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Journal Articles

Deuterium depth profiling in graphite tiles not exposed to hydrogen discharges before air ventilation of JT-60U

Hayashi, Takao; Sugiyama, Kazuyoshi*; Mayer, M.*; Krieger, K.*; Masaki, Kei; Tanabe, Tetsuo*; Sato, Masayasu

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 390-391, p.667 - 670, 2009/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:10.95(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Absolute concentrations and the depth profiles of D in plasma-facing graphite tiles used in JT-60U were determined by means of the D($$^{3}$$He, p)$$^{4}$$He resonant nuclear reaction. The analyzed samples were not exposed to H discharges before air ventilation. The maximum depth of analysis is about 1.4 $$times$$ 10$$^{24}$$ carbon (C) atoms/m$$^{2}$$, corresponding to a linear depth of 16 $$mu$$m for the density of 1.7 $$times$$ 10$$^{3}$$ kg/m$$^{3}$$. The highest D concentration was found at the inboard mid-plane of first wall area. The maximum D concentration is D/C=0.13, and the concentration decrease with the depth. The D retention within 16 $$mu$$m is 1.9 $$times$$ 10$$^{22}$$ D atoms/m$$^{2}$$. The D retentions in this paper were about 2$$sim$$9 times larger than previous samples, which were located on the same area and exposed to the hydrogen discharges. This indicates the H plasma discharges were effective to remove the D (and T) from graphite tiles in the first wall area.

Journal Articles

Deuterium depth profiling in JT-60U tiles using the D($$^{3}$$He, p)$$^{4}$$He resonant nuclear reaction

Hayashi, Takao; Sugiyama, Kazuyoshi*; Krieger, K.*; Mayer, M.*; Alimov, V. Kh.*; Tanabe, Tetsuo*; Masaki, Kei; Miya, Naoyuki

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 363-365, p.904 - 909, 2007/06

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:63.76(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The absolute concentrations and the depth profiles of deuterium in plasma-facing graphite tiles used in JT-60U were determined by means of the D($$^{3}$$He, p)$$^{4}$$He resonant nuclear reaction. The highest deuterium concentration was found at a plasma-facing surface near the outer pumping slot on the outer dome wing tile, where redeposited layers with thicknesses in the micron or submicron range were observed, indicating deuterium codepostion with carbon. In addition, a high flux of high energy deuterium originating from NBI is expected on the outer dome wing as well as on the dome top tile, and could have some contribution to this area of highest deuterium retention. The deuterium content integrated up to about 16 $$mu$$m was $$approx$$2.5$$times$$10$$^{22}$$ D/m$$^{2}$$. The depth profile has a broad peak in the atomic ratio of D/C$$approx$$0.05 at a depth of about 2.5 $$mu$$m. This is mainly because D retained in the top surface was replaced by H due to isotope exchange during H discharges, which were carried out to remove tritium from the plasma-facing wall before air ventilation. In erosion dominated areas such as the outer divertor tiles, the amount of deuterium was one order of magnitude lower than that on the outer dome wing tile. In the first wall area, the highest amount of deuterium with a content of $$approx$$1.0$$times$$10$$^{22}$$ D/m$$^{2}$$ was found in the upper region, nearest to the plasma. Again implantation of high energy deuterium due to NBI could have some contribution to the high deuterium retention.

Journal Articles

Ion beam analysis of H and D retention in the near surface layers of JT-60U plasma facing wall tiles

Sugiyama, Kazuyoshi*; Hayashi, Takao; Krieger, K.*; Mayer, M.*; Masaki, Kei; Miya, Naoyuki; Tanabe, Tetsuo*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 363-365, p.949 - 954, 2007/06

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:57.83(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Progress in the ITER physics basis, 4; Power and particle control

Loarte, A.*; Lipschultz, B.*; Kukushkin, A. S.*; Matthews, G. F.*; Stangeby, P. C.*; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Counsell, G. F.*; Federici, G.*; Kallenbach, A.*; Krieger, K.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 47(6), p.S203 - S263, 2007/06

 Times Cited Count:726 Percentile:96.49(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Progress, since the ITER Physics Basis publication (1999), in understanding the processes that will determine the properties of the plasma edge and its interaction with material elements in ITER is described. Significant progress in experiment area: energy and particle transport, the interaction of plasmas with the main chamber material elements, ELM energy deposition on material elements and the transport mechanism, the physics of plasma detachment and neutral dynamics, the erosion of low and high Z materials, their transport to the core plasma and their migration at the plasma edge, retention of tritium in fusion devices and removal methods. This progress has been accompanied by the development of modelling tools for the physical processes at the edge plasma and plasma-materials interaction. The implications for the expected performance in ITER and the lifetime of the plasma facing materials are discussed.

Journal Articles

Plasma-surface interaction, scrape-off layer and divertor physics; Implications for ITER

Lipschultz, B.*; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Bonnin, X.*; Coster, D. P.*; Counsell, G.*; Doerner, R.*; Dux, R.*; Federici, G.*; Fenstermacher, M. E.*; Fundamenski, W.*; et al.

Proceedings of 21st IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2006) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2007/03

The work of the ITPA SOL/divertor group is reviewed. The high-n nature of ELMs has been elucidated and new measurements have determined that they carry 10-20% of the ELM energy to the far SOL with implications for ITER limiters and the upper divertor. Analysis of ELM measurements imply that the ELM continuously loses energy as it travels across the SOL. The prediction of ITER divertor disruption power loads have been reduced as a result of finding that the divertor footprint broadens during the thermal quench and that the plasma can lose up to 80% of its thermal energy before the thermal quench (not for VDEs or ITBs). Disruption mitigation through massive gas puffing has been successful at reducing divertor heat loads but estimates of the effect on the main chamber walls indicate 10s of kG of Be would be melted/mitigation. Long-pulse studies have shown that the fraction of injected gas that can be recovered after a discharge decreases with discharge length. The use of mixed materials gives rise to a number of potential processes.

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