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Journal Articles

Assessment of operational space for long-pulse scenarios in ITER

Polevoi, A. R.*; Loarte, A.*; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Kim, H. S.*; Kim, S. H.*; Koechl, F.*; Kukushkin, A. S.*; Leonov, V. M.*; Medvedev, S. Yu.*; Murakami, Masakatsu*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 55(6), p.063019_1 - 063019_8, 2015/05

 Times Cited Count:23 Percentile:13.62(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Journal Articles

Kinetic modelling of divertor fluxes during ELMs in ITER

Hosokawa, Masanari*; Loarte, A.*; Huijsmans, G.*; Takizuka, Tomonori*; Hayashi, Nobuhiko

Europhysics Conference Abstracts (Internet), 38F, p.P5.003_1 - P5.003_4, 2014/06

Journal Articles

Optimization of ITER operational space for long-pulse scenarios

Polevoi, A. R.*; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Kim, H. S.*; Kim, S. H.*; Koechl, F.*; Kukushkin, A. S.*; Leonov, V. M.*; Loarte, A.*; Medvedev, S. Yu.*; Murakami, Masakatsu*; et al.

Europhysics Conference Abstracts (Internet), 37D, p.P2.135_1 - P2.135_4, 2013/07

Journal Articles

Effects of rippled fields due to ferritic inserts and ELM mitigation coils on energetic ion losses in a 15 MA inductive scenario in ITER

Shinohara, Koji; Tani, Keiji*; Oikawa, Toshihiro*; Putvinski, S.*; Schaffer, M.*; Loarte, A.*

Nuclear Fusion, 52(9), p.094008_1 - 094008_12, 2012/09

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:41.95(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Journal Articles

Edge pedestal characteristics in JET and JT-60U tokamaks under variable toroidal field ripple

Urano, Hajime; Saibene, G.*; Oyama, Naoyuki; Parail, V.*; de Vries, P.*; Sartori, R.*; Kamada, Yutaka; Kamiya, Kensaku; Loarte, A.*; L$"o$nnroth, J.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 51(11), p.113004_1 - 113004_10, 2011/11

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:64.01(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The effect of TF ripple on the edge pedestal characteristics are examined in JET and JT-60U. By the installation of ferritic inserts, TF ripple was reduced from $$1%$$ to $$0.6%$$ in JT-60U. In JET, TF ripple was varied from $$0.1%$$ to $$1%$$ by feeding different currents to TF coils. The pedestal pressure was similar with reduced ripple in JT-60U. In JET, no clear difference of the pedestal characteristics was also observed. The edge toroidal rotation clearly decreased in counter direction by increased TF ripple. However, in JT-60U, the ELM frequency decreased by $$sim 20%$$ and the increased ELM loss power by $$30%$$ with reduced ripple. In JET, ELM frequency increases only slightly with increased TF ripple. From this inter-machine experiment, TF ripple less than $$1%$$ does not strongly affect the pedestal pressure. The effect of TF ripple on pedestal characteristics at lower collisionality close to ITER should be investigated as a next step study.

Journal Articles

ITER test blanket module error field simulation experiments at DIII-D

Schaffer, M. J.*; Snipes, J. A.*; Gohil, P.*; de Vries, P.*; Evans, T. E.*; Fenstermacher, M. E.*; Gao, X.*; Garofalo, A. M.*; Gates, D. A.*; Greenfield, C. M.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 51(10), p.103028_1 - 103028_11, 2011/10

 Times Cited Count:32 Percentile:15.51(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of ferromagnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER Test Blanket Modules (TBMs). Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking; confinement; L-H transition; edge localized mode (ELM) suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations; ELMs and the H-mode pedestal; energetic particle losses; and more. The experiments used a 3-coil mock-up of 2 magnetized ITER TBMs in one ITER equatorial port. The experiments did not reveal any effect likely to preclude ITER operations with a TBM-like error field. The largest effect was slowed plasma toroidal rotation v across the entire radial profile by as much as $$Delta v/v_{0} sim 50%$$ via non-resonant braking. Changes to global $$Delta n/n_{0}$$, $$Delta v/v_{0}$$ and $$Delta H_{98}/H_{98,0}$$ were $$sim$$3 times smaller. These effects are stronger at higher $$beta$$ and lower $$v_{0}$$. Other effects were smaller.

Journal Articles

Effect of toroidal field ripple on plasma rotation in JET

de Vries, P. C.*; Salmi, A.*; Parail, V.*; Giroud, C.*; Andrew, Y.*; Biewer, T. M.*; Cromb$'e$, K.*; Jenkins, I.*; Johnson, T.*; Kiptily, V.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 48(3), p.035007_1 - 035007_6, 2008/03

 Times Cited Count:45 Percentile:11.5(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Dedicated experiments on TF ripple effects on the performance of tokamak plasmas have been carried out at JET. The TF ripple was found to have a profound effect on the plasma rotation. The central Mach number, M, defined as the ratio of the rotation velocity and the thermal velocity, was found to drop as a function of TF ripple amplitude from an average value of M = 0.40-0.55 for operations at the standard JET ripple of 0.08% to M = 0.25-0.40 for 0.5% ripple and M = 0.1-0.3 for 1% ripple. With standard co-current injection of neutral beam injection (NBI), plasmas were found to rotate in the co-current direction. However, for higher TF ripple amplitudes ($$sim1%$$) an area of counter rotation developed at the edge of the plasma, while the core kept its co-rotation.

Journal Articles

Effect of toroidal field ripple and toroidal rotation on H-mode performance and ELM characteristics in JET/JT-60U similarity experiments

Oyama, Naoyuki; Saibene, G.*; Kamada, Yutaka; Kamiya, Kensaku; Loarte, A.*; L$"o$nnroth, J.*; Parail, V.*; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Salmi, A.*; Sartori, R.*; et al.

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 123, p.012015_1 - 012015_13, 2008/00

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:8.57

The effect of the toroidal field ripple and the edge toroidal rotation on H-mode and pedestal performance as well as ELM characteristics are investigated both in JET and JT-60U. In JT-60U, the amplitude of TF ripple was reduced from 1.2 % to 0.5 % after the installation of ferritic steel tiles. In JET, the ripple amplitude can actively be varied. In both devices, edge rotation in the same direction to the plasma current was reduced with increasing the ripple amplitude. Even at the same amplitude of 0.5 %, the achievable edge rotation in JT-60U was still lower than that in JET. A series of power and density scans performed at several ripple amplitude indicated that plasmas with smaller ripple amplitude and/or larger co-rotation are favorable to achieve higher pedestal pressure and plasma confinement in both devices. As for ELM characteristics, larger co-rotation seems to increase the ELM energy loss together with the reduction of the ELM frequency.

Journal Articles

Comparison of the spatial and temporal structure of type-I ELMs

Kirk, A.*; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Boedo, J. A.*; Beurskens, M.*; Counsell, G. F.*; Eich, T.*; Fundamenski, W.*; Herrmann, A.*; Kamada, Yutaka; Leonard, A. W.*; et al.

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 123, p.012011_1 - 012011_10, 2008/00

 Times Cited Count:22 Percentile:1.85

A comparison of the spatial and temporal evolution of the filamentary structures observed during type I ELMs is presented from a variety of diagnostics and machines. There is evidence that these filaments can be detected inside the LCFS prior to ELMs. The filaments do not have a circular cross section instead they are elongated in the perpendicular (poloidal) direction and this size appears to increase linearly with the minor radius of the machine. The filaments start rotating toroidally/poloidally with velocities close to that of the pedestal. This velocity then decreases as the filaments propagate radially. It is most likely that the filaments have at least their initial radial velocity when they are far out into the SOL. The dominant loss mechanism is through parallel transport and the transport to the wall is through the radial propagation of these filaments. Measurements of the filament energy content show that each filament contains up to 2.5 % of the energy released by the ELM.

Journal Articles

The H-mode pedestal, ELMs and TF ripple effects in JT-60U/JET dimensionless identity experiments

Saibene, G.*; Oyama, Naoyuki; L$"o$nnroth, J.*; Andrew, Y.*; la Luna, E. de.*; Giroud, C.*; Huysmans, G. T. A.*; Kamada, Yutaka; Kempenaars, M. A. H.*; Loarte, A.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 47(8), p.969 - 983, 2007/08

 Times Cited Count:29 Percentile:26.18(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

This paper summarizes results of dimensionless identity experiments in JT-60U and JET, aimed at the comparison of the H-mode pedestal and ELM behaviour in the two devices. In general, pedestal pressure in JT-60U is lower than in JET. These results motivated a closer investigation of experimental conditions in the two devices, to identify possible "hidden" physics that prevents obtaining a good match of pedestal values over a large range of plasmas parameters. Ripple-induced ion losses of the medium bore plasma used in JT-60U for the similarity experiments are identified as the main difference with JET. The magnitude of the JT-60U ripple losses is sufficient to induce counter-toroidal rotation in co-injected plasma. The influence of ripple losses was demonstrated at high q plasma: reducing ripple losses by $$sim$$2 by replacing positive with negative neutral beam injection resulted in an increased pedestal pressure in JT-60U, providing a good match to full power JET H-modes.

Journal Articles

Edge localized modes; Recent experimental findings and related issues

Kamiya, Kensaku; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Boedo, J. A.*; Eich, T.*; Federici, G.*; Fenstermacher, M.*; Finken, K.*; Herrmann, A.*; Terry, J.*; Kirk, A.*; et al.

Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 49(7), p.s43 - s62, 2007/07

 Times Cited Count:62 Percentile:8.45(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Edge Localized Mode (ELM) measurements in the tokamaks, including JT-60U, DIII-D, ASDEX-U and JET, are reviewed. The followings are outlines of this presentation. (1) ELM Types and basic scaling, (2) Small ELM regimes and ELM mitigation, (3) ELM filament formation and transverse motion, (4) Power deposition on divertor targets and main chamber wall.

Journal Articles

Progress in the ITER physics basis, 1; Overview and summary

Shimada, Michiya; Campbell, D. J.*; Mukhovatov, V.*; Fujiwara, Masami*; Kirneva, N.*; Lackner, K.*; Nagami, Masayuki; Pustovitov, V. D.*; Uckan, N.*; Wesley, J.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 47(6), p.S1 - S17, 2007/06

 Times Cited Count:592 Percentile:0.07(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The Progress in the ITER Physics Basis document is an update of the ITER Physics Basis (IPB), which was published in 1999. The IPB provided methodologies for projecting the performance of burning plasmas, developed largely through coordinated experimental, modeling and theoretical activities carried out on today's tokamaks (ITER Physics R&D). In the IPB, projections for ITER (1998 Design) were also presented. The IPB also pointed out some outstanding issues. These issues have been addressed by the International Tokamak Physics Activities (ITPA), which were initiated by the European Union, Japan, Russia and the U.S.A.. The new methodologies of projection and control developed through the ITPA are applied to ITER, which was redesigned under revised technical objectives, but will nonetheless meet the programmatic objective of providing an integrated demonstration of the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy.

Journal Articles

Progress in the ITER physics basis, 4; Power and particle control

Loarte, A.*; Lipschultz, B.*; Kukushkin, A. S.*; Matthews, G. F.*; Stangeby, P. C.*; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Counsell, G. F.*; Federici, G.*; Kallenbach, A.*; Krieger, K.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 47(6), p.S203 - S263, 2007/06

 Times Cited Count:666 Percentile:5.26(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Progress, since the ITER Physics Basis publication (1999), in understanding the processes that will determine the properties of the plasma edge and its interaction with material elements in ITER is described. Significant progress in experiment area: energy and particle transport, the interaction of plasmas with the main chamber material elements, ELM energy deposition on material elements and the transport mechanism, the physics of plasma detachment and neutral dynamics, the erosion of low and high Z materials, their transport to the core plasma and their migration at the plasma edge, retention of tritium in fusion devices and removal methods. This progress has been accompanied by the development of modelling tools for the physical processes at the edge plasma and plasma-materials interaction. The implications for the expected performance in ITER and the lifetime of the plasma facing materials are discussed.

Journal Articles

Effects of ripple-induced ion thermal transport on H-mode plasma performance

L$"o$nnroth, J.-S.*; Parail, V.*; Hyn$"o$nen, V.*; Johnson, T.*; Kiviniemi, T.*; Oyama, Naoyuki; Beurskens, M.*; Howell, D.*; Saibene, G.*; de Vries, P.*; et al.

Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 49(3), p.273 - 295, 2007/03

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:55.27(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

It is investigated whether differences in the MHD stability of the pedestal, including effects of plasma rotation and aspect ratio, can explain the results of JET/JT-60U similarity experiments. As a result, these mechanisms fail to explain the experimental observations. Therefore, the effects of ripple losses on H-mode performance were investigated. The analysis shows that ripple losses of thermal ions can affect H-mode plasma performance very sensitively. Orbit-following simulations indicate that losses due to diffusive transport give rise to a wide radial distribution of enhanced ion thermal transport, whereas non-diffusive losses have a very edge-localized distribution. In predictive transport simulations with an energy sink term in the continuity equation for the ion pressure representing non-diffusive losses, reduced performance as well as an increase in the ELM frequency are demonstrated.

Journal Articles

Edge pedestal physics and its implications for ITER

Kamada, Yutaka; Leonard, A. W.*; Bateman, G.*; Becoulet, M.*; Chang, C. S.*; Eich, T.*; Evans, T. E.*; Groebner, R. J.*; Guzdar, P. N.*; Horton, L. D.*; et al.

Proceedings of 21st IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2006) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2007/03

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Theoretical analysis and predictive modelling of ELMs mitigation by enhanced toroidal ripple and ergodic magnetic field

Parail, V. V.*; Evans, T. E.*; Johnson, T.*; L$"o$nnroth, J.*; Oyama, Naoyuki; Saibene, G.*; Sartori, R.*; Salmi, A.*; de Vries, P.*; Becoulet, M.*; et al.

Proceedings of 21st IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2006) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2007/03

Ripple-induced transport and externally driven resonance magnetic perturbations (RMP) near the separatrix are considered as prospective methods of ELM mitigation in present day tokamaks and ITER. Although these methods rely on different physics to generate extra transport, the influence of this transport on plasma dynamics and ELM mitigation is either similar or supplementary. The results of extensive theoretical analysis of the underlying physics processes behind transport induced by ripple and RMP is presented together with predictive transport modelling. Comparison with experiments on present-day tokamaks is given.

Journal Articles

Plasma-surface interaction, scrape-off layer and divertor physics; Implications for ITER

Lipschultz, B.*; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Bonnin, X.*; Coster, D. P.*; Counsell, G.*; Doerner, R.*; Dux, R.*; Federici, G.*; Fenstermacher, M. E.*; Fundamenski, W.*; et al.

Proceedings of 21st IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2006) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2007/03

The work of the ITPA SOL/divertor group is reviewed. The high-n nature of ELMs has been elucidated and new measurements have determined that they carry 10-20% of the ELM energy to the far SOL with implications for ITER limiters and the upper divertor. Analysis of ELM measurements imply that the ELM continuously loses energy as it travels across the SOL. The prediction of ITER divertor disruption power loads have been reduced as a result of finding that the divertor footprint broadens during the thermal quench and that the plasma can lose up to 80% of its thermal energy before the thermal quench (not for VDEs or ITBs). Disruption mitigation through massive gas puffing has been successful at reducing divertor heat loads but estimates of the effect on the main chamber walls indicate 10s of kG of Be would be melted/mitigation. Long-pulse studies have shown that the fraction of injected gas that can be recovered after a discharge decreases with discharge length. The use of mixed materials gives rise to a number of potential processes.

Journal Articles

Pedestal conditions for small ELM regimes in tokamaks

Oyama, Naoyuki; Gohil, P.*; Horton, L. D.*; Hubbard, A. E.*; Hughes, J. W.*; Kamada, Yutaka; Kamiya, Kensaku; Leonard, A. W.*; Loarte, A.*; Maingi, R.*; et al.

Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 48(5A), p.A171 - A181, 2006/05

 Times Cited Count:61 Percentile:9.53(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Survey of type I ELM dynamics measurements

Leonard, A. W.*; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Boedo, J. A.*; Becoulet, M.*; Counsell, G. F.*; Eich, T.*; Fundamenski, W.*; Herrmann, A.*; Horton, L. D.*; Kamada, Yutaka; et al.

Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 48(5A), p.A149 - A162, 2006/05

 Times Cited Count:40 Percentile:17.98(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

This report summarizes Type I edge localized mode (ELM) dynamics measurements from a number of tokamaks. Several transport mechanisms are conjectured to be responsible for ELM transport, including convective transport due to filamentary structures ejected from the pedestal, parallel transport due to edge ergodization or magnetic reconnection and turbulent transport driven by the high edge gradients when the radial electric field shear is suppressed. The experimental observations are assessed for their validation, or conflict, with these ELM transport conjectures.

Journal Articles

Small ELM regimes with good confinement on JET and comparison to those on ASDEX Upgrade, Alcator C-mod and JT-60U

Stober, J.*; Lomas, P. J.*; Saibene, G.*; Andrew, Y.*; Belo, P.*; Conway, G. D.*; Herrmann, A.*; Horton, L. D.*; Kempenaars, M.*; Koslowski, H.-R.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 45(11), p.1213 - 1223, 2005/11

 Times Cited Count:26 Percentile:32.67(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

no abstracts in English

31 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)