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JAEA Reports

Report on research and development of nuclear forensics technologies

Okubo, Ayako; Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Toda, Nobufumi; Funatake, Yoshio; Watahiki, Masaru; Sakurai, Satoshi; Kuno, Yusuke

JAEA-Technology 2015-001, 185 Pages, 2015/03

JAEA-Technology-2015-001.pdf:56.65MB

Nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material to provide evidence for nuclear attribution by determining origin, history, transit routes and purpose involving such material. Nuclear forensics activity includes sampling of the illicit material, analysis of the samples and evaluation of the attribution by comparing the analyzed data with database or numerical simulation. Because the nuclear forensics technologies specify the origin of the nuclear materials used illegal dealings or nuclear terrorism, it becomes possible to identify and indict offenders, hence to enhance deterrent effect against such terrorism. Worldwide network on nuclear forensics can contribute to strengthen global nuclear security regime. In this paper, the results of research and development of fundamental nuclear forensics technologies performed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency during the fiscal term of 2011-2013 were reported.

Journal Articles

Progress and future prospects of nuclear forensics technology development project at JAEA

Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Sato, Kaneaki; Toda, Nobufumi; Shinoda, Yoshiharu; Funatake, Yoshio; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

Proceedings of INMM 55th Annual Meeting (Internet), 7 Pages, 2014/07

In 2010, the Japan Government issued the national statement at Nuclear Security Summit (Washington D.C., USA) to develop technologies related to measurement and detection of nuclear materials for nuclear forensics within three-year timeframe, and to share the products with the international community in order to contribute to strengthening the nuclear security system. In response to this statement, JAEA that possesses sufficient technical capabilities to fulfil this nuclear forensics mission has started a nuclear forensics technology development project since JFY 2011. This paper will present the progress of the development project during JFY 2011 to 2013. This project includes the developments of analytical technologies such as isotope and impurity measurements, morphology analysis, age determination technique, and the prototype of national nuclear forensics library (NNFL). Some future prospects of this project will be also presented in this paper.

Journal Articles

Present status and future plan of development on National Nuclear Forensics Library at JAEA

Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Funatake, Yoshio; Sato, Kaneaki; Toda, Nobufumi; Shinoda, Yoshiharu; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nihon Shibu Dai-34-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 9 Pages, 2013/10

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has initiated R&D project on nuclear forensics technology such as analytical technologies towards the establishment of nuclear forensics capabilities in Japan. National Nuclear Forensics Library (NNFL) is one of the fundamental nuclear forensics capabilities and a prototype NNFL has been developed as one R&D topic of the project at JAEA. Main objective of a NNFL is to determine whether a seized nuclear or other radioactive material from nuclear security event (e.g. illicit trafficking) is originated from a country or not. Analytical data of the seized material are compared with the existing materials populated in a NNFL, and its attributions such as origin and history will be identified. This paper describes the current status and future plan on the development of prototype NNFL. The outline and the results of the participation in an international table top exercise on NNFL named "Galaxy Serpent" were also reported in the present paper.

JAEA Reports

Measurement of sorption, diffusion and pore physicality for granite sample

Kunimaru, Takanori; Morikawa, Keita; Tachi, Yukio; Kuno, Yoshio*; Hosoya, Shinichi*; Shimoda, Satoko*; Kato, Hiroyasu*; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki*; Ikuse, Hiroyuki*; Kubota, Masako*

JAEA-Data/Code 2012-013, 96 Pages, 2012/07

JAEA-Data-Code-2012-013.pdf:7.41MB
JAEA-Data-Code-2012-013(errata).pdf:0.13MB

For the purpose to understand the relationship between characteristic of mass transport and characteristic of fracture, the following experiments were carried out using core sample, which was sampled from the -300 m Stage. This paper compiled the results of these experiment. (1) Diffusion experiments of Cs, Sr, I and uranin in granite samples (2) Sorption experiments of Cs and Sr on crushed granite (3) Measurement of pore physicality by Mercury Intrusion and water saturation

Journal Articles

Manufacturing of JT-60SA equilibrium field coils

Hasegawa, Mitsuru*; Horii, Hiroyuki*; Nomoto, Kazuhiro*; Imai, Yoshio*; Murai, Takashi*; Minato, Tsuneaki*; Kuno, Kazuo*; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; et al.

Proceedings of 24th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference (ICEC 24) and International Cryogenic Materials Conference 2012 (ICMC 2012) (CD-ROM), p.571 - 574, 2012/05

JT-60U magnet system will be upgraded to the superconducting coils (JT-60SA) in the Broader Approach project. JT-60SA magnet system has 18 Toroidal Field coils, a Central Solenoid with 4 modules and 6 Equilibrium Field (EF) coils. This paper describes the manufacturing procedure of EF4 coil, that is the first manufactured EF coil of JT-60SA. The winding pack of EF4 coil was successfully manufactured within geometrical tolerance requirements.

JAEA Reports

Numerical analysis studies on colloid-facilitated radionuclide migration in a fractured rock

Kuno, Yoshio; Sasamoto, Hiroshi

JAEA-Research 2009-071, 65 Pages, 2010/03

JAEA-Research-2009-071.pdf:4.73MB

To evaluate colloidal effects on radionuclide (RN) migration through a fractured rock, sensitivity analyses were conducted by considering the properties of groundwater colloids. Distribution coefficient for the mobile colloids Kd$$_{m}$$ (m$$^{3}$$/kg) and colloid concentration M (kg/m$$^{3}$$) are important parameters since the product of them (Kd$$_{m}$$ M) indicates the colloidal effects on RN migration, which is noticeably enhanced in the case of Kd$$_{m}$$ M $$>$$ 1. Furthermore, colloid migration was simulated by taking into account colloid filtration by the fracture surfaces. Filtered colloids tend to increase with increasing the filter coefficient $$lambda$$(1/m). Breakthrough of RNs shows a peak curve since RNs sorbed on the filtered colloids increase and mobile RNs decrease with time. RN distribution to the filtered colloids could have a sufficient impact on RN migration by reducing mobile concentration in the fracture.

Journal Articles

Characterization of Nb$$_{3}$$Al strands subjected to an axial-strain for fusion DEMO reactor

Hemmi, Tsutomu; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Okui, Yoshio*; Matsui, Kunihiro; Nabara, Yoshihiro; Isono, Takaaki; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Banno, Nobuya*; et al.

IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 19(3), p.1540 - 1543, 2009/06

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:61.95(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

Nb$$_{3}$$Al cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors have been developed as one of candidates for the fusion DEMO reactor. The performances of superconducting strands in the CIC conductor are affected by transverse electromagnetic force and thermal strain at reaction heat treatment. In order to accurately design the conductors for the fusion DEMO reactor, the performance evaluation of the Nb$$_{3}$$Al strands, which is processed by a rapid heating, quenching and transformation (RHQT) method, was performed under various temperature, magnetic field and axial-strain conditions. The measured and parameterized results of the Nb$$_{3}$$Al strands are presented.

Journal Articles

Test results of the third Japanese SULTAN sample

Matsui, Kunihiro; Isono, Takaaki; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Okui, Yoshio*; Oshikiri, Masayuki; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Stepanov, B.*; et al.

IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 19(3), p.1470 - 1473, 2009/06

 Times Cited Count:20 Percentile:69.21(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

Conductor procurement for ITER Toroidal Field (TF) coils in Japan has just stated in the spring of 2008 under agreement with ITER organization. Before the activity, each Nb$$_{3}$$Sn conductor must be tested at SULTAN facility in Switzerland for qualification of the conductor. The TF conductor is cable-in-conduit type with about 40 mm outer diameter and is composed of 900 Nb$$_{3}$$Sn strands, 522 Cu strands, a central spiral and a 316LN tube. Required performance of the conductor is Tcs of 5.7 K at 68 kA and 11.3 T, which is operating condition of TF coils. Japan has four Nb$$_{3}$$Sn strand suppliers for ITER and two of them were already tested as Japanese 1st and 2nd SULTAN samples. This paper shows test results of 3rd Japanese SULTAN sample using Nb$$_{3}$$Sn strands fabricated by resting two suppliers.

Journal Articles

Experimental determination of distribution behavior of radionuclides in the presence of colloidal substance

Kuno, Yoshio; Morooka, Koichi*; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu, 15(2), p.117 - 129, 2009/03

In the performance assessment of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, the retardation of radionuclide migration is generally evaluated by using sorption distribution coefficient (Kd). The Kd values would, however, be influenced by the presence of colloidal substance in aqueous phase because these colloids may have the potential abilities to sorb the radionuclides. In this study, Cs-137, bentonite colloids and quartz sands were used for the batch-type sorption tests in order to investigate the influence of colloids on the sorption behavior of radionuclides. The Kds of Cs-137 onto quartz sands (Kd$$_{1}$$) and bentonite colloids (Kd$$_{2}$$) were determined from the distributed amounts in solid phase, colloidal phase and aqueous phase, which were distinguished by the pore size of filters used for the separation of experimental solutions. Distribution behavior of radionuclides in the coexistence of quartz sands and bentonite colloids was able to be evaluated from the Kd$$_{1}$$ and Kd$$_{2}$$ those were obtained from other sorption tests carried out in the separate presence of sands and colloids. To select a suitable filtration method for the separation of the colloidal solutions enables to estimate the influence of colloids on the sorption behavior of radionuclides to solid phase.

Journal Articles

Migration behaviour of bentonite colloids through a fractured rock

Kuno, Yoshio; Sasamoto, Hiroshi

Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol.1124, p.581 - 586, 2009/00

Column experiments were carried out using an artificial fracture within the granite rock in order to investigate the migration behavior of bentonite colloids. A sufficient fraction of colloids was immobilized within the fractured granite in 10$$^{-3}$$ M NaCl solution. In case of comparatively high ionic concentration, retardation of bentonite colloids is expected in the geological medium.

JAEA Reports

Preliminary examination of disturbance influence of groundwater chemistry on colloidal characterization in groundwater

Kuno, Yoshio; Sasamoto, Hiroshi

JAEA-Research 2008-016, 21 Pages, 2008/03

JAEA-Research-2008-016.pdf:3.92MB

In this study, the influence of chemical difference between in-situ condition and atmospheric condition on inorganic colloids was evaluated by carrying out the characterization of groundwater colloids in the Horonobe area. Remarkable amount of suspended substance including mainly Ca was observed in the groundwater collected from the HDB-10 borehole. Additional laboratory experiments were therefore conducted using this groundwater to investigate the impact on the groundwater composition and the colloidal properties by exposing to the atmosphere. Not only precipitation but also suspended particles composed mainly of CaCO$$_{3}$$ were generated under the atmospheric condition. From the prediction using the DLVO theory, however, the suspended particles are not expected to have a dispersive stability in this groundwater. Formation of suspended particles seems to be a transient behavior caused by the change of chemical conditions and these particles would not exist in in-situ groundwater.

Journal Articles

The H-Invitational Database (H-InvDB); A Comprehensive annotation resource for human genes and transcripts

Yamasaki, Chisato*; Murakami, Katsuhiko*; Fujii, Yasuyuki*; Sato, Yoshiharu*; Harada, Erimi*; Takeda, Junichi*; Taniya, Takayuki*; Sakate, Ryuichi*; Kikugawa, Shingo*; Shimada, Makoto*; et al.

Nucleic Acids Research, 36(Database), p.D793 - D799, 2008/01

 Times Cited Count:51 Percentile:73.43(Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

Here we report the new features and improvements in our latest release of the H-Invitational Database, a comprehensive annotation resource for human genes and transcripts. H-InvDB, originally developed as an integrated database of the human transcriptome based on extensive annotation of large sets of fulllength cDNA (FLcDNA) clones, now provides annotation for 120 558 human mRNAs extracted from the International Nucleotide Sequence Databases (INSD), in addition to 54 978 human FLcDNAs, in the latest release H-InvDB. We mapped those human transcripts onto the human genome sequences (NCBI build 36.1) and determined 34 699 human gene clusters, which could define 34 057 protein-coding and 642 non-protein-coding loci; 858 transcribed loci overlapped with predicted pseudogenes.

JAEA Reports

Development and management of the knowledge base for the geological disposal technology; Annual report 2006

Umeda, Koji; Oi, Takao; Osawa, Hideaki; Oyama, Takuya; Oda, Chie; Kamei, Gento; Kuji, Masayoshi*; Kurosawa, Hideki; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Sasaki, Yasuo; et al.

JAEA-Review 2007-050, 82 Pages, 2007/12

JAEA-Review-2007-050.pdf:28.56MB

This report shows the annual report which shows the summarized results and topic outline of each project on geological disposal technology in the fiscal year of 2006.

Journal Articles

Research and development of nuclear fusion

Ushigusa, Kenkichi; Seki, Masahiro; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Norimatsu, Takayoshi*; Kamada, Yutaka; Mori, Masahiro; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Takashi; Sakamoto, Keishi; et al.

Genshiryoku Handobukku, p.906 - 1029, 2007/11

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Studies on Data Base Management for Nuclide Migration and Improvement of Individual Models (Summary)

Ueda, Shinzo*; Kuno, Yoshio*

JNC TJ8400 2003-066, 34 Pages, 2004/02

JNC-TJ8400-2003-066.pdf:0.44MB

Methods of management of database which was based on understanding of phenomena, reliable, and closely related with performance assessment were studied on parallel with researches for individual model improvement by means of literature survey, column experiment, and analysis code development. For future management of JNC-TDB was discussed with the latest literatures. Collaboration with outer organization was considered necessary especially on authorization of the TDB. One of the outer organizations could be found in geo-thermal research field. For future management of JNC-SDB, sorption ithotherm of Np on bentonite was tested, and the consistency of the data in SDB was found. A semi-quantitative evaluation method of the reliability of the data was developed and tested with the sorption of Pu and Ni on bentonite. The result shows moderateness of the method and some literature data was considered unreliable by the evaluation. From the literature survey of ir/reversibility of nuclide sorption on colloid showed that apparent irreversibility may often be caused by slow kinetics. Additionally, some general recommendation on the system to be studied was discussed. The column experiment of Sr migration facilitated by colloid through porous media was carried out and analysed by COLFRAC-MRL code. The code was developed to simulate the colloid facilitated migration through porous media.

JAEA Reports

Studies on Data Base Management for Nuclide Migration and Improvement of Individual Models

Ueda, Shinzo*; Kuno, Yoshio*

JNC TJ8400 2003-065, 204 Pages, 2004/02

JNC-TJ8400-2003-065.pdf:2.13MB

Methods of management of database which was based on understanding of phenomena, reliable, and closely related with performance assessment were studied on parallel with researches for individual model improvement by means of literature survey, column experiment, and analysis code development. For future management of JNC-TDB was discussed with the latest literatures. Collaboration with outer organization was considered necessary especially on authorization of the TDB. One of the outer organizations could be found in geo-thermal research field. For future management of JNC-SDB, sorption ithotherm of Np on bentonite was tested, and the consistency of the data in SDB was found. A semi-quantitative evaluation method of the reliability of the data was developed and tested with the sorption of Pu and Ni on bentonite. The result shows moderateness of the method and some literature data was considered unreliable by the evaluation. From the literature survey of ir/reversibility of nuclide sorption on colloid showed that apparent irreversibility may often be caused by slow kinetics. Additionally, some general recommendation on the system to be studied was discussed. The column experiment of Sr migration facilitated by colloid through porous media was carried out and analysed by COLFRAC-MRL code. The code was developed to simulate the colloid facilitated migration through porous media.

JAEA Reports

Transport Behavior of Colloids through Compacted Bentonite -Study with 3wt%Nacl Solution and Ca-Type Bentonite-

Kurosawa, Susumi; Kuno, Yoshio*; Morooka, Koichi; Ueda, Shinzo*

JNC TN8430 2003-006, 39 Pages, 2003/03

JNC-TN8430-2003-006.pdf:26.18MB

The transport behavior of colloids through the compacted sand-bentonite mixture was investigated by the column experiments. Colloidal gold was used to simulate the mobile colloids because gold colloid was stabilized easily. The sand-bentonite mixtures were prepared by mixing 30wt.% silica sand with the bentonite (Na-type and Ca-type) and were compacted at the dry density of 1.6g/cm$$^{3}$$. The colloidal particles in the 3.5% NaCl solution migrated through the compacted sand- Na bentonite mixture at 8kgf/cm$$^{2}$$ of injection pressure. However colloidal migration was not observed after injection pressure of the colloidal solution was lowered below the swelling pressure. And the selective flow path of colloids in the compacted sand-bentonite mixture was observed after the experiment. On the other hand, colloids in the pure water were filtered by the compacted sand- Ca bentonite mixture.

JAEA Reports

The Study on the Characterization of Colloids in Groundwater(II)

Kuno, Yoshio*; Ueda, Shinzo*

JNC TJ8400 2003-025, 47 Pages, 2003/02

JNC-TJ8400-2003-025.pdf:1.24MB

Groundwater colloids may act as carriers for sorbing radionuclides released from a radioactive waste repository. To evaluate the influence of colloids to nuclide transport, it is necessary to obtain the characteristic data of groundwater colloids (e.g. colloid concentration, the distribution coefficient for sorption of nuclides on colloids) in the deep geological media and to prepare the simulation code of nuclide transport with colloids. In this study, the groundwater sample was collected from the gallery of the mine in crystalline rock media to investigate the population of the natural colloids. The concentration, size distribution and chemical compositions of colloids were measured by using filtration method. Colloidal particles consist mainly of silicate minerals and Ca-rich particles. The dissolved organic materials were not detected in the groundwater. The properties of colloids seem to depend on the host rock type and the groundwater chemistry. To simulate the in-situ condition of groundwater, chemical conditions were controlled by varying the partial pressure of CO$$_{2}$$ and the colloid generation in each groundwater was investigated. The numerical model (COLFRAC) is developed in Ohio state university that incorporates the mechanism of colloid-facilitated nuclide transport in fractured porous media. Both equilibrium and kinetic sorption of nuclides onto colloidal materials can be considered in this calculation code. The guidance to learn how to use this code was conducted and the user's manual was prepared.

JAEA Reports

The Study on the Characterization of Colloids in Groundwater(II)

Kuno, Yoshio*; Ueda, Shinzo*

JNC TJ8400 2003-024, 129 Pages, 2003/02

JNC-TJ8400-2003-024.pdf:2.43MB

Groundwater colloids may act as carriers for sorbing radionuclides released from a radioactive waste repository. To evaluate the influence of colloids to nuclide transport, it is necessary to obtain the characteristic data of groundwater colloids (e.g. colloid concentration, the distribution coefficient for sorption of nuclides on colloids) in the deep geological media and to prepare the simulation code of nuclide transport with colloids. In this study, the groundwater sample was collected from the gallery of the mine in crystalline rock media to investigate the population of the natural colloids. The concentration, size distribution and chemical compositions of colloids were measured by using filtration method. Colloidal particles consist mainly of silicate minerals and Ca-rich particles. The dissolved organic materials were not detected in the groundwater. The properties of colloids seem to depend on the host rock type and the groundwater chemistry. To simulate the in-situ condition of groundwater, chemical conditions were controlled by varying the partial pressure of CO$$_{2}$$ and the colloid generation in each groundwater was investigated. The numerical model (COLFRAC) is developed in Ohio state university that incorporates the mechanism of colloid-facilitated nuclide transport in fractured porous media. Both equilibrium and kinetic sorption of nuclides onto colloidal materials can be considered in this calculation code. The guidance to learn how to use this code was conducted and the user's manual was prepared.

JAEA Reports

Development of the fabrication technology for the superconducting coils in the ITER magnet system and its achievements

Hamada, Kazuya; Nakajima, Hideo; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Endo, Sakaru*; Kikuchi, Kenichi*; Kubo, Yoshio*; Aoki, Nobuo*; Yamada, Yuichi*; Osaki, Osamu*; Sasaki, Takashi*; et al.

JAERI-Tech 2002-027, 23 Pages, 2002/03

JAERI-Tech-2002-027.pdf:2.94MB

The Engineering Design Activities (EDA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) was performed under the collaboration of Japan, EU, Russia and the US. The EDA was successfully completed in July 2001, in which the development of fabrication technology for advanced components, such as superconducting coils, was conducted. The ITER magnet system consists of Toroidal Field coils, a Central Solenoid (CS), Poloidal Field coils and Correction coils. The construction of these coils requires advanced technologies that fairly exceeded those available at the start of the EDA. Therefore, CS Model Coil and TF Model Coil projects were implemented. To fabricate the CS Model Coil, the fabrication technologies for high performance strand, large cable, winding, heat treatment, joint and insulation are indispensable. This report describes the above detailed fabrication technologies successfully developed in the CS Model Coil Project.

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