Wang, Y.*; Dong, X.*; Tang, X.*; Zheng, H.*; Li, K.*; Lin, X.*; Fang, L.*; Sun, G.*; Chen, X.*; Xie, L.*; et al.
Angewandte Chemie; International Edition, 58(5), p.1468 - 1473, 2019/01
Pressure-induced polymerization (PIP) of aromatics is a novel method to construct sp-carbon frameworks, and nanothreads with diamond-like structures were synthesized by compressing benzene and its derivatives. Here by compressing benzene-hexafluorobenzene cocrystal(CHCF), we identified H-F-substituted graphane with a layered structure in the PIP product. Based on the crystal structure determined from the in situ neutron diffraction and the intermediate products identified by the gas chromatography-mass spectrum, we found that at 20 GPa CHCF forms tilted columns with benzene and hexafluorobenzene stacked alternatively, which leads to a [4+2] polymer, and then transfers to short-range ordered hydrogenated-fluorinated graphane. The reaction process contains [4+2] Diels-Alder, retro-Diels-Alder, and 1-1' coupling, and the former is the key reaction in the PIP. Our studies confirmed the elemental reactions of the CHCF for the first time, which provides a novel insight into the PIP of aromatics.
Elekes, Z.*; Kripk, *; Sohler, D.*; Sieja, K.*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; Yoshida, Kazuki; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Authelet, G.*; Baba, Hidetada*; et al.
Physical Review C, 99(1), p.014312_1 - 014312_7, 2019/01
The nuclear structure of the Ni nucleus was investigated by (,) reaction using a NaI(Tl) array to detect the deexciting prompt rays. A new transition with an energy of 2227 keV was identified by and coincidences. Our shell-model calculations using the Lenzi, Nowacki, Poves, and Sieja interaction produced good candidates for the experimental proton hole states in the observed energy region, and the theoretical cross sections showed good agreement with the experimental values. Although we could not assign all the experimental states to the theoretical ones unambiguously, the results are consistent with a reasonably large Z = 28 shell gap for nickel isotopes in accordance with previous studies.
Wu, P.*; Zhang, B.*; Peng, K. L.*; Hagiwara, Masayuki*; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa*; Kofu, Maiko; Lee, S. H.*; Kumigashira, Hiroshi*; Hu, C. S.*; Qi, Z. M.*; et al.
Physical Review B, 98(9), p.094305_1 - 094305_7, 2018/09
Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and inelastic neutron scattering, we have studied how electronic structures and lattice dynamics evolve with temperature in Na-doped SnSe.
Ho, D. M. L.*; Nelwamondo, A. N.*; Okubo, Ayako; Ramebck, H.*; Song, K.*; Han, S.-H.*; Hancke, J. J.*; Holmgren, S.*; Jonsson. S.*; Kataoka, Osamu; et al.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 315(2), p.353 - 363, 2018/02
The Fourth Collaborative Material Exercise (CMX-4) of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) registered the largest participation for this exercise in nuclear forensics, with seven of the 17 laboratories participating for the first time. In this paper, participants from five of the first-time laboratories shared their individual experience in this exercise, from preparation to analysis of samples. The exercise proved to be highly useful for testing procedures, repurposing established methods, exercising skills, and improving the understanding of nuclear forensic signatures and their interpretation trough the post-exercise review meeting.
Kristo, M. J.*; Williams, R.*; Gaffney, A. M.*; Kayzar-Boggs, T. M.*; Schorzman, K. C.*; Lagerkvist, P.*; Vesterlund, A.*; Ramebck, H.*; Nelwamondo, A. N.*; Kotze, D.*; et al.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 315(2), p.425 - 434, 2018/02
In a recent international exercise, 10 international nuclear forensics laboratories successfully performed radiochronometry on three low enriched uranium oxide samples, providing 12 analytical results using three different parent-daughter pairs serving as independent chronometers. The vast majority of the results were consistent with one another and consistent with the known processing history of the materials. In general, for these particular samples, mass spectrometry gave more accurate and more precise analytical results than decay counting measurements. In addition, the concordance of the U-Pa and U-Th chronometers confirmed the validity of the age dating assumptions, increasing confidence in the resulting conclusions.
Chadwick, M. B.*; Capote, R.*; Trkov, A.*; Herman, M. W.*; Brown, D. A.*; Hale, G. M.*; Kahler, A. C.*; Talou, P.*; Plompen, A. J.*; Schillebeeckx, P.*; et al.
Nuclear Data Sheets, 148, p.189 - 213, 2018/02
The CIELO collaboration has studied neutron cross sections on nuclides that significantly impact criticality in nuclear facilities - U, U, Pu, Fe, O and H - with the aim of improving the accuracy of the data and resolving previous discrepancies in our understanding. This multi-laboratory pilot project, coordinated via the OECD/NEA Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) Subgroup 40 with support also from the IAEA, has motivated experimental and theoretical work and led to suites of new evaluated libraries that accurately reflect measured data and also perform well in integral simulations of criticality. This report summarizes our results and outlines plans for the next phase of this collaboration.
Shand, C. M.*; Podolyk, Zs.*; Grska, M.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Nowacki, F.*; Otsuka, T.*; Sieja, K.*; Tostevin, J. A.*; Tsunoda, T.*; et al.
Physics Letters B, 773, p.492 - 497, 2017/10
Chadwick, M. B.*; Capote, R.*; Trkov, A.*; Kahler, A. C.*; Herman, M. W.*; Brown, D. A.*; Hale, G. M.*; Pigni, M.*; Dunn, M.*; Leal, L.*; et al.
EPJ Web of Conferences (Internet), 146, p.02001_1 - 02001_9, 2017/09
The CIELO collaboration has studied neutron cross sections on nuclides (O, Fe, U and Pu) that significantly impact criticality in nuclear technologies with the aim of improving the accuracy of the data and resolving previous discrepancies in our understanding. This multi-laboratory pilot project, coordinated via the OECD/NEA Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) Subgroup 40 with support also from the IAEA, has motivated experimental and theoretical work and led to suites of new evaluated libraries that accurately reflect measured data and also perform well in integral simulations of criticality.
Flavigny, F.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Delaroche, J.-P.*; Girod, M.*; Libert, J.*; Rodriguez, T. R.*; Authelet, G.*; Baba, Hidetada*; Calvet, D.*; et al.
Physical Review Letters, 118(24), p.242501_1 - 242501_6, 2017/06
Chen, S.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Rodriguez, T. R.*; Authelet, G.*; Baba, Hidetada*; Calvet, D.*; Chteau, F.*; Corsi, A.*; Delbart, A.*; et al.
Physical Review C, 95(4), p.041302_1 - 041302_6, 2017/04
Paul, N.*; Corsi, A.*; Obertelli, A.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Authelet, G.*; Baba, Hidetada*; Bally, B.*; Bender, M.*; Calvet, D.*; Chteau, F.*; et al.
Physical Review Letters, 118(3), p.032501_1 - 032501_7, 2017/01
Lee, C.-G.*; Suzuki, Daisuke; Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Song, K.*
Talanta, 141, p.92 - 96, 2015/08
Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) with a continuous heating technique is known as an effective method for measuring the isotope ratio in trace amounts of uranium. In this study, the analytical performance of thermal ionization mass spectrometry with a continuous heating technique was investigated using a standard plutonium solution (SRM 947). The influence of the heating rate of the evaporation filament on the precision and accuracy of the isotope ratios was examined using a plutonium solution sample at the fg level. Changing the heating rate of the evaporation filament on samples ranging from 0.1 fg to 1000 fg revealed that the influence of the heating rate on the precision and accuracy of the isotope ratios was slight around the heating rate range of 100 to 250 mA/min. All of the isotope ratios of plutonium (SRM 947), Pu/Pu, Pu/Pu, Pu/Pu and Pu/Pu, were measured down to sample amounts of 70 fg. The ratio of Pu/Pu was measured down to a sample amount of 0.1 fg, which corresponds to a PuO particle with a diameter of 0.2 m. Moreover, the signals of Pu could be detected with a sample amount of 0.03 fg, which corresponds to the detection limit of Pu of 0.006 fg as estimated by the 3 criterion. Pu and Am formed by the decay of Pu could be discriminated owing to the difference in the evaporation temperature. As a result, Pu/Pu as well as Pu/Pu and Pu/Pu in plutonium samples could be measured by TIMS with a continuous heating technique and without any chemical separation processes.
Sanetullaev, A.*; Tsang, M. B.*; Lynch, W. G.*; Lee, J.*; Bazin, D.*; Chan, K. P.*; Coupland, D.*; Hanzl, V.*; Hanzlova, D.*; Kilburn, M.*; et al.
Physics Letters B, 736, p.137 - 141, 2014/09
no abstracts in English
Chadwick, M. B.*; Dupont, E.*; Bauge, E.*; Blokhin, A.*; Bouland, O.*; Brown, D. A.*; Capote, R.*; Carlson, A. D.*; Danon, Y.*; De Saint Jean, C.*; et al.
Nuclear Data Sheets, 118, p.1 - 25, 2014/04
CIELO (Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organization) provides a new working paradigm to facilitate evaluated nuclear reaction data advances. It brings together experts from across the international nuclear reaction data community to identify and document discrepancies among existing evaluated data libraries, measured data, and model calculation interpretations, and aims to make progress in reconciling these discrepancies to create more accurate ENDF-formatted files. The focus will initially be on a small number of the highest-priority isotopes, namely H, O, Fe, U, and Pu. This paper identifies discrepancies between various evaluations of the highest priority isotopes. The evaluated data for these materials in the existing nuclear data libraries are reviewed, and some integral properties are given. The paper summarizes a program of nuclear science and computational work needed to create the new CIELO nuclear data evaluations.
Miki, Kazuhiro; Diamond, P. H.*; Fedorczak, N.*; Grcan, . D.*; Malkov, M.*; Lee, C.*; Kosuga, Yusuke*; Tynan, G. R.*; Xu, G. S.*; Estrada, T.*; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 53(7), p.073044_1 - 073044_10, 2013/07
Understanding the LH and HL transitions is crucial to successful ITER operation. In this paper we present novel theoretical and modelling study results on the spatio-temporal dynamics of the transition. We place a special emphasis on the role of zonal flows and the micromacro connection between dynamics and the power threshold dependences. The model studied evolves five coupled fields in time and one space dimension, in simplified geometry. The content of this paper is (a) the model fundamentals and the space-time evolution during the LIH transition, (b) the physics origin of the well-known B-drift asymmetry in power threshold, (c) the role of heat avalanches in the intrinsic variability of the LH transition, (d) the dynamics of the HL back transition and the physics of hysteresis.
Esaka, Fumitaka; Lee, C. G.; Magara, Masaaki; Kimura, Takaumi
Analytica Chimica Acta, 721, p.122 - 128, 2012/04
A fission track technique was used as a sample preparation method for subsequent isotope abundance ratio analysis of individual uranium containing particles with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to measure the particles with higher enriched uranium efficiently. This method was then applied to the analysis of a real inspection swipe sample taken at a nuclear facility. As a consequence, the range of U/U isotope abundance ratio between 0.0276 and 0.0438 was obtained, which was higher than that measured by SIMS without using a fission track technique (0.0225 and 0.0341). This indicates that the fission track - SIMS method is a powerful tool to identify the particle with higher enriched uranium in environmental samples efficiently.
Lee, C. G.; Suzuki, Daisuke; Kokubu, Yoko; Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Kimura, Takaumi
International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 314, p.57 - 62, 2012/03
In this study, we developed a method for the simultaneous measurement of all the plutonium and uranium isotopes without the need for chemical separation, using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) with a continuous heating method. The MOX particles with sizes of 0.6-2.3 m used in this study were made from a mixed solution of plutonium (SRM947) and uranium (U500). The isotope ratios of plutonium and uranium obtained for all the MOX particles, including the ones in the sub-micrometer size range, were in good agreement with the certified values within the range of error. In particular, the determination of the Pu/Pu isotope ratio, which is difficult because of the isobaric interference of U, was performed accurately. The Pu/Pu ratios were obtained by using a correction in which the background of U intensity at the Pu peak was estimated from the peak fitting of the U signal profile.
Suzuki, Daisuke; Kokubu, Yoko; Lee, C. G.; Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Kimura, Takaumi
Chemistry Letters, 41(1), p.90 - 91, 2012/01
In conventional isotope ratio analysis of individual plutonium particles, the analytical procedure is complicated, because the particles have to be dissolved prior to the measurement. The chemical treatments may cause contamination of U existing in the environment. This makes it difficult to obtain accurate Pu/Pu isotope ratio. In the present work, an analytical method by a combination of single particle transfer and thermal ionization mass spectrometry with a continuous heating method is examined for individual plutonium particles, namely the particles are measured without any chemical treatments. In addition, the technique is applied to the analysis of individual uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) particles. The results of analysis of individual particles produced from standard solutions indicate that all isotope ratios are consistent with the certified values. There is no effect of isobaric interference on the results. In conclusion, the proposed analytical method is a useful tool for the isotope ratio analysis of plutonium and MOX particles without any chemical treatments.
Kokubu, Yoko; Suzuki, Daisuke; Lee, C. G.; Inagawa, Jun; Magara, Masaaki; Kimura, Takaumi
International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 310, p.52 - 56, 2012/01
A method for measuring isotope ratios of Pu and U in Pu or Pu/U mixture samples was developed by using a continuous heating method of thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). In this method, temperature of an evaporation filament is increased sequentially. This leads to measure the ratios of Pu and U at different temperature in which each element is evaporated efficiently. In Pu/U mixture samples with pg-level masses and 0.01-10 Pu/U ratios, isotope ratios of Pu/Pu and U/U were measured simultaneously without chemical separation of samples. The relative standard deviation of the isotope ratios of Pu/Pu and U/U in the sample containing each 1 pg of Pu and U were better than 2% and 4%, respectively. Moreover, Pu/Pu ratios were obtained. The results suggest that the continuous heating method of TIMS will be effective tool as a method for measuring isotope ratios in the Pu/U mixture samples.
Yoon, S. W.*; Ahn, J.-W.*; Jeon, Y. M.*; Suzuki, Takahiro; Hahn, S. H.*; Ko, W. H.*; Lee, K. D.*; Chung, J. I.*; Nam, Y. U.*; Kim, J.*; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 51(11), p.113009_1 - 113009_9, 2011/11
Typical ELMy H-mode discharges have been achieved on the KSTAR tokamak with the combined auxiliary heating of NBI and ECRH. The minimum external heating power required is about 1.1 MW at a line-averaged density higher than 1.410 m and a toroidal field of 2 T. There is a clear indication of the increase of the L-H threshold power at densities lower than . The initial analysis of energy confinement time () predicted that was higher than the prediction of multi-machine scaling laws by a factor 1.4-1.6. However, when the contribution of fast ion confinement to the total energy was taken into account, better agreed with the scaling results. A clear increase of electron and ion temperature in the pedestal was observed in the H-mode phase but the core ion temperature did not change significantly. On the other hand, the toroidal rotation also increased over all radii in the H-mode phase. The measured ELM frequency was from 30-50 Hz and the drop of total energy appeared to be less than 5%. Between large ELM spikes, small/grassy ELMs were also identified when mixed heating of NBI and ECRH was applied.