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Journal Articles

Tolerance of anhydrobiotic eggs of the tardigrade ${it Ramazzottius varieornatus}$ to extreme environments

Horikawa, Daiki*; Yamaguchi, Ayami*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Daisuke*; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Yukuhiro, Fumiko*; Kuwahara, Hirokazu*; Kunieda, Takekazu*; Watanabe, Masahiko*; Nakahara, Yuichi*; et al.

Astrobiology, 12(4), p.283 - 289, 2012/04

 Times Cited Count:23 Percentile:70.77(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

We examined the hatchability of hydrated and anhydrobiotic eggs of the tardigrade ${it Ramazzottius varieornatus}$ to hatch after ionizing irradiation (helium ions), extremely low and high temperatures, and high vacuum. Anhydrobiotic eggs (50% lethal dose; 1690 Gy) were substantially more radioresistant than hydrated ones (50% lethal dose; 509 Gy). Anhydrobiotic eggs also have a broader temperature resistance compared with hydrated ones. Over 70% of the anhydrobiotic eggs treated at high and low temperatures, but all of the hydrated eggs failed to hatch. After exposure to high vacuum conditions, the hatchability of the anhydrobiotic eggs was comparable to that of untreated control eggs.

Journal Articles

Establishment of a rearing system of the extremotolerant tardigrade ${it Ramazzottius varieornatus}$; A New model animal for astrobiology

Horikawa, Daiki*; Kunieda, Takekazu*; Abe, Wataru*; Watanabe, Masahiko*; Nakahara, Yuichi*; Yukuhiro, Fumiko*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Wada, Seiichi*; Funayama, Tomoo; et al.

Astrobiology, 8(3), p.549 - 556, 2008/06

 Times Cited Count:78 Percentile:89.78(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

We report the successful rearing of the herbivorous tardigrade, ${it Ramazzottius varieornatus}$, by supplying the green alga ${it Chlorella vulgaris}$ as food. The life span was 35 d, deposited eggs required 5.7 d to hatch, and animals began to deposit eggs 9 d after hatching. The reared individuals of this species had an anhydrobiotic capacity throughout their life cycle in egg, juvenile, and adult stages. Furthermore, the reared adults in an anhydrobiotic state were tolerant of temperatures of 90$$^{circ}$$C and -196$$^{circ}$$C and exposure to 99.8% acetonitrile or irradiation with 4000 Gy $$^{4}$$He ions. Based on their life history traits and tolerance to extreme stresses, ${it R. varieornatus}$ might be a suitable model for astrobiological studies of multicellular organisms.

Oral presentation

Establishment of rearing system of the extremotolerant tardigrade ${it Ramazzottius varieornatus}$

Wadachi, Hiroki*; Kunieda, Takekazu*; Abe, Wataru*; Nakahara, Yuichi*; Watanabe, Masahiko*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Higashi, Seigo*; Okuda, Takashi*

no journal, , 

We collected some kinds of tardigrade to develop multi-cellular model oraganism for extremotolerant. Among four kinds of collected tardigrade, we found that a tardigrade ${it Ramazzottius varieornatus}$ at Sapporo-city feeded ${it C. vulgaris}$ and could breed. The life-time of ${it R. varieornatus}$ in an artificial culture condition is about 35 days and 5.7 days for hatching. During the whole life-time, one animal laids 8 eggs. In addition, it was observed that ${it R. varieornatus}$ could enter an ametabolic dry state called anhydrobiosis in all stages of life-time. Furthermore, we observed a high surviving-rate even if ${it R. varieornatus}$ exposed in various kinds of extreme environments.

Oral presentation

Effects of the exposure of extreme environments on the life-time and breeding ability of tardigrade ${it Ramazzottius varieornatus}$

Wadachi, Hiroki*; Kunieda, Takekazu*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Kawai, Kiyoshi*; Iwata, Kenichi*; Nakahara, Yuichi*; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Koseki, Shigenobu*; Yamamoto, Kazutaka*; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; et al.

no journal, , 

We studied the effects of the exposure of extreme environments on life-time and breeding ability of tardigrade ${it R. varieornatus}$ to reveal the possibility of multi-cellular organism existences in the outerspace. A life time of animals is the shortest in the heavy-ion exposed animals than any other stressors. There were significant decrease in the number of egg-laying and hatching rate between irradiated and non-irradiated animals. However, we found the next generation in all experimental conditions. Our findings suggest that tardigrades exposed to even any extreme environments could have a descendant.

Oral presentation

The Tardigrade ${it Ramazzottius varieornatus}$; A Model for astrobiological studies

Horikawa, Daiki*; Kunieda, Takekazu*; Abe, Wataru*; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki*; Nakahara, Yuichi*; Watanabe, Masahiko*; Iwata, Kenichi*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Higashi, Seigo*; et al.

no journal, , 

We report the first successful rearing of the herbivorous tardigrade, ${it Ramazzottius varieornatus}$, by supplying a green alga ${it Chlorella vulgaris}$ as a food. The reared individuals of this species had an anhydrobiotic capacity throughout their life cycle, from eggs, to juveniles, and to adults. Reared adults, while in an anhydrobiotic state, were tolerant to temperatures -196$$^{circ}$$C and 100$$^{circ}$$C. Furthermore, they were shown to be tolerant to the exposure to 99.8% acetonitrile, 1 GPa of hydrostatic pressure, or 5000 Gy of He ion radiation. We will report the details of these results, along with the description of their life history. Due to the observed tolerance to such extreme environmental conditions, we propose R. varieornatus to be included as a suitable model for astrobiological studies of multicellular organisms.

Oral presentation

Extremotolerance of an albino mutant strain isolated from the brown anhydrobiotic tardigrade ${it Ramazzottius}$ cf. ${it varieornatus}$

Kuwahara, Hirokazu*; Abe, Wataru*; Narumi, Issei; Kunieda, Takekazu*

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Extremotolerance of an albino mutant strain isolated from the brown anhydrobiotic tardigrade, ${it Ramazzottius}$ cf. ${it varieornatus}$

Kuwahara, Hirokazu*; Abe, Wataru*; Narumi, Issei; Kunieda, Takekazu*

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Analysis of an albino mutant in the extremophilic animal ${it Ramazzottius varieornatus}$

Kuwahara, Hirokazu*; Toyoda, Atsushi*; Abe, Wataru*; Narumi, Issei; Kunieda, Takekazu*

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

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