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Journal Articles

Positrons and positronium in macromolecules; Consequences of different charge states

Kobayashi, Yoshinori*; Sato, Kiminori*; Yamawaki, Masato*; Michishio, Koji*; Oka, Toshitaka; Washio, Masakazu*

Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 202, p.110590_1 - 110590_6, 2023/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.2(Chemistry, Physical)

Because of their different charge states, positrons and positronium (Ps) behave quite differently in macromolecules. The behavior of positively charged positrons is strongly influenced by electrostatic interactions. In nonpolar macromolecules such as polyethylene, energetic positrons, if not incorporated into Ps, fall into a delocalized state. These positrons are sensitively trapped by polar groups, if any. On the other hand, charge-neutral Ps is localized in a free volume regardless of the macromolecule's chemical structure. In this study, we discuss the behavior and annihilation characteristics of positrons and Ps in various macromolecules, emphasizing their differences.

Journal Articles

Energy dissipation of para-positronium in polymers and silica glass

Kobayashi, Yoshinori*; Sato, Kiminori*; Yamawaki, Masato*; Michishio, Koji*; Oka, Toshitaka; Washio, Masakazu*

Applied Physics Express, 15(7), p.076001_1 - 076001_4, 2022/07

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:59.23(Physics, Applied)

We discuss the energy dissipation of short-lived $textit{para}$-positronium ($textit{p}$-Ps) in polymers and silica glass. The $$S$$ parameter characterizing the Doppler broadening of $textit{p}$-Ps annihilation is determined from the previously reported systematic data of positron annihilation age momentum correlation for various polymers and silica glass. A comparison of the $$S$$ parameter with that expected for thermalized $textit{p}$-Ps trapped in a free volume reveals that $textit{p}$-Ps is not thermalized and possesses excess energy in fluorinated polymers and silica glass, indicating that it is difficult for Ps to lose energy in substances containing heavy elements such as fluorine and silicon.

Journal Articles

Temperature dependence of positron annihilation lifetime in near-surface and bulk of room-temperature ionic liquid observed by a slow positron beam

Hirade, Tetsuya; Michishio, Koji*; Kobayashi, Yoshinori*; Oshima, Nagayasu*

Chemical Physics Letters, 795, p.139507_1 - 139507_4, 2022/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Chemistry, Physical)

We obtained the temperature dependence up to 150$$^{circ}$$C of the triplet positronium ($$ortho$$-Ps) lifetime in N,N,N-Trimethyl-N-propylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TMPA-TFSI) by the vertical slow positron beamline installed at AIST. Positrons penetrate into the liquid surface of TMPA-TFSI with the positron energies of 2 keV and 12 keV to investigate at the near-surface and the balk. The surface structure was visible at 150$$^{circ}$$C, 120$$^{circ}$$C above the melting temperature. The $$ortho$$-Ps lifetime became shorter at higher temperatures for both positron energies. Similar temperature dependence had appeared just in water as the result of the reaction of $$ortho$$-Ps and radiolysis products such as the OH radicals. The temperature dependence observed for TMPA-TFSI suggested that the chemical reaction of $$ortho$$-Ps occurred.

Journal Articles

Development of a method for positron annihilation lifetime measurement in thin polyethylene films using a Na-22 source

Yamawaki, Masato*; Uesugi, Naoya*; Oka, Toshitaka; Nagasawa, Naotsugu*; Ando, Hirokazu*; O'Rourke, B. E.*; Kobayashi, Yoshinori*

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 59(11), p.116504_1 - 116504_5, 2020/11

Positron annihilation lifetime measurements were performed on polyethylene films with thickness of 15$$mu$$m - 2000$$mu$$m using a Na-22 positron source enclosed in a Kapton film. For thin films, some positrons will pass through the film and annihilate behind it. Using a single film in a commercial anti-coincidence system, by placing an annealed stainless steel (SUS304) cover behind the sample, it is possible to sufficiently measure the long lifetime ortho-positronium (o-Ps) component even in thin films. Additionally, calculated intensities of the o-Ps component determined from the estimated film transmittance agreed well with the measured values. Furthermore, by applying this method to uniaxially stretched UHMWPE, we were able to observe structural changes owing to the stretching consistent with shorter measured o-Ps lifetime and increased o-Ps intensity.

Journal Articles

Visualizing cation vacancies in Ce:Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$ scintillators by gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

Fujimori, Kosuke*; Kitaura, Mamoru*; Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Zen, H.*; Watanabe, Shinta*; Kamada, Kei*; Okano, Yasuaki*; Kato, Masahiro*; Hosaka, Masahito*; et al.

Applied Physics Express, 13(8), p.085505_1 - 085505_4, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:37.35(Physics, Applied)

To clarify the existence of cation vacancies in Ce-doped Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$ (Ce:GAGG) scintillators, we performed gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (GiPALS). GiPAL spectra of GAGG and Ce:GAGG comprised two exponential decay components, which were assigned to positron annihilation at bulk and defect states. By an analogy with Ce:Y$$_{3}$$Al$$_{5}$$O$$_{12}$$, the defect-related component was attributed to Al/Ga-O divacancy complexes. This component was weaker for Ce, Mg:GAGG, which correlated with the suppression of shallow electron traps responsible for phosphorescence. Oxygen vacancies were charge compensators for Al/Ga vacancies. The lifetime of the defect-related component was significantly changed by Mg co-doping. This was understood by considering aggregates of Mg$$^{2+}$$ ions at Al/Ga sites with oxygen vacancies, which resulted in the formation of vacancy clusters.

Journal Articles

Temperature dependence of ortho-positronium annihilation in room temperature ionic liquids

Hirade, Tetsuya; Michishio, Koji*; Kobayashi, Yoshinori*; Oshima, Nagayasu*

Acta Physica Polonica A, 137(2), p.109 - 112, 2020/02

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Recently, it was reported that the positronium (Ps) bubble in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs) showed some phenomena that were very different from them observed in other molecular liquids. Now the reason of these interesting phenomena is being understood. The structure caused by the ionic interaction between anions and cations can exist even at the higher temperatures than the melting temperatures. It was the reason why the oscillation of Ps bubble was observed at the temperatures near the melting temperatures in RTILs. The temperature dependence of the Ps bubble size estimated by the triplet Ps ($$ortho$$-Ps) pick-off annihilation lifetime indicated that there was a nano-meter structure remained by ionic interactions even at high temperatures. The $$ortho$$-Ps pick-off annihilation lifetime will be a strong tool to study nano-structure in RTILs.

Journal Articles

Positron annihilation in the near surface of room temperature ionic liquids

Hirade, Tetsuya; O'Rourke, B. E.*; Kobayashi, Yoshinori*

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 791(1), p.012029_1 - 012029_4, 2017/02

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:65.89

We tried to observe the positron annihilation rates near surface of (room temperature ionic liquids) IL's, such as N,N,N-trimethyl-N-propylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TMPA-TFSI) by use of the perpendicular slow positron beamline installed at AIST. The vaper pressure of TMPA-TFSI is very small and hence it is possible to measure the positron annihilation rate in vacuum chamber directly. This represents the first energy variable experimental results of the positron annihilation rate at the near surface of an IL. The triplet positronium annihilation rate seems to be larger at nearer region to the surface of the IL's.

Journal Articles

Maintaining formation of multiple robotic wheelchairs for smooth communication

Suzuki, Ryota*; Kobayashi, Yoshinori*; Kuno, Yoshinori*; Yamada, Taichi; Yamazaki, Keiichi*; Yamazaki, Akiko*

International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools, 25(5), p.1640005_1 - 1640005_19, 2016/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:11.1(Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence)

To meet the demands of an aging society, research on intelligent/robotic wheelchairs have been receiving a lot of attention. In elderly care facilities, care workers are required to communicate with the elderly in order to maintain both their mental and physical health. While this is regarded as important, having a conversation with someone on a wheelchair while pushing it from behind in a traditional setting would interfere with their smooth and natural conversation. So we are developing a robotic wheelchair system which allows companions and wheelchair users to move in a natural formation. This paper reports on an investigation to learn the patterns of human behavior when the wheelchair users and their companions communicate while walking together. The ethnographic observation reveals a natural formation of positioning for both companions and wheelchair users. Based on this investigation, we propose a multiple robotic wheelchair system which can maintain desirable formations for communication between wheelchairs.

Journal Articles

Pressure-temperature-field phase diagram in the ferromagnet U$$_3$$P$$_4$$

Araki, Shingo*; Hayashida, Minami*; Nishiumi, Naoto*; Manabe, Hiroki*; Ikeda, Yoichi*; Kobayashi, Tatsuo*; Murata, Keizo*; Inada, Yoshihiko*; Wi$'s$niewski, P.*; Aoki, Dai*; et al.

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 84(2), p.024705_1 - 024705_8, 2015/02

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:58.06(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Influence of electron doping on magnetic order in CeRu$$_2$$Al$$_{10}$$

Kobayashi, Riki*; Kaneko, Koji; Saito, Kotaro*; Mignot, J.-M.*; Andr$'e$, G.*; Robert, J.*; Wakimoto, Shuichi; Matsuda, Masaaki*; Chi, S.*; Haga, Yoshinori; et al.

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 83(10), p.104707_1 - 104707_5, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:70.13(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

JAEA Reports

Study on engineering technologies in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory; FY2012 (Contract research)

Fukaya, Masaaki*; Noda, Masaru*; Hata, Koji*; Takeda, Yoshinori*; Akiyoshi, Kenji*; Ishizeki, Yoshikazu*; Kaneda, Tsutomu*; Sato, Shin*; Shibata, Chihoko*; Ueda, Tadashi*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2014-019, 495 Pages, 2014/08


The researches on engineering technology in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) plan consists of (1) research on engineering technology deep underground, and (2) research on engineering technology as a basis of geological disposal. The former research is mainly aimed in this study, which is categorized in (a) development of design and construction planning technologies, (b) development of construction technologies, (c) development of countermeasure technologies, and (d) development of technologies for security. In this study, the researches on engineering technology are being conducted in these four categories by using data measured during construction as a part of the second phase of the MIU plan.

Journal Articles

Metamagnetic transition of itinerant ferromagnet U$$_3$$P$$_4$$ under high pressure

Araki, Shingo*; Hayashida, Minami*; Nishiumi, Naoto*; Manabe, Hiroki*; Ikeda, Yoichi*; Kobayashi, Tatsuo*; Murata, Keizo*; Inada, Yoshihiko*; Wi$'s$niewski, P.*; Aoki, Dai*; et al.

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 3, p.011081_1 - 011081_6, 2014/06

Journal Articles

Improved sensitivity of magnetic measurements under high pressure in miniature ceramic anvil cell for a commercial SQUID magnetometer

Tateiwa, Naoyuki; Haga, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Tatsuma*; Fisk, Z.; Ikeda, Shugo*; Kobayashi, Hisao*

Review of Scientific Instruments, 84(4), p.046105_1 - 046105_3, 2013/04

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:54.54(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Two modifications have been made to a miniature ceramic anvil high pressure cell (mCAC) designed for magnetic measurements in a commercial superconducting quantum interference (SQUID) magnetometer. Replacing the Cu-Be piston in the former mCAC with a composite piston composed of the Cu-Be and ceramic cylinders reduces the background magnetization significantly smaller at low temperatures. A second modification to the mCAC is the utilization of a ceramic anvil with a hollow in the center of the culet surface.

Journal Articles

Positron lifetimes and mechanical properties of $$gamma$$-irradiated ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

Kobayashi, Yoshinori*; Yamawaki, Masato*; Oka, Toshitaka; Saiki, Seiichi; Mohamed, H.*; Hattori, Kanehisa*; Watanabe, Yoshihiro*

Materials Science Forum, 733, p.147 - 150, 2013/00

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:82.85

Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) has widely been used for probing open volume defects in various materials. PALS is in principle non-destructive, yet conventional PALS is not strictly non-destructive because cutting out of two specimens from the material is required. Recently we developed a novel method of PALS, which is potentially applicable to non-destructive, onsite material inspection. In order to explore the possibility of onsite monitoring of polymer degradation by this novel method of PALS, we studied variations of positron lifetime and mechanical properties of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) subjected to $$gamma$$-irradiation. Correlations were found between the mechanical properties and o-Ps lifetimes, suggesting the feasibility of non-destructive, onsite monitoring of polymer degradation by PALS. The effect of $$gamma$$-irradiation on positronium formation is discussed.

Journal Articles

Effect of sweep gas species on tritium release behavior from lithium titanate packed bed during 14MeV neutron irradiation

Kawamura, Yoshinori; Ochiai, Kentaro; Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Kondo, Keitaro*; Iwai, Yasunori; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nakamichi, Masaru; Konno, Chikara; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Takumi; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 87(7-8), p.1253 - 1257, 2012/08

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:75.64(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Tritium generation and recovery study on lithium ceramic packed bed was started by use of FNS in JAEA. Lithium titanate was selected as tritium breeding material. In this work, the effect of sweep gas species on tritium release behavior was investigated. In case of sweep by helium with 1% of hydrogen, tritium in water form was released sensitively corresponding to the irradiation. This is due to existence of the water vapor in the sweep gas. On the other hand, in case of sweep by dry helium, tritium in gaseous form was released first, and release of tritium in water form was delayed and was gradually increased.

Journal Articles

Foundations of radiation chemistry; Early processes of radiolysis by V. M. Byakov and S. V. Stepanov, 2

Kobayashi, Yoshinori*; Oka, Toshitaka

Hoshasen Kagaku (Internet), (93), p.47 - 56, 2012/03

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Radio frequency plasma transition caused by gas puffing and/or direct current biasing using multiturn internal antenna

Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Seiji*; Sugibayashi, Hideyuki*; Tachibana, Toshiyuki*; Naito, Shunya*; Kanno, Yoshinori*; Hiruta, Toshihito

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 51(1), p.01AA02_1 - 01AA02_7, 2012/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Physics, Applied)

In the beginning of this study, the RF (radio frequency) plasma by the internal antenna which is in contrast to that of the external antenna, was considered for the transition from the charged coupled plasma (CCP) to the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) not to be observed. On the contrary, in our plasma experiment by using the internal multi-turn RF antenna, the transition phenomenon was observed at the extent of 40 W in RF power. In this experiment, the relation between the gas pressure and the RF power on the transition from CCP to ICP indicated almost the same characteristic as Paschen's law. But the transition physics, or the absorption mechanism of RF power based on the collision dumping, was strongly complex. We have experimentally represented the CCP-ICP transition to study the physics using the original physical technique. Firstly, we changed the CCP into the ICP by the gas control. It was considered that the increase of the electron temperature caused the transition. Secondly, the decrease of gas pressure displayed the same meaning with the longer period of the self-pulse transition. Thirdly, the self-bias caused by RF power and the external bias applied between the RF antenna and the stage were described for the transition physics.

Journal Articles

Past 25 years results for large amount of tritium handling technology in JAEA

Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Yamada, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Iwai, Yasunori; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Inomiya, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takumi

Fusion Science and Technology, 60(3), p.1083 - 1087, 2011/10

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:19.17(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Tritium Process Laboratory (TPL) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been established as the only test facilities to handle over 1 gram of in Japan. From March 1988, TPL has been operated with tritium, and no tritium release accident has been observed. The average tritium concentration in a stream from a stack of the TPL to environment was 71 Bq/m$$^{3}$$, and was 1/70 of the Japanese regulation value for HTO. The failure data have been analyzed for several main components of the safety systems such as pumps, valves, and monitors. The data on the tritium waste and accountancy has also been accumulated. As a study of the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, these data are analysed and are reported.

Journal Articles

Foundations of radiation chemistry; Early processes of radiolysis by V. M. Byakov and S. V. Stepanov, 1

Kobayashi, Yoshinori*; Oka, Toshitaka

Hoshasen Kagaku (Internet), (92), p.39 - 49, 2011/09

Contents of the lecture note by Prof. V. M. Byakov and Dr. S. V. Stepanov (Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Russia) are described in a series of articles. The first article concerns basic concepts, classification and sources of ionizing radiations.

Journal Articles

Recent activities on tritium technologies of BA DEMO-R&D program in JAEA

Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Takumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Iwai, Yasunori; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Suzuki, Takumi; Yamada, Masayuki

Fusion Engineering and Design, 85(7-9), p.1002 - 1006, 2010/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The R&D for tritium technologies to a demonstration reactor (DEMO) is planned to be carried out in the Broader Approach (BA) program in Japan by JAEA with Japanese universities: (1) tritium analysis technology; (2) basic tritium safety research; and (3) tritium durability test. A multi-purpose RI facility is under construction at Rokkasho in Aomori to carry out the above R&D subjects. A preliminary safety study has been carried out for the amount of tritium released to the environment and for the radiation dose of workers. The main subjects of the R&D of tritium analysis are the technologies for real-time analysis for hydrogen isotopes, gas, liquid and solid. The materials of interest include F82H, SiC, ZrCo, solid and liquid advanced breeder and multipliers. In the tritium durability tests, organic materials and metals are studied for the radiation and the corrosion damage. A series of preliminary studies for the above subjects has been started.

114 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)