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JAEA Reports

Data survey and compilation of material property tables of irradiated stainless steel for evaluation of radiation effects on structural material properties of core internals in boiling water reactors (Contract Research)

Kasahara, Shigeki; Fukuya, Koji*; Koshiishi, Masato*; Fujii, Katsuhiko*; Chimi, Yasuhiro

JAEA-Review 2018-012, 180 Pages, 2018/11

JAEA-Review-2018-012.pdf:10.71MB

For structural integrity assessment of reactor internals of light water reactors, it is important to evaluate and predict the property changes of structural materials, based on existing data obtained from austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons. Compilation of the data into tables is valuable for discussing the representative or the most probable values of the properties applied to the assessment. In the process of the data compilation, the data must be distinguished clearly in consideration of different service conditions of core internals of boiling water reactors (BWR) and pressurized water reactors. Main objective of this work is to provide material property tables of irradiated austenitic stainless steel which will be applicable for assessment of structural integrity of core internals of BWRs. To compile the table, published literature reporting irradiated stainless steel data were surveyed and screened by considering the service conditions of BWRs. In addition to the data, various parameters for the data evaluation, e.g. chemical compositions and pre-treatments of the materials, irradiation and examination conditions, were extracted from the literature, and listed into the tables.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of crack growth rates and microstructures near the crack tip of neutron-irradiated austenitic stainless steels in simulated BWR environment

Chimi, Yasuhiro; Kasahara, Shigeki; Seto, Hitoshi*; Kitsunai, Yuji*; Koshiishi, Masato*; Nishiyama, Yutaka

Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors, Vol.2, p.1039 - 1054, 2018/00

In order to understand irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) growth behavior, crack growth rate (CGR) tests have been performed in simulated Boiling Water Reactor water conditions at $$sim$$288$$^{circ}$$C on neutron-irradiated 316L stainless steels (SSs) at $$sim$$12-14 dpa. After the tests, the microstructures near the crack tip of the specimens are examined with scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM). In comparison with a previous study at $$<$$$$sim$$2 dpa, this result shows a less benefit of low electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) conditions on CGR. A crack tip immersed over 1000 hours was filled with oxides, while almost no oxide film was observed near the crack front in the low-ECP conditions. In addition, a high density of deformation twins and dislocations were found near the fracture surface of the crack front. It is considered that both localized deformation and oxidation are possible dominant factors for the SCC growth in highly irradiated SSs.

Journal Articles

Influence of temperature histories during reactor startup periods on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons

Kasahara, Shigeki; Kitsunai, Yuji*; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Chatani, Kazuhiro*; Koshiishi, Masato*; Nishiyama, Yutaka

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 480, p.386 - 392, 2016/11

 Percentile:100(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

This paper addresses influence of two different temperature profiles during startup periods in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor and a boiling water reactor upon microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons to about 1 dpa and 3 dpa. Tensile tests at 290$$^{circ}$$C and Vickers hardness tests at room temperature were carried out, and their microstructures were observed by FEG-TEM. Influence of difference in the temperature profiles was observed obviously in interstitial cluster formation, in particular, growth of Frank loops. The influence was also found certainly in loss of strain hardening capacity and ductility, although the influence on the yield strength and the Vickers hardness was not clearly observed. As a result, Frank loops, which were observed in austenitic stainless steel irradiated at doses of 1 dpa or more, were considered to contribute to deformation of the austenitic stainless steel.

Journal Articles

Correlation between locally deformed structure and oxide film properties in austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons

Chimi, Yasuhiro; Kitsunai, Yuji*; Kasahara, Shigeki; Chatani, Kazuhiro*; Koshiishi, Masato*; Nishiyama, Yutaka

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 475, p.71 - 80, 2016/07

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:76.09(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

To elucidate the mechanism of irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in high-temperature water for neutron-irradiated austenitic stainless steels (SSs), the locally deformed structures, the oxide films formed on the deformed areas, and their correlation were investigated. Tensile specimens made of irradiated 316L SSs were strained 0.1%-2% at room temperature or at 563 K, and the surface structures and crystal misorientation among grains were evaluated. The strained specimens were immersed in high-temperature water, and the microstructures of the oxide films on the locally deformed areas were observed. The appearance of visible step structures on the specimens' surface depended on the neutron dose and the applied strain. The surface oxides were observed to be prone to increase in thickness around grain boundaries (GBs) with increasing neutron dose and increasing local strain at the GBs. No penetrative oxidation was observed along GBs or along surface steps.

Journal Articles

CGR behavior of low carbon stainless steel of hardened heat affected zone in PLR piping weld joints

Ando, Masami*; Nakata, Kiyotomo*; Ito, Mikiro*; Tanaka, Norihiko*; Koshiishi, Masato*; Obata, Ryoji*; Miwa, Yukio; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Hayakawa, Masao*

Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems (CD-ROM), 16 Pages, 2007/00

Long term SCC growth tests for nuclear grade stainless steel (SUS316(NG)) were conducted in a simulated BWR environment using specimens taken from mock-up PLR piping weld joints to obtain the crack growth rate (CGR) of the hardened heat affected zone due to weld shrinkage around weld, in order to develop the CGR curve which will be used for flaw evaluation. The piping joints were made of forged and extracted materials with several welding techniques. The obtained CGRs were higher than that of solution heat treated material. The CGRs for hardened SUS316(NG) have a correlation with hardness regardless of materials and welding techniques. The CGRs increased with hardness in the range from 210 to 250 Hv. The CGR acceleration mechanism in hardened HAZ of low carbon stainless steel was estimated based on the strain distribution and the AFM image around a SCC crack tip. It was suggested that the interaction of the plastic strain gradient at a crack tip and local strain along GBs.

Oral presentation

Analysis of deformation behavior at SCC crack tip, 3; Plastic deformation analysis by EBSP method

Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Miwa, Yukio; Tsukada, Takashi; Nagashima, Nobuo*; Hayakawa, Masao*; Ando, Masami*; Nakata, Kiyotomo*; Koshiishi, Masato*

no journal, , 

In recent years, incidents of the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) were frequently reported that occurred in the weld part of core shroud and primary loop recirculation (PLR) piping of low carbon stainless steels, and the cause investigation and measure become the present important issue. In this study, to investigate the effect of plastic deformation behavior at the crack, analyses of plastic deformation behavior at the SCC crack tip were performed by electron back-scattering diffraction pattern (EBSP) method. SCC crack propagated along the grain boundary in the 45 degree direction of a fatigue crack, especially random grain boundary. The plastic deformation showed 10 to 20% in the one grain region of the crack. The plastic deformation behavior was different in both of a SCC crack and large plastic deformation was observed on one side of grain. From these results, it was considered that SCC crack propagation behavior was controlled by plastic deformation of very near crack tip.

Oral presentation

Study for the SCC degradation incorporating dose rate effects, 1

Okita, Taira*; Koshiishi, Masato*; Hashimoto, Tsuneyuki*; Tanaka, Shigeaki*; Kodama, Mitsuhiro*; Kondo, Keietsu; Tsukada, Takashi

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Effects of neutron flux and temperature history at the beginning of irradiation on the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons

Kasahara, Shigeki; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Kitsunai, Yuji*; Chatani, Kazuhiro*; Koshiishi, Masato*

no journal, , 

Austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons by using JMTR were examined to evaluate the effects of neutron flux and temperature history at the beginning of the irradiation on their mechanical properties. Specimens of SUS304 were irradiated under two different flux conditions up to a dose of 5$$times$$10$$^{24}$$ n/m$$^{2}$$. Neutron irradiation of SUS316L specimens up to 2$$times$$10$$^{25}$$n/m$$^{2}$$ was performed under the condition of so-called conventional temperature control, which used to be adopted in JMTR. The comparison of 0.2% proof stress obtained from the specimens suggests that the neutron flux and the temperature history does not remarkably influence the mechanical properties of the irradiated stainless steel.

Oral presentation

Evaluation of locally deformed step structure in austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons

Kitsunai, Yuji*; Kasahara, Shigeki; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Chatani, Kazuhiro*; Koshiishi, Masato*

no journal, , 

In order to consider mechanism on irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), oxide films on surface of locally deformed structure in irradiated stainless steel are investigated. The miniature tensile specimens are made of 316L stainless steels irradiated with neutrons in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The specimens are strained up to 0.1-2%, and surface structure and crystal misorientation among grains are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). As a result, visible step structure due to slip plane is appeared on the specimen surface, depending on the neutron fluence and the applied strain level. Furthermore, the data from EBSD suggests that the localization of strain occurred in the vicinity of grain boundaries. The visible step structure characterized from the viewpoints of the morphology and density, and the effects of neutron fluence and stain are discussed on the step structure are discussed.

Oral presentation

Localized deformation and oxide film of neutron irradiated austenitic stainless steels

Kitsunai, Yuji*; Kasahara, Shigeki; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Chatani, Kazuhiro*; Koshiishi, Masato*

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Radiation hardening of austenitic stainless steel irradiated under different thermal histories at the beginning of neutron irradiation in JMTR

Kasahara, Shigeki; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Kitsunai, Yuji*; Chatani, Kazuhiro*; Koshiishi, Masato*

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Effects of environmental mitigation and water radiolysis on crack growth in simulated BWR environment in highly irradiated 316L stainless steel

Chimi, Yasuhiro; Kasahara, Shigeki; Hata, Kuniki; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Seto, Hitoshi*; Chatani, Kazuhiro*; Kitsunai, Yuji*; Koshiishi, Masato*

no journal, , 

In order to investigate effects of environmental mitigation and water radiolysis caused by $$gamma$$-rays from radioactive material on irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) growth behavior for highly irradiated material, crack growth tests in simulated BWR water conditions (at 563 K) are performed. The specimens made of 316L stainless steels are irradiated with neutrons up to $$sim$$12 dpa in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). One of the specimens is annealed at 973 K for 1 hour to show almost recovered mechanical and micro-chemical properties corresponding to the unirradiated material. For low electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) condition, the crack growth rate (CGR) is suppressed by about one order of magnitude in high stress intensity factor (K) condition. This result indicates that environmental mitigation for crack growth can be found even under severe conditions on material and stress factors. The effects of water radiolysis on the CGRs are discussed.

Oral presentation

Evaluation of crack growth rates and microstructures near crack tip of neutron-irradiated 316L stainless steels in simulated BWR environment

Chimi, Yasuhiro; Kasahara, Shigeki*; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Seto, Hitoshi*; Chatani, Kazuhiro*; Kitsunai, Yuji*; Koshiishi, Masato*

no journal, , 

In order to understand irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) growth behavior, crack growth tests in simulated BWR water conditions (at $$sim$$563 K) were performed using neutron-irradiated specimens made of 316L stainless steels, and the oxide film properties and locally deformed structures near the crack tip have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) of the materials was lowered by deaeration and hydrogen injection into feed water, apparent suppression of oxidation inside the cracks was observed as well as suppression of the crack growth rate (CGR). In the presentation, the TEM results of the locally deformed structures along the cracks are also reported, and the relation among the CGR, oxide film properties, and locally deformed structures is discussed.

Oral presentation

Relationship between crack growth rates and locally deformed structures in irradiated 316L stainless steels

Chimi, Yasuhiro; Kasahara, Shigeki; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Seto, Hitoshi*; Kitsunai, Yuji*; Koshiishi, Masato*

no journal, , 

In order to understand irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) growth behavior, crack growth tests using compact tension (CT) specimens made of neutron-irradiated 316L stainless steels (SSs) were performed in simulated BWR environments (at $$sim$$288$$^{circ}$$C). Moreover, microstructures of deformed areas were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) after straining tensile specimens made of neutron-irradiated 316L SSs. As a result, for lower neutron dose than $$<sim$$1.9 dpa, the crack growth rates (CGRs) show effective environmental mitigation and the deformed structures show tangling of dislocations. On the other hand, for higher neutron dose than $$>sim$$2.7 dpa, the CGRs show small environmental mitigation and the deformed structures consist mainly of dislocation channels. From the relationship between CGRs and deformed structures, mechanisms on IASCC growth will be discussed.

Oral presentation

Influence of temperature histories during reactor startup periods on IASCC susceptibility of austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons

Kasahara, Shigeki; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Kitsunai, Yuji*; Koshiishi, Masato*

no journal, , 

According to existing data of slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test under high temperature water conditions, which simulated BWR primary coolant environment, low carbon stainless steel, which was irradiated with neutrons up to about 3 dpa in BWR core, shows susceptibility of Irradiation associated stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). On the other hand, the stainless steel irradiated by using the JMTR did not show IASCC susceptibility, regardless of neutron fluence. To investigate this different result about IASCC susceptibility, the JMTR operated to simulate temperature history at start-up of BWR, and a tensile specimen of SUS316L was irradiated up to about 3 dpa under the condition. After that, the specimen was examined by SSRT test to evaluate IASCC susceptibility. The result of fracture surface observation after the SSRT test indicated that the specimen fractured by Inter-granular mode and was evaluated to be susceptible to IASCC. In the comparison of the data of IASCC sensitivity by the JMTR irradiated materials, which did not show IASCC susceptibility, the difference of them was suggested to attribute to different temperature histories at the start of irradiation. The relationship between IASCC susceptibility and the parameters obtained from tensile tests was discussed, in consideration of the difference of the tensile parameters which are suffered from the irradiation condition under the different temperature history during the start period of the irradiation.

Oral presentation

Data survey and trend analysis of radiation effects on structural material properties of core internals in light water reactors, 3; IASCC propagation and fracture toughness

Kasahara, Shigeki; Fukuya, Koji*; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Katsuhiko*; Koshiishi, Masato*

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Trend equations for dose dependence of crack growth rates of neutron irradiated austenitic stainless steel under high temperature aqueous conditions

Kasahara, Shigeki; Fukuya, Koji*; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Katsuhiko*; Koshiishi, Masato*

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

17 (Records 1-17 displayed on this page)
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