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Journal Articles

Investigation of the oxidation behavior of Zircaloy-4 cladding in a mixture of air and steam

Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Ishijima, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Keietsu; Fujimura, Yuki; Kaji, Yoshiyuki

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 575, p.154209_1 - 154209_19, 2023/03

 Times Cited Count:0

Previous studies had shown that in certain conditions, the rate of oxidation of zirconium (Zr) based alloy fuel cladding is higher in air-steam mixtures than in dry air. In severe accidents in the spent fuel pool and in other air ingress accidents in nuclear power plants, the cladding is likely to be oxidized in an air-steam mixture, which makes it crucial to have an in-depth understanding of the nature of oxidation and its kinetics in that environment. Oxidation tests were conducted at 800$$^{circ}$$C on Zircaloy-4 specimens in a mix of (air+steam) with various component ratios. Oxidation kinetics, details of the oxide layer, and hydrogen pick-up in the specimen were studied to investigate the mechanism of oxidation in each of these sets of conditions. Zirconium nitride precipitation in the oxide layer during the initial stages of the pre-breakaway oxidation stage and the widespread porous oxide growth on the cladding surface in the latter post-BA oxidation stage are related to the oxidation mechanism in the air-steam mixture. The differences in the mechanism of oxidation of the cladding in dry air and air-steam mixtures are discussed based on the experimental results.

Journal Articles

Reports of electro-polishing implementation for quarter-wave resonators, 2

Nii, Keisuke*; Ida, Yoshiaki*; Ueda, Hideki*; Yamaguchi, Takanori*; Kabumoto, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Junichiro; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Jun; Harada, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Yutaka; et al.

Proceedings of 19th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.601 - 604, 2023/01

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

"Southwestern" boundary of the $$N = 40$$ island of inversion; First study of low-lying bound excited states in $$^{59}$$V and $$^{61}$$V

Elekes, Z.*; Juh$'a$sz, M. M.*; Sohler, D.*; Sieja, K.*; Yoshida, Kazuki; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Achouri, N. L.*; Baba, Hidetada*; et al.

Physical Review C, 106(6), p.064321_1 - 064321_10, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:0

The low-lying level structure of $$^{59}$$V and $$^{61}$$V was investigated for the first time. The neutron knockout reaction and inelastic proton scattering were applied for $$^{61}$$V while the neutron knock-out reaction provided the data for $$^{59}$$V. Four and five new transitions were determined for $$^{59}$$V and $$^{61}$$V, respectively. Based on the comparison to our shell-model calculations using the Lenzi-Nowacki-Poves-Sieja (LNPS) interaction, three of the observed $$gamma$$ rays for each isotope could be placed in the level scheme and assigned to the decay of the first 11/2$$^{-}$$ and 9/2$$^{-}$$ levels. The ($$p$$,$$p'$$) excitation cross sections for $$^{61}$$V were analyzed by the coupled-channels formalism assuming quadrupole plus hexadecapole deformations. Due to the role of the hexadecapole deformation, $$^{61}$$V could not be unambiguously placed on the island of inversion.

Journal Articles

Extended $$p_{3/2}$$ neutron orbital and the $$N = 32$$ shell closure in $$^{52}$$Ca

Enciu, M.*; Liu, H. N.*; Obertelli, A.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Nowacki, F.*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; Poves, A.*; Yoshida, Kazuki; Achouri, N. L.*; Baba, Hidetada*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 129(26), p.262501_1 - 262501_7, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

The one-neutron knockout from $$^{52}$$Ca was performed at $$sim$$230 MeV/nucleon combined with prompt $$gamma$$ spectroscopy. The momentum distributions corresponding to the removal of $$1f_{7/2}$$ and $$2p_{3/2}$$ neutrons were measured. The cross sections are consistent with a shell closure at the neutron number $$N = 32$$, found as strong as at $$N = 28$$ and $$N = 34$$ in Ca isotopes from the same observables. The analysis of the momentum distributions leads to a difference of the root-mean-square radii of the neutron $$1_{f7/2}$$ and $$2p_{3/2}$$ orbitals of 0.61(23) fm, in agreement with the modified-shell-model prediction of 0.7 fm suggesting that the large root-mean-square radius of the $$2p_{3/2}$$ orbital in neutron-rich Ca isotopes is responsible for the unexpected linear increase of the charge radius with the neutron number.

Journal Articles

Beam physics design of a 30-MW beam transport to the target for an accelerator-driven subcritical system

Yee-Rendon, B.; Meigo, Shinichiro; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Jun; Nakano, Keita; Maekawa, Fujio; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Sugawara, Takanori; Nishihara, Kenji

Journal of Instrumentation (Internet), 17(10), p.P10005_1 - P10005_21, 2022/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Instruments & Instrumentation)

To reduce the hazard of minor actinides in nuclear waste, JAEA proposed an accelerator-driven subcritical system (JAEA-ADS). The JAEA-ADS drives a subcritical reactor 800-MWth by 30-MW proton linac delivering the beam to the spallation neutron target inside the reactor. The beam transport to the target (BTT) is required for high-beam power stability and low peak density to ensure the integrity of the beam window. Additionally, the design should have compatible with the reactor design for the maintenance and replacement of the fuel and the beam window. A robust-compact BTT design was developed through massive multiparticle simulations. The beam optics was optimized to guarantee beam window feasibility requirements by providing a low peak density of less than 0.3 $$mu$$A/mm$$^2$$. Beam stability was evaluated and improved by simultaneously applying the linac's input beam and element errors. The input beam errors to the reactor were based on the beam degradation obtained by implementing fast fault compensation in the linac. Those results show that the BTT fulfills the requirements for JAEA-ADS.

Journal Articles

Beam dynamics studies for fast beam trip recovery of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency accelerator-driven subcritical system

Yee-Rendon, B.; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Jun; Nakano, Keita; Maekawa, Fujio; Meigo, Shinichiro

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 25(8), p.080101_1 - 080101_17, 2022/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:67.14(Physics, Nuclear)

High reliability and availability are primary goals for the operation of particle accelerators, especially for accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADS). ADSs employ high-power beams for the transmutation of minor actinide; as a result, the amount and the radiotoxicity of the nuclear waste are considerably reduced. To this end, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency is designing a 30-MW continuous wave (cw) super-conducting proton linear accelerator (linac) that supplies neutrons to an 800-MW subcritical reactor by a spallation process. The major challenge for an ADS linac is the strict control of the beam trip duration and its frequency to avoid thermal stress in the subcritical reactor structures. The maximum allowed beam trips for failures longer than a few seconds are estimated to be far below the rate achieved in current accelerators. Thus, we implemented a combination of hot standby and local compensation that enables a fast beam recovery. This work comprehensively investigated the tolerance of our linac lattice for the local compensations for failures in superconducting cavities and magnets. This scheme includes simultaneous compensation of multiple cavities in independent and same cryomodules that significantly enhance the reliability of the linac. The returned schemes present acceptable beam performance to guarantee the integrity of the linac and the beam transport to the target; moreover, they satisfy the beam stability in the beam window. In addition, the readjusted elements are subjected to moderate stress to ensure a sustainable operation. This manuscript reports the beam dynamics results toward fulfilling the high reliability demanded by an ADS linac.

Journal Articles

R&D on Accelerator Driven Nuclear Transmutation System (ADS) at J-PARC, 5; Research and developments of a superconducting linac for ADS

Kondo, Yasuhiro; Takei, Hayanori; Yee-Rendon, B.; Tamura, Jun

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 98(5), p.222 - 226, 2022/05

A superconducting accelerating cavity is indispensable to realize a driver linac that meets the requirements of ADS. The low-energy section of the accelerators, which is normal conducting one, was redesigned to reflect the recent progress in the development of superconducting accelerator cavities. In addition, we are developing a prototype cavity for the spoke-type cavity that has not been developed well. This section reports on the latest research and development of ADS linacs at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

Journal Articles

A First glimpse at the shell structure beyond $$^{54}$$Ca; Spectroscopy of $$^{55}$$K, $$^{55}$$Ca, and $$^{57}$$Ca

Koiwai, Takuma*; Wimmer, K.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Barbieri, C.*; Duguet, T.*; Holt, J. D.*; Miyagi, Takayuki*; Navr$'a$til, P.*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; et al.

Physics Letters B, 827, p.136953_1 - 136953_7, 2022/04

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:67.14(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Status of the JAEA-ADS superconducting linac design

Yee-Rendon, B.; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Jun; Meigo, Shinichiro; Maekawa, Fujio

Proceedings of 64th ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop on High Intensity and High Brightness Hadron Beams (ICFA-HB2021) (Internet), p.30 - 34, 2022/04

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is working in the research and development of an Accelerator Driven Subcritical System (ADS) for the transmutation of nuclear waste. To this end, JAEA is designing a 30-MW CW proton linear accelerator (linac) with a beam current of 20 mA. The JAEA-ADS linac starts with a Normal Conducting (NC) up to an energy of 2.5 MeV. Then, five Superconducting (SC) sections accelerate the beam up to 1.5 GeV. The biggest challenge for this ADS linac is the stringent reliability required to avoid thermal stress in the subcritical reactor, which is higher than the achieved in present accelerators. For this purpose, the linac pursues a strong-stable design that ensures the operation with low beam loss and fault-tolerance capabilities to continue operating in case of failure. This work presents the beam dynamics results toward achieving high reliability for the JAEA-ADS linac.

JAEA Reports

Determination of accelerator parameters for subcriticality measurement of accelerator-driven system before operation

Katano, Ryota; Nishihara, Kenji; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Meigo, Shinichiro

JAEA-Research 2021-016, 16 Pages, 2022/03


It has to be confirmed that the accelerator-driven system (ADS), which is dedicated to transmuting minor actinides, is subcritical in any state by measurements. In the previous research, we have proposed a procedure in which the core safely and efficiently approaches the target subcriticality before the operation. In this procedure, the reference value of the subcriticality at the initial state is measured by the area ratio method capable of the absolute value measurement. The area ratio method uses a pulsed neutron source. However, specific and practical parameters of the accelerator for the area ratio method have not been determined. In this study, we determined the accelerator parameters with the consideration of the uncertainties derived by the dead-time of the detector and the statistical error of the count ratio. In addition, we estimate the coating amount of the sample nuclide in the assumption of the use of the fission chambers.

Journal Articles

Design and beam dynamic studies of a 30-MW superconducting linac for an accelerator-driven subcritical system

Yee-Rendon, B.; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Maekawa, Fujio; Meigo, Shinichiro; Tamura, Jun

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 24(12), p.120101_1 - 120101_17, 2021/12

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:53.07(Physics, Nuclear)

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is working on the research and development of a 30-MW continuous wave (CW) proton linear accelerator (linac) for the JAEA accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS) proposal. The linac will accelerate a 20 mA proton beam to 1.5 GeV, using mainly superconducting cavities. The main challenge for an ADS accelerator is the high reliability required to prevent thermal stress in the subcritical reactor; thus, we pursue a robust lattice to achieve stable operation. To this end, the beam optics design reduces the emittance growth and the beam halo through the superconducting part of the linac. First, we simulated an ideal machine without any errors to establish the operation conditions of the beam. Second, we applied element errors and input beam errors to estimate the tolerance of the linac design. Finally, we implemented a correction scheme to increase the lattice tolerance by reducing the beam centroid offset on the transverse plane. Massive multiparticle simulations and a cumulative statistic of 1$$times$$10$$^{8}$$ macroparticles have shown that the JAEA-ADS linac can operate with less than 1 W/m beam losses in error scenarios.

Journal Articles

Investigation of the ground-state spin inversion in the neutron-rich $$^{47,49}$$Cl isotopes

Linh, B. D.*; Corsi, A.*; Gillibert, A.*; Obertelli, A.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Barbieri, C.*; Chen, S.*; Chung, L. X.*; Duguet, T.*; G$'o$mez-Ramos, M.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 104(4), p.044331_1 - 044331_16, 2021/10


 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:32.08(Physics, Nuclear)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Fast fault recovery scenarios for the JAEA-ADS linac

Yee-Rendon, B.; Tamura, Jun; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Keita; Takei, Hayanori; Maekawa, Fujio; Meigo, Shinichiro

Proceedings of 18th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.61 - 65, 2021/10

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is designing a 30 MW CW superconducting proton linac as a major component for the accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS) project. The main challenge of the linac operation is the high reliability required to suppress thermal stress in the subcritical reactor. To this end, we implemented fault compensation schemes to enable a fast beam recovery; consequently, reducing the beam trip duration. This work presents strategies to increase the fault-tolerance capacity of the JAEA-ADS linac.

Journal Articles

Reports of electropolishing implementation for quarter-wave resonators

Nii, Keisuke*; Ida, Yoshiaki*; Ueda, Hideki*; Yamaguchi, Takanori*; Kabumoto, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Junichiro; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Jun; Harada, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Yutaka; et al.

Proceedings of 18th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.334 - 337, 2021/10

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Design of the MEBT for the JAEA-ADS Project

Yee-Rendon, B.; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Maekawa, Fujio; Meigo, Shinichiro; Tamura, Jun

Proceedings of 12th International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC 21) (Internet), p.790 - 792, 2021/08

The Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) will transport a CW proton beam with a current of 20 mA and energy of 2.5 MeV from the exit of the normal conducting Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ) to the superconducting Half-Wave resonator (HWR) section. The MEBT must provide a good matching between the RFQ and HWR, effective control of the emittance growth and the halo formation, enough space for all the beam diagnostics devices, among others. This work reports the first lattice design and the beam dynamics studies for the MEBT of the JAEA-ADS.

Journal Articles

Multipacting studies for the JAEA-ADS five-cell elliptical superconducting RF cavities

Yee-Rendon, B.; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Maekawa, Fujio; Meigo, Shinichiro; Tamura, Jun; Cicek, E.*

Proceedings of 12th International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC 21) (Internet), p.793 - 795, 2021/08

The Five-cell Elliptical Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities (SRFC) provide the final acceleration in the JAEA-ADS linac (from 600 MeV to 1.5 GeV); thus, their performance is essential for the success of the JAEA-ADS project. After their optimization of the cavity geometry to achieve a high-acceleration gradient with lower electromagnetic peaks, the next step in the R&D strategy is the accurate estimation of beam-cavity effects which can affect the performance of the cavities. To this end, multipacting studies were developed to investigate its effect in the cavity operation regimen and find countermeasures. The results of this study will help in the development of the SRFC models and in the consolidation of the JAEA-ADS project.

Journal Articles

Pairing forces govern population of doubly magic $$^{54}$$Ca from direct reactions

Browne, F.*; Chen, S.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; Utsuno, Yutaka; Yoshida, Kazuki; Achouri, N. L.*; Baba, Hidetada*; Calvet, D.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 126(25), p.252501_1 - 252501_7, 2021/06

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:45.66(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Direct proton-knockout reactions of $$^{55}$$Sc were studied at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Populated states of $$^{54}$$Ca were investigated through $$gamma$$-ray and invariant-mass spectroscopy. Level energies were calculated from the nuclear shell model employing a phenomenological inter-nucleon interaction. Theoretical cross sections to states were calculated from distorted-wave impulse approximation estimates multiplied by the shell model spectroscopic factors. Despite the calculations showing a significant amplitude of excited neutron configurations in the ground-state of $$^{55}$$Sc, valence proton removals populated predominantly the ground-state of $$^{54}$$Ca. This counter-intuitive result is attributed to pairing effects leading to a dominance of the ground-state spectroscopic factor. Owing to the ubiquity of the pairing interaction, this argument should be generally applicable to direct knockout reactions from odd-even to even-even nuclei.

Journal Articles

Bunch-size measurement of the high-intensity H$$^{-}$$ beam with 3 MeV by the bunch-shape monitor

Kitamura, Ryo; Futatsukawa, Kenta*; Hayashi, Naoki; Hirano, Koichiro; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Kosaka, Satoshi*; Miyao, Tomoaki*; Nemoto, Yasuo*; Morishita, Takatoshi; Oguri, Hidetomo

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011012_1 - 011012_6, 2021/03

The new bunch shape monitor (BSM) is required to measure the bunch size of the high-intensity H$$^{-}$$ beam with 3 MeV at the front-end section in the J-PARC linac. The carbon-nano tube wire and the graphene stick are good candidates for the target wire of the BSM, because these materials have the enough strength to detect the high-intensity beam. However, since the negative high voltage of more than a few kV should be applied to the wire in the BSM, the suppression of the discharge is the challenge to realize the new BSM. After the high-voltage test to investigate the effect of the discharge from the wire, the detection of the signal from the BSM was successful at the beam core with the peak current of 55 mA using the graphene stick. The preliminary result of the bunch-size measurement is reported in this presentation.

Journal Articles

RF design of the prototype spoke cavity for the JAEA-ADS linac

Tamura, Jun; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Yee-Rendon, B.; Meigo, Shinichiro; Maekawa, Fujio; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Kako, Eiji*; Umemori, Kensei*; Sakai, Hiroshi*; Konomi, Taro*

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011049_1 - 011049_6, 2021/03

Journal Articles

Phase space formation of high intensity 60 and 80 mA H$$^-$$ beam with orifice in J-PARC front-end

Shibata, Takanori*; Ikegami, Kiyoshi*; Nammo, Kesao*; Liu, Y.*; Otani, Masashi*; Naito, Fujio*; Shinto, Katsuhiro; Okoshi, Kiyonori; Okabe, Kota; Kondo, Yasuhiro; et al.

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011010_1 - 011010_6, 2021/03

Together with the intensity upgrade in J-PARC Linac Front-End, improvement of RFQ transmission ratio is an important task. This RFQ transmission ratio depends strongly upon the solenoid current settings in the low energy beam transport line (LEBT). In the present study, high beam current cases (72 mA and 88 mA H$$^-$$ beam current in LEBT) are investigated at a test-stand. Phase space distributions of the H$$^-$$ beam particles at the RFQ entrance are measured and compared with numerical results by Particle-In-Cell simulation. As a result, it has been clarified that a 15 mm $$phi$$ orifice for differential pumping of H$$_2$$ gas coming from the ion source plays a role as a collimator in these beam conditions. This leads to change the beam emittance and Twiss parameters at the RFQ entrance. Especially in the condition with the beam current up to 88 mA in LEBT, the beam collimation contributes to optimize the phase space distribution to the RFQ acceptance with relatively low solenoid current settings. As a higher solenoid current setting would be necessary to suppress the beam expansion due to high space charge effect, these results suggest that current-saving of the solenoids can be possible even in the higher beam intensity operations.

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