids of 2 m$$^{2}$$ for JT-60SA and ITER. To improve voltage holding capability, the breakdown voltages for the large grids was examined for the first time. It was found that a vacuum insulation distance for the large grids was 6-7 times longer than that for the small-area grid (0.02 m$$^{2}$$). From this result, the gap lengths between the grids were tuned in the JT-60 negative ion source. The modification of the ion source also realized a significant stabilization of voltage holding and a short conditioning time. These results suggest a practical use of the large negative ion sources in JT-60SA and ITER.

Journal Articles

Demonstration of 500 keV beam acceleration on JT-60 negative-ion-based neutral beam injector

Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Tanaka, Yutaka*; Kawai, Mikito*; Akino, Noboru; Kazawa, Minoru; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Usui, Katsutomi; Sasaki, Shunichi; et al.

Proceedings of 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2010) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2011/03

Hydrogen negative ion beams of 490keV, 3A and 510 keV, 1A have been successfully produced in the JT-60 negative ion source with three acceleration stages. These successful productions of the high-energy beams at high current have been achieved by overcoming the most critical issue, i.e., a poor voltage holding of the large negative ion sources with the grids of $$sim$$ 2 m$$^{2}$$ for JT-60SA and ITER. To improve voltage holding capability, the breakdown voltages for the large grids was examined for the first time. It was found that a vacuum insulation distance for the large grids was 6-7 times longer than that for the small-area grid (0.02 m$$^{2}$$). From this result, the gap lengths between the grids were tuned in the JT-60 negative ion source. The modification of the ion source also realized a significant stabilization of voltage holding and a short conditioning time. These results suggest a practical use of the large negative ion sources in JT-60 SA and ITER.

JAEA Reports

Study on applicability of low alkaline cement in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project, 3 (Contract research)

Nakayama, Masashi; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Noguchi, Akira; Miura, Norihiko*; Noda, Masaru*; Iriya, Keishiro*; Hitomi, Takashi*

JAEA-Research 2009-036, 49 Pages, 2009/11

JAEA-Research-2009-036.pdf:20.34MB

In Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Horonobe URL) Project, construction practicality test with HFSC (Highly Fly-ash contained Silica-fume Cement) is planned in a part of the gallery. It is necessary to validate that HFSC has performance under the actual construction, before HFSC is placed in the gallery. The main tasks in 2008 are follows; (1) suggestion of mix design for liner concrete of shaft in Horonobe URL, (2) investigation of long term pH changes in order to use for modeling, and (3) an experiment for interaction between HFSC and ground water around Horonobe URL. (1) 4 types of mix proportion are designed for ordinary concrete and high strength concrete which contains polypropylene fiber or not. As early age strength, 5N/mm$$^{2}$$ is required because of concrete formwork. HFSC424 with low water binder ratio can fulfill this requirement in combination with super plasticizer. (2) pH and components of solid and liquid phase which were made in 2003, and stored in water were analyzed. And cement paste of shotcrete which are made in 2006 were also analyzed. In this pH of shotcrete is lower than other in situ concrete since accelerating agent may act as decreasing factor of pH. (3) An experiment which investigates dissolution of HFSC cement hydrates to ground water around Horonobe URL. According to the experiment, dissolving depth of HFSC is 4 times small comparing to Ordinary Portland Cement hydrates after 30th water exchange.

JAEA Reports

Study on applicability of low alkaline cement in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project, 2 (Contract research)

Nakayama, Masashi; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Matsuda, Takeshi*; Noda, Masaru*; Iriya, Keishiro*; Takeda, Nobufumi*

JAEA-Research 2009-035, 70 Pages, 2009/11

JAEA-Research-2009-035.pdf:11.27MB

In Horonobe Underground Research Center construction of underground facility began in 2005 and construction practicality test with HFSC (Highly Fly-ash contained Silica-fume Cement) is planned in a part of the gallery. Before HFSC will be placed in the gallery it is necessary to validate that HFSC has performance under the actual construction. The research results in 2007 were as follows. As corrosion behavior in HFSC, reinforced concrete specimen with HFSC 226 have been exposed to off-shore condition at in saline water and splashed zone and analyzed corrosion rate and chloride intrusion, and they were summarized. Service life time of HFSC reinforced concrete was assessed more than 50 years until cracking due to corrosion is generated. pH and components of solid and liquid phase which were made in 2002, and stored in water were analyzed. And cement paste of shotcrete which are made in 2006 were also analyzed. In this pH of shotcrete is lower than other in situ concrete since accelerating agent may act as decreasing factor of pH. The results obtained from this ten year's study were summarized on shotcerete, in situ concrete and grouting. Based on the summery, method of quality control, such as testing method, frequency, and standards so on, were investigated.

JAEA Reports

Fuel and core design studies on metal fuel sodium-cooled fast reactor, 3; Joint research report for JFY2007&2008

Okano, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Noboru*; Ogawa, Takashi; Oki, Shigeo; Naganuma, Masayuki; Okubo, Tsutomu; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Ogata, Takanari*; Ueda, Nobuyuki*; Nishimura, Satoshi*

JAEA-Research 2009-025, 105 Pages, 2009/10

JAEA-Research-2009-025.pdf:10.45MB

A metal fuel core has specific features on high heavy metal density, hard neutron spectrum, and efficient neutron utilization. Enlarged applicable design envelops would improve core performances and features: higher breeding ratio, compacted reactor core, and, smaller amount of Pu-fissile inventory. A joint study on "Reactor Core and Fuel Design of Metal Fuel Core of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor" by Japan Atomic Energy Agency and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has been conducted during Japanese fiscal years of 2007 and 2008. This report shows the results on (1) the study on applicable design ranges of metal fuel specifications, (2) the study on conceptual core designs for high breeding ratio, and (3) the safety study on metal fuel core designed in the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) Project.

JAEA Reports

Studies on the design method of multi tunnels in geological disposal facility, 2

Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Hiramoto, Masayuki*; Mizutani, Kazuhiko*; Morita, Atsushi*

JAEA-Research 2009-016, 127 Pages, 2009/08

JAEA-Research-2009-016.pdf:5.23MB

"Study on configuration of analytical domain of the multi tunnels model" and "Remainders on an elasto-plastic FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis" in case of the full width of pillar become plastic on simplified model" are studied as "The study on the enhanced reliability of elasto-plastic FEM". In addition, "The effect of rock support and consolidation of the host rock to control the plastic region" was conducted as "The study on the mechanical stability of tunnels". As the results, it was seen that the analytical domain should be assigned 3-5W (W: width of multi tunnels) for a horizontal side from the endmost tunnel and 3-4W for below of the tunnels. It was found reasonable and proper on the elasto-plastic FEM analysis that the analysis domain must be large enough not to have plastic deformation in all analysis of domains under the condition in which the full width of pillar has plastic deformation. It was also found that the ground support suppresses the plasticity domain as the ground support effect. It was acknowledged that the auxiliary construction method by improvement of the ground has the suppression effect of the plasticity domain applying to the multi tunnels.

Journal Articles

Energy spectra of bremsstrahlung X-rays emitted from an FRP insulator

Tanaka, Yutaka; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Hanada, Masaya; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kamada, Masaki; Kisaki, Masashi; Akino, Noboru; Yamano, Yasushi*; Kobayashi, Shinichi*; Grisham, L. R.*

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 37(8), p.1495 - 1498, 2009/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:4.47(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Voltage holding capability of the JT-60 negative ion source is limited by surface flashover on the FRP insulator. To improve the voltage holding capability of the ion source, the understanding of the surface flashover is required. In this study, electron energy is estimated by measuring the bremsstrahlung X-ray emitted from an FRP insulator. Energy spectra of X-ray were measured for 3 different positions and compared with those of the vacuum gap between electrodes. Near the anode, X-ray spectrum was dominated by the monoenergetic electron. Near the cathode, spectrum peak shifted to low energy compared with that near the anode. This result showed that a large amount of low energy electrons was generated on the surface of the FRP insulator near the cathode.

Journal Articles

Durability evalation of steel reinforced low alkaline concrete using pozzolanic reaction based on exposure test in off-shore

Takeda, Nobufumi*; Kuwae, Hitomi*; Nakayama, Masashi; Kobayashi, Yasushi

Konkurito Kogaku Nenji Rombunshu (DVD-ROM), 31(1), p.895 - 900, 2009/07

High level radioactive waste repository will be constructed using a variety of concrete such as shotcrete, lining for rock support. It is anticipated that highly alkaline plume released from the cement hydrates could influence the long-term performance of barrier system as a result of degradation of the buffer material and rock. In order to reduce hyper alkaline, JAEA is now undertaking development of low alkaline cement (HFSC: Highly Fly ash contained Silicafume Cement). In this report, to evaluate corrosion behavior of reinforcement in HFSC, we have conducted exposure test using reinforced concrete specimens in off-shore condition for 6 years, investigated corrosion rate and permeation chloride ion in concrete. As the result, it is evaluated that the period until crack occurred is more than 30 years in case of using HFSC concrete.

JAEA Reports

Handling of HTTR second driver fuel elements in assembling and storage working

Tomimoto, Hiroshi; Kato, Yasushi; Owada, Hiroyuki; Sato, Nao; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Kozawa, Takayuki; Shinohara, Masanori; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Tochio, Daisuke; Nojiri, Naoki; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2009-025, 29 Pages, 2009/06

JAEA-Technology-2009-025.pdf:21.78MB

The first driver fuel of the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering test Reactor) was loaded in 1998 and the HTTR reached first criticality state in the same year. The HTTR has been operated using the first driver fuel for a decade. In Fuel elements assembling, 4770 of fuel rods which consist of 12 kinds of enrichment uranium are loaded into 150 fuel graphite blocks for HTTR second driver fuel elements. Measures of prevention of fuel rod miss loading, are employed in fuel design. Additionally, precaution of fuel handling on assembling are considered. Reception of fuel rods, assembling of fuel elements and storage of second driver fuels in the fresh fuel storage rack in the HTTR were started since June, 2008. Assembling, storage and pre-service inspection were divided into three parts. The second driver fuel assembling was completed in September, 2008. This report describes concerns of fuel handling on assembling and storage work for the HTTR fuel elements.

JAEA Reports

Application study on low alkaline cementitious materials for deep geological repository of high level radioactive wastes, 2; Organization of previous finding and understanding of material properties of low alkaline cement (Joint research)

Kobayashi, Yasushi; Yamada, Tsutomu; Naito, Morimasa; Yui, Mikazu; Nakayama, Masashi; Sato, Haruo; Nishida, Takahiro*; Hironaga, Michihiko*; Yamamoto, Takeshi*; Sugiyama, Daisuke*; et al.

JAEA-Research 2009-013, 70 Pages, 2009/06

JAEA-Research-2009-013.pdf:8.85MB

Cementitious materials will be used to ensure construction and operational safety and work efficiency in a deep geological repository. The low alkaline cement has been developed to reduce uncertainties due to hyper alkaline for the long-term safety performance of the repository system. Functions of cementitious material required in each phase of repository construction, operation and closure were summarized in a separate report entitled "Application Study on Low Alkaline Cementitious Materials for Deep Geological Repository of High Level Radioactive Wastes (Phase I) "In this report, properties of low alkaline cement/concrete which have been developed both at home and abroad, and recipes of the low alkaline concrete taken account of application to the repository component have been investigated. Fresh and hardened properties of the low alkaline cement are equivalent to the OPC and the low alkaline cement has an advantage over OPC in terms of leaching resistance. The HFSC developed by JAEA, which belongs to a pozzolanic type low alkaline cement will be able to apply to the shotcrete and the lining concrete by choosing an adequate recipe. Clarification of influences of the chemical composition of groundwater on leachate properties of the hydrates, examination of pH measurement of cement leachate, evaluation of corrosion behavior of rebar embedded in the HFSC concrete are raised as open questions for future activities.

Journal Articles

Characteristics of voltage holding capability in multi-stage large electrostatic accelerator for fusion application

Kobayashi, Kaoru; Hanada, Masaya; Akino, Noboru; Sasaki, Shunichi; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Masahiro*; Yamano, Yasushi*; Kobayashi, Shinichi*; Grisham, L. R.*

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 16(3), p.871 - 875, 2009/06

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:12.43(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

Voltage holding capability of a 500kV, 22A three-stage electrostatic accelerator, where large-area grids of 0.28 m$$^{2}$$ and large FRP insulators of 1.8 m in diameter are used, was examined. High voltage was independently applied to each acceleration stage, where the voltage holding capabilities of 130 kV were obtained. To identify whether the breakdowns occur in the gaps between the grids or the FRP insulators, high voltages were applied to the accelerator with and without the grids. Breakdown voltages without grids, i.e., the FRP insulator itself reached 170 kV of design value for each stage. These results show that the breakdown voltage of the accelerator was mainly determined by the gaps between the large-area grids. In this paper, the influence of non-uniform electric field and multi-stage grids on the voltage holding capabilities was also discussed.

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project research and development plan in Phase 2; H20-21

Iwatsuki, Teruki; Sato, Haruo; Tanai, Kenji; Inagaki, Manabu; Sawada, Atsushi; Niinuma, Hiroaki; Ishii, Eiichi; Maekawa, Keisuke; Tomura, Goji; Sanada, Hiroyuki; et al.

JAEA-Research 2009-002, 156 Pages, 2009/05

JAEA-Research-2009-002.pdf:12.86MB

The research and development plan for geological investigation, engineering technology and safety assessment during the drilling of a shaft down to intermediate depth are summarized according to the Midterm Plan till 2009 Fiscal year of JAEA. This report describes subject, current status and programme in the "Phase 2: Construction phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities). Furthermore regarding R&D plan in next Midterm Plan of JAEA, preliminary ideas are summarized.

JAEA Reports

Application study on low alkaline cementitious materials for deep geological repository of high level radioactive wastes, 1; Requirements for use of cementitious materials in deep geological repository system (Joint research)

Kobayashi, Yasushi; Yamada, Tsutomu; Naito, Morimasa; Yui, Mikazu; Nakayama, Masashi; Sato, Haruo; Nishida, Takahiro*; Hironaga, Michihiko*; Yamamoto, Takeshi*; Sugiyama, Daisuke*; et al.

JAEA-Research 2008-112, 43 Pages, 2009/03

JAEA-Research-2008-112.pdf:4.58MB

In deep geological repository, use of cementitious material for rock support, lining, and grouting is essential for construction and operation and possibly raises in groundwater pH due to leachate from the cements. Since this hyperalkaline condition may lead to degradation of barriers, there is concern that it gives significant impact on long-term safety performance of the repository system. Because of these backgrounds, developments of low alkaline cement have been conducted both at home and abroad. JAEA is now planning to conduct an in-situ test for shotcreting using low alkaline cement at the Horonobe URL. On the other hand, CRIEPI has studied and developed cementitious materials for disposal of radioactive wastes. This joint research report summarizes requirements and expected performance of cementitious materials in repository taking account of surrounding conditions in each stage of the repository program so as to reflect them to further development of the low alkaline cement.

JAEA Reports

Studies about strength recovery and generalized relaxation behavior of rock, 2 (Contract research)

Okubo, Seisuke*; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Hiramoto, Masayuki*

JAEA-Research 2008-106, 91 Pages, 2009/02

JAEA-Research-2008-106.pdf:6.08MB

It is generally known that the rock has the properties of strength recovery by elapse of time around the tunnel inside sedimentary rock with ground support due to inner pressure and ground pressure. The properties of strength recovery must be taken into account of the estimation about cavity shape stability or the long-term dynamical behavior of closed disposal ground. Our research study is focusing on the properties of strength recovery, generalized relaxation behavior and the characteristics of tensile strength by experiments using boring cores obtained from the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory so as to improve the modeling for future stage.

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