Polevoi, A. R.*; Loarte, A.*; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Kim, H. S.*; Kim, S. H.*; Koechl, F.*; Kukushkin, A. S.*; Leonov, V. M.*; Medvedev, S. Yu.*; Murakami, Masakatsu*; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 55(6), p.063019_1 - 063019_8, 2015/05
Polevoi, A. R.*; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Kim, H. S.*; Kim, S. H.*; Koechl, F.*; Kukushkin, A. S.*; Leonov, V. M.*; Loarte, A.*; Medvedev, S. Yu.*; Murakami, Masakatsu*; et al.
Europhysics Conference Abstracts (Internet), 37D, p.P2.135_1 - P2.135_4, 2013/07
Loarte, A.*; Lipschultz, B.*; Kukushkin, A. S.*; Matthews, G. F.*; Stangeby, P. C.*; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Counsell, G. F.*; Federici, G.*; Kallenbach, A.*; Krieger, K.*; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 47(6), p.S203 - S263, 2007/06
Progress, since the ITER Physics Basis publication (1999), in understanding the processes that will determine the properties of the plasma edge and its interaction with material elements in ITER is described. Significant progress in experiment area: energy and particle transport, the interaction of plasmas with the main chamber material elements, ELM energy deposition on material elements and the transport mechanism, the physics of plasma detachment and neutral dynamics, the erosion of low and high Z materials, their transport to the core plasma and their migration at the plasma edge, retention of tritium in fusion devices and removal methods. This progress has been accompanied by the development of modelling tools for the physical processes at the edge plasma and plasma-materials interaction. The implications for the expected performance in ITER and the lifetime of the plasma facing materials are discussed.
Lipschultz, B.*; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Bonnin, X.*; Coster, D. P.*; Counsell, G.*; Doerner, R.*; Dux, R.*; Federici, G.*; Fenstermacher, M. E.*; Fundamenski, W.*; et al.
Proceedings of 21st IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2006) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2007/03
The work of the ITPA SOL/divertor group is reviewed. The high-n nature of ELMs has been elucidated and new measurements have determined that they carry 10-20% of the ELM energy to the far SOL with implications for ITER limiters and the upper divertor. Analysis of ELM measurements imply that the ELM continuously loses energy as it travels across the SOL. The prediction of ITER divertor disruption power loads have been reduced as a result of finding that the divertor footprint broadens during the thermal quench and that the plasma can lose up to 80% of its thermal energy before the thermal quench (not for VDEs or ITBs). Disruption mitigation through massive gas puffing has been successful at reducing divertor heat loads but estimates of the effect on the main chamber walls indicate 10s of kG of Be would be melted/mitigation. Long-pulse studies have shown that the fraction of injected gas that can be recovered after a discharge decreases with discharge length. The use of mixed materials gives rise to a number of potential processes.
Polevoi, A. R.*; Shimada, Michiya; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Igitkhanov, Y. L.*; Mukhovatov, V.*; Kukushkin, A. S.*; Medvedev, S. Y.*; Zvonkov, A. V.*; Ivanov, A. A.*
Nuclear Fusion, 45(11), p.1451 - 1456, 2005/11
Requirements for pellet injection parameters for plasma fuelling are assessed for ITER scenarios with enhanced particle confinement. A pellet injection throughput of 100 Pam/s would be sufficient. The assessment is based on the integrated transport simulations including models of pedestal transport, reduction of helium transport and boundary conditions compatible with SOL/divertor simulations. The requirements for pellet injection for the inductive H-mode scenario (HH98(y,2) = 1) are reconsidered taking account of a possible reduction of the particle loss obtained in some experiments at low collisionalities. The assessment of fuelling requirements is carried out for the hybrid and steady state scenarios with enhanced confinement with HH98(y,2) 1. A robustness of plasma performance to the variation of particle transport is demonstrated. A new type of steady state (SS) scenario is considered with neutral beam current drive (NBCD) and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) instead of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD).
Shimada, Michiya; Costley, A. E.*; Federici, G.*; Ioki, Kimihiro*; Kukushkin, A. S.*; Mukhovatov, V.*; Polevoi, A. R.*; Sugihara, Masayoshi
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 337-339, p.808 - 815, 2005/03
ITER is an experimental fusion reactor for investigation and demonstration of burning plasmas, characterised of its heating dominated by alpha-particle heating. ITER is a major step from present devices and an indispensable step for fusion reactor development. ITER's success largely depends on the control of plasma-wall interactions(PWI), with power and particle fluxes and time scales one or two orders of magnitude larger than in present devices. The strategy for control of PWI includes the semi-closed divertor, strong fuelling and pumping, disruption and ELM control, replaceable plasma-facing materials and stepwise operation.
Shimada, Michiya; Campbell, D.*; Stambaugh, R.*; Polevoi, A. R.*; Mukhovatov, V.*; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Costley, A. E.*; Donn, A. J. H.*; Doyle, E. J.*; Federici, G.*; et al.
Proceedings of 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2004) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2004/11
This paper summarises recent progress in the physics basis and its impact on the expected performance of ITER. Significant progress has been made in many outstanding issues and in the development of hybrid and steady state operation scenarios, leading to increased confidence of achieving ITER's goals. Experiments show that tailoring the current profile can improve confinement over the standard H-mode and allow an increase in beta up to the no-wall limit at safety factors 4. Extrapolation to ITER suggests that at the reduced plasma current of 12MA, high Q 10 and long pulse (1000 s) operation is possible with benign ELMs. Analysis of disruption scenarios has been performed based on guidelines on current quench rates and halo currents, derived from the experimental database. With conservative assumptions, estimated electromagnetic forces on the in-vessel components are below the design target values, confirming the robustness of the ITER design against disruption forces.
Shimada, Michiya; Mukhovatov, V.*; Federici, G.*; Gribov, Y.*; Kukushkin, A. S.*; Murakami, Yoshiki*; Polevoi, A. R.*; Pustovitov, V. D.*; Sengoku, Seio; Sugihara, Masayoshi
Nuclear Fusion, 44(2), p.350 - 356, 2004/02
Performance analysis based on empirical scaling shows the feasibility of achieving Q 10 in inductive operation. Analysis has also elucidated a possibility that ITER can potentially demonstrate Q 50, enabling studies of self-heated plasmas. Theory-based core modeling indicates the need of high pedestal temperature (3.2 - 5.3 keV) to achieve Q 10, which is in the range of projection with presently available pedestal scalings. Pellet injection from high-field side would be useful in enhancing Q and reducing ELM heat load in high plasma current operation. If the ELM heat load is not acceptable, it could be made tolerable by further tilting the target plate. Steady state operation scenarios at Q = 5 have been developed with modest requirement on confinement improvement and beta (HH98(y,2) 1.3 and betaN 2.6). Stabilisation of RWM, required in such regimes, is feasible with the present saddle coils and power supplies with double-wall structure taken into account.
Mukhovatov, V.*; Shimada, Michiya; Chudnovskiy, A. N.*; Costley, A. E.*; Gribov, Y.*; Federici, G.*; Kardaun, O. J. F.*; Kukushkin, A. S.*; Polevoi, A. R.*; Pustovitov, V. D.*; et al.
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 45(12), p.235 - 252, 2003/12
ITER will be the first magnetic confinement device with burning DT plasma and fusion power of about 0.5 GW. During the past few years, new results have been obtained that substantiate the confidence in achieving Q 10 in ITER with inductive H-mode operation. These include achievement of a good H-mode confinement near the Greenwald density at high triangularity of the plasma cross section; improvements in theory-based confinement projections for the core plasma; improvement in helium ash removal due to the elastic collisions of He atoms with D/T ions in the divertor predicted by modelling; demonstration of feedback control of NTMs and resultant improvement in the achievable beta-values; better understanding of ELM physics and development of ELM mitigation techniques; and demonstration of mitigation of plasma disruptions. ITER will have a flexibility to operate also in steady state and intermediate (hybrid) regimes. The paper concentrates on inductively driven plasma performance and discusses requirements for steady-state operation in ITER.
Kamiyama, Kenji; Konishi, Kensuke; Sato, Ikken; Matsuba, Kenichi; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Toyoka, Junichi; Pakhnits, A. V.*; Vityuk, V.*; Kukushkin, I.*; Vurim, A. D.*; et al.
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no abstracts in English