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Journal Articles

Estimation of temporal variation of discharged tritium from port of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant; Analysis of the temporal variation and comparison with released tritium from Japan and major nuclear facilities worldwide

Machida, Masahiko; Iwata, Ayako; Yamada, Susumu; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi*; Kobayashi, Takuya; Funasaka, Hideyuki*; Morita, Takami*

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 21(1), p.33 - 49, 2022/03

We estimate monthly discharge inventory of tritium from the port of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) from Jun 2013 to Mar 2020 by using the Voronoi tessellation scheme, following that the tritium monitoring inside the port has started since Jun 2013. As for the missing period from the initial month, Apr 2011 to May 2013, we calculate it by utilizing the concentration ratio of tritium to that of $$^{137}$$Cs in stagnant contaminant water during the initial direct discharged period to Jun 2011 and the discharge inventory correlation between tritium and $$^{137}$$Cs for the next-unknown continuously-discharged period up to May 2013. From the all- estimated results over 9 years, we find that the monthly discharge inventory sharply dropped just after closing the sea-side impermeable sea-wall in Oct. 2015 and subsequently coincided well with the sum of those of drainage and subdrain. By comparing the estimated results with those in the normal operation period before the accident, we point out that the discharge inventory from 1F port is not so large compared to those during the normal operation. Even the estimated one in year 2011 is found to be comparable to the maximum of operating pressurized water reactors discharging relatively large inventory in the order. In the nation level, the whole Japan domestic discharge inventory significantly decreased after the accident due to operation shutdown of most plants. Furthermore, 1F and even Japanese total discharge inventory are found to be entirely minor when comparing those of nuclear reprocessing plants and heavy-water reactors in world-wide level. From the above, we suggest that various scenarios can be openly discussed on the management in tritium stored inside 1F with help of the present estimated data and its comparison with the past discharge inventory.

Journal Articles

Development and evaluation of XRF imaging instrument for moving objects

Fuchita, Tomoki*; Urata, Taisei*; Matsuyama, Tsugufumi*; Murakami, Masashi; Yoshida, Yukihiko; Ueda, Akihiko; Machida, Masahiko; Sasaki, Toshiki; Tsuji, Koichi*

X-sen Bunseki No Shimpo, 53, p.77 - 87, 2022/03

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is an analytical method to obtain elemental information by detecting fluorescence X-rays emitted from a sample irradiated with X-rays. It is possible to obtain two-dimensional elemental distribution images by scanning a sample with micro X-ray beam. In this study, we developed an XRF analytical instrument to rapidly obtain the elemental distributions for moving samples on a belt conveyor by applying the micro XRF technique. X-rays were widely irradiated to the belt conveyor. The elemental distributions were measured by scanning an X-ray detector, crossing above the belt conveyor. A collimator was attached to the top of the detector to limit the analyzing area. Both detection limit and spatial resolutions for moving directions of the detector and the belt conveyor were evaluated. Finally, it was demonstrated that the multi-elemental imaging was possible with the developed XRF instrument.

Journal Articles

A Modeling approach to estimate $$^{3}$$H discharge from rivers; Comparison of discharge from the Fukushima Dai-ichi and inventory in seawater in the Fukushima coastal region

Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Machida, Masahiko; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Iwata, Ayako; Yamada, Susumu; Iijima, Kazuki

Science of the Total Environment, 806(3), p.151344_1 - 151344_8, 2022/02

Journal Articles

Present status and future perspective of R&D for 3D-ADRES (3-Dimensional Air Dose Rate Evaluation System); Evaluation scheme for air dose rate distributions in city and forest areas towards Fukushima's revitalization

Kim, M.; Malins, A.; Machida, Masahiko; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Saito, Kimiaki; Yoshida, Hiroko*; Yanagi, Hideaki*; Yoshida, Toru*; Hasegawa, Yukihiro*

RIST News, (67), p.3 - 15, 2021/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Practical tests of neutron transmission imaging with a superconducting kinetic-inductance sensor

Vu, TheDang; Shishido, Hiroaki*; Aizawa, Kazuya; Kojima, Kenji M*; Koyama, Tomio*; Oikawa, Kenichi; Harada, Masahide; Oku, Takayuki; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Miyajima, Shigeyuki*; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1006, p.165411_1 - 165411_8, 2021/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.03(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Journal Articles

Development of leak before break assessment guidelines for sodium cooled fast reactors in Japan

Yada, Hiroki; Wakai, Takashi; Miyagawa, Takayuki*; Machida, Hideo*

Proceedings of ASME 2021 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2021) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/07

Journal Articles

Experimental evidence for the existence of a second partially-ordered phase of ice VI

Yamane, Ryo*; Komatsu, Kazuki*; Gochi, Jun*; Uwatoko, Yoshiya*; Machida, Shinichi*; Hattori, Takanori; Ito, Hayate*; Kagi, Hiroyuki*

Nature Communications (Internet), 12, p.1129_1 - 1129_6, 2021/02

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:89.3(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Ice exhibits extraordinary structural variety in its polymorphic structures. The existence of a new form of diversity in ice polymorphism has recently been debated in both experimental and theoretical studies, questioning whether hydrogen-disordered ice can transform into multiple hydrogen-ordered phases, contrary to the known one-to-one correspondence between disordered ice and its ordered phase. Here we report a new high-pressure phase, ice XIX, which is a second hydrogen-ordered phase of ice VI. This is the first discovery to demonstrate that disordered ice undergoes different manners of hydrogen ordering. Such multiplicity can appear in all disordered ice, and it widely provides a new research approach to deepen our knowledge, for example of the crucial issues of ice: the centrosymmetry of hydrogen-ordered configurations and potentially induced (anti-)ferroelectricity. Ultimately, this research opens up the possibility of completing the phase diagram of ice.

Journal Articles

Calculations for ambient dose equivalent rates in nine forests in eastern Japan from $$^{134}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs radioactivity measurements

Malins, A.; Imamura, Naohiro*; Niizato, Tadafumi; Takahashi, Junko*; Kim, M.; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Shinomiya, Yoshiki*; Miura, Satoru*; Machida, Masahiko

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 226, p.106456_1 - 106456_12, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

Journal Articles

Homogeneity of neutron transmission imaging over a large sensitive area with a four-channel superconducting detector

Vu, TheDang; Shishido, Hiroaki*; Kojima, Kenji M*; Koyama, Tomio*; Oikawa, Kenichi; Harada, Masahide; Miyajima, Shigeyuki*; Oku, Takayuki; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Aizawa, Kazuya; et al.

Superconductor Science and Technology, 34(1), p.015010_1 - 015010_10, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:72.02(Physics, Applied)

JAEA Reports

Status of study of long-term assessment of transport of radioactive contaminants in the environment of Fukushima (FY2018) (Translated document)

Nagao, Fumiya; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ito, Satomi; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Dohi, Terumi; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Funaki, Hironori; et al.

JAEA-Research 2020-007, 249 Pages, 2020/10

JAEA-Research-2020-007.pdf:15.83MB

The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. occurred due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, Sanriku offshore earthquake, of 9.0 magnitude and the accompanying tsunami. As a result, large amount of radioactive materials was released into the environment. Under these circumstances, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting "Long-term Assessment of Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in the Environment of Fukushima" concerning radioactive materials released in environment, especially migration behavior of radioactive cesium since November 2012. This report is a summary of the research results that have been obtained in environmental dynamics research conducted by JAEA in Fukushima Prefecture.

Journal Articles

Simulation analysis of the Compton-to-peak method for quantifying radiocesium deposition quantities

Malins, A.; Ochi, Kotaro; Machida, Masahiko; Sanada, Yukihisa

Proceedings of Joint International Conference on Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications + Monte Carlo 2020 (SNA + MC 2020), p.147 - 154, 2020/10

Journal Articles

Seven-year temporal variation of caesium-137 discharge inventory from the port of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant; Continuous monthly estimation of caesium-137 discharge in the period from April 2011 to June 2018

Machida, Masahiko; Yamada, Susumu; Iwata, Ayako; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Watanabe, Masahisa; Funasaka, Hideyuki; Morita, Takami*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(8), p.939 - 950, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:76.41(Nuclear Science & Technology)

After direct discharges of highly contaminated water of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) from April to May 2011, Kanda suggested that relatively small amounts of run-off of radionuclides from the 1F port into the Fukushima coastal region subsequently continued by his estimation method. However, the estimation period was limited to up to September 2012. Therefore, this paper estimates the discharge inventory up to June 2018. In the missing period, the Japanese government and Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings have continued efforts to stop the discharge, and consequently, the radionuclide concentration in seawater inside the 1F port has gradually diminished. We show the monthly discharge inventory of $$^{137}$$Cs up to June 2018 by two methods, i.e., Kanda method partially improved by the authors and a more sophisticated method using Voronoi tessellation reflecting the increase in the number of monitoring points inside the 1 F port. The results show that the former always yields overestimated results compared with the latter, but the ratio of the former to the latter is less than one order of magnitude. Using these results, we evaluate the impact of the discharge inventory from the 1F port into the coastal area and radiation dose upon fish ingestion.

Journal Articles

Kinetic inductance neutron detector operated at near critical temperature

Vu, TheDang; Nishimura, Kazuma*; Shishido, Hiroaki*; Harada, Masahide; Oikawa, Kenichi; Miyajima, Shigeyuki*; Hidaka, Mutsuo*; Oku, Takayuki; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Aizawa, Kazuya; et al.

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 1590, p.012036_1 - 012036_9, 2020/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01

Journal Articles

Neutron diffraction study on the deuterium composition of nickel deuteride at high temperatures and high pressures

Saito, Hiroyuki*; Machida, Akihiko*; Hattori, Takanori; Sano, Asami; Funakoshi, Kenichi*; Sato, Toyoto*; Orimo, Shinichi*; Aoki, Katsutoshi*

Physica B; Condensed Matter, 587, p.412153_1 - 412153_6, 2020/06

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:23.44(Physics, Condensed Matter)

The site occupancy of deuterium (D) atoms in face-centered-cubic nickel (fcc Ni) was measured along a cooling path from 1073 to 300 K at an initial pressure of 3.36 GPa via in situ neutron powder diffraction. Deuterium atoms predominantly occupy the octahedral (O) sites and slightly occupy the tetrahedral (T) sites of the fcc metal lattice. The O-site occupancy increases from 0.4 to 0.85 as the temperature is lowered from 1073 to 300 K. Meanwhile, the T-site occupancy remains c.a. 0.02. The temperature-independent behavior of the T-site occupancy is unusual, and its process is not yet understood. From the linear relation between the expanded lattice volume and D content, a D-induced volume expansion of 2.09(13) ${AA $^{3}$/D}$ atom was obtained. This value is in agreement with the values of 2.14-2.2 ${AA $^{3}$/D}$ atom previously reported for Ni and Ni$$_{0.8}$$ Fe$$_{0.2}$$ alloy.

Journal Articles

Crystal and magnetic structures of double hexagonal close-packed iron deuteride

Saito, Hiroyuki*; Machida, Akihiko*; Iizuka, Riko*; Hattori, Takanori; Sano, Asami; Funakoshi, Kenichi*; Sato, Toyoto*; Orimo, Shinichi*; Aoki, Katsutoshi*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 10, p.9934_1 - 9934_8, 2020/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Neutron powder diffraction profiles were collected for iron deuteride (FeDx) while the temperature decreased from 1023 to 300 K for a pressure range of 4-6 GPa. The $$varepsilon$$' deuteride with a double hexagonal close-packed (dhcp) structure, which coexisted with other stable or metastable deutrides at each temperature and pressure condition, formed solid solutions with a composition of FeD$$_{0.68(1)}$$ at 673 K and 6.1 GPa and FeD$$_{0.74(1)}$$ at 603 K and 4.8 GPa. Upon stepwise cooling to 300 K, the D-content x increased to a stoichiometric value of 1.0 to form monodeuteride FeD$$_{1.0}$$. In the dhcp FeD$$_{1.0}$$ at 300 K and 4.2 GPa, dissolved D atoms fully occupied the octahedral interstitial sites, slightly displaced from the octahedral centers in the dhcp metal lattice, and the dhcp sequence of close-packed Fe planes contained hcp-stacking faults at 12%. Magnetic moments with 2.11 $$pm$$ 0.06 B/Fe-atom aligned ferromagnetically in parallel on the Fe planes.

Journal Articles

Horizontal line nodes in Sr$$_2$$RuO$$_4$$ proved by spin resonance

Iida, Kazuki*; Kofu, Maiko; Suzuki, Katsuhiro*; Murai, Naoki; Kawamura, Seiko; Kajimoto, Ryoichi; Inamura, Yasuhiro; Ishikado, Motoyuki*; Hasegawa, Shunsuke*; Masuda, Takatsugu*; et al.

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 89(5), p.053702_1 - 053702_5, 2020/05

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:87.06(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Anomalous hydrogen dynamics of the ice VII-VIII transition revealed by high-pressure neutron diffraction

Komatsu, Kazuki*; Klotz, S.*; Machida, Shinichi*; Sano, Asami; Hattori, Takanori; Kagi, Hiroyuki*

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(12), p.6356 - 6361, 2020/03

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:42.88(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Above 2 GPa the phase diagram of water simplifies considerably and exhibits only two solid phases up to 60 GPa, ice VII and ice VIII. The two phases are related to each other by hydrogen ordering, with the oxygen sub-lattice being essentially the same. Here we present neutron diffraction data to 15 GPa which reveal that the rate of hydrogen-ordering at the ice VII-VIII transition decreases strongly with pressure to reach time scales of minutes at 10 GPa. Surprisingly, the ordering process becomes more rapid again upon further compression. We show that such an unusual change in transition rate can be explained by a slowing-down of the rotational dynamics of water molecules with a simultaneous increase of translational motion of hydrogen under pressure, as previously suspected. The observed crossover in the hydrogen dynamics in ice is likely the origin of various hitherto unexplained anomalies of ice VII in the 10-15 GPa range reported by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and proton conductivity.

Journal Articles

Ice I$$_{rm c}$$ without stacking disorder by evacuating hydrogen from hydrogen hydrate

Komatsu, Kazuki*; Machida, Shinichi*; Noritake, Fumiya*; Hattori, Takanori; Sano, Asami; Yamane, Ryo*; Yamashita, Keishiro*; Kagi, Hiroyuki*

Nature Communications (Internet), 11(1), p.464_1 - 464_5, 2020/02

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:88.53(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Water freezes below 0$$^{circ}$$C at ambient pressure ordinarily to ice I$$_{rm h}$$, with hexagonal stacking sequence. Under certain conditions, ice with a cubic stacking sequence can also be formed, but ideal ice I$$_{rm c}$$ without stacking-disorder has never been formed until recently. Here we demonstrate a route to obtain ice I$$_{rm c}$$ without stacking-disorder by degassing hydrogen from the high-pressure form of hydrogen hydrate, C$$_{2}$$, which has a host framework isostructural with ice I$$_{rm c}$$. The stacking-disorder free ice I$$_{rm c}$$ is formed from C$$_{2}$$ via an intermediate amorphous or nano-crystalline form under decompression, unlike the direct transformations occurring in ice XVI from neon hydrate, or ice XVII from hydrogen hydrate. The obtained ice I$$_{rm c}$$ shows remarkable thermal stability, until the phase transition to ice I$$_{rm h}$$ at 250 K, originating from the lack of dislocations. This discovery of ideal ice I$$_{rm c}$$ will promote understanding of the role of stacking-disorder on the physical properties of ice as a counter end-member of ice I$$_{rm h}$$.

Journal Articles

High performance eigenvalue solver for Hubbard model; Tuning strategies for LOBPCG method on CUDA GPU

Yamada, Susumu; Machida, Masahiko; Imamura, Toshiyuki*

Parallel Computing; Technology Trends, p.105 - 113, 2020/00

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Crystal structure of a high-pressure phase of magnesium chloride hexahydrate determined by ${it in-situ}$ X-ray and neutron diffraction methods

Yamashita, Keishiro*; Komatsu, Kazuki*; Hattori, Takanori; Machida, Shinichi*; Kagi, Hiroyuki*

Acta Crystallographica Section C; Structural Chemistry (Internet), 75(12), p.1605 - 1612, 2019/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:21.27(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

A crystal structure of a high-pressure phase of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl$$_{2}$$ $$cdot$$ 6H$$_{2}$$O-II) and its deuterated counterpart (MgCl$$_{2}$$ $$cdot$$ 6D$$_{2}$$O-II) have been identified for the first time by in-situ single-crystal X-ray and powder neutron diffraction. The crystal structure was analyzed by the Rietveld method for the neutron diffraction pattern based on the initial structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. This high-pressure phase has a similar framework to that in the known ambient-pressure phase, but exhibits some structural changes with symmetry reduction caused by a subtle modification in the hydrogen-bond network around the Mg(H$$_{2}$$O)$$_{6}$$ octahedra. These structural features reflect the strain in the high-pressure phases of MgCl$$_{2}$$ hydrates.

431 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)