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論文

Improvement of heat-removal capability using heat conduction on a novel reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) design with passive safety features through radiation and natural convection

高松 邦吉; 松元 達也*; Liu, W.*; 守田 幸路*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 122, p.201 - 206, 2018/12

 パーセンタイル:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

輻射及び自然対流による受動的安全性を持つ革新的な原子炉圧力容器冷却設備(RCCS)を提案した。このRCCSは、連続した2つの閉空間(RPV周囲にある圧力容器室、大気と熱交換を行う冷却室)から構成される。また、RPVからの放出熱を、できるだけ輻射を用いて効率的に除去するため、今までに無い新しい形状を採用している。さらに、作動流体及び最終ヒートシンクとして空気を用いることで、崩壊熱除去を行う際、それら作動流体及びヒートシンクを失う可能性が大幅に低減される。本研究では、熱伝導を利用したRCCSの除熱能力の向上を目指した結果、除熱できる熱流束が2倍となり、RCCSの高さを半分に、または熱出力を2倍にすることが可能となった。

論文

Experimental study on heat removal performance of a new Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS)

細見 成祐*; 明石 知泰*; 松元 達也*; Liu, W.*; 守田 幸路*; 高松 邦吉

Proceedings of 11th Korea-Japan Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS-11) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2018/11

受動的安全性を備えた新しい炉容器冷却システム(RCCS)を提案する。RCCSは連続した2つの閉じた領域から構成される。1つは原子炉圧力容器(RPV)を囲む領域、もう1つは大気と熱交換をする冷却領域である。新しいRCCSはRPVから発生した熱を輻射や自然対流によって除去する。最終的なヒートシンクは大気であるため、電気的または機械的に駆動する機器は不要である。RCCSの性能を理解するためにスケールモデルを使用して実験を開始した。ヒーター壁と冷却壁に異なる放射率を設定し、3つの実験を実施した。ヒーターから放出された総熱出力および壁面温度分布に関するデータが得られた。モンテカルロ法を使ってヒーターから放出された総熱出力に対する放射の寄与を評価した。ヒーター壁を黒く塗った場合、総熱出力に対する放射の寄与は約60%まで増加できた。つまり、実機においてRPVの壁面の放射率を高くすることは有効である。同時に、冷却領域の壁面の放射率も高くすれば、大気への放射を増加できるだけでなく、RCCS内の対流熱伝達も促進できることがわかった。

論文

Validation of three-dimensional finite-volume-particle method for simulation of liquid-liquid mixing flow behavior

加藤 正嗣*; 船越 寛司*; Liu, X.*; 松元 達也*; Liu, W.*; 守田 幸路*; 神山 健司

Proceedings of 11th Korea-Japan Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS-11) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2018/11

Computational fluid dynamics based on particle-based simulations with a fully Lagrangian approach is a powerful tool to understand thermal-hydraulic behaviors of multi-component, multi-phase flows involved in disrupted nuclear core during severe accidents. In this study, a validation study of 3D particle-based simulation using the finite volume particle method was performed for mixing flow behavior of two liquid phases with different densities in a pool. Fundamental experiments using water and silicon oil were also carried out for the present validation. An enhanced multi-phase scheme was introduced to provide accurate and stable calculations of multi-phase flows characterized by high density ratios. The simulation results of the experiments were given to demonstrate validity of the present simulation method and enhanced performance for simulations of mixing and separation behaviors of liquid-liquid two-phase flows in the pool.

論文

Experimental study on debris bed characteristics for the sedimentation behavior of solid particles used as simulant debris

Shamsuzzaman, M.*; 堀江 達郎*; 浮池 亮太*; 神山 基紀*; 森岡 徹*; 松元 達也*; 守田 幸路*; 田上 浩孝; 鈴木 徹*; 飛田 吉春

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 111, p.474 - 486, 2018/01

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:16.17(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Particle bed characteristics are experimentally investigated for the sedimentation and subsequent bed formation of solid particles, related to the coolability aspects in core-disruptive accidents. Presently a series of experiments with gravity driven discharge of solid particles into a quiescent water pool was performed to evaluate bed formation characteristic in the course of particle sedimentation. We evaluated the effects of the crucial factors: nozzle diameter, particle density, particle diameter and nozzle height on four key quantitative parameters of bed shape: mound dimple area, mound dimple volume, repose angle and mound height to illustrate the role of the crucial factors on forming the particle bed shape. The investigated crucial factors exhibit a significant role that diversifies the particle bed formation process. Based on the data obtained in the experimental observations, we developed an empirical correlation to compare the predicted results with the experimental bed heights. The proposed empirical correlation can reasonably demonstrate the general trend of the experimental bed height. This correlation could be useful to assess the particle bed elevation, and to identify the governing parameters.

論文

Sedimentation behavior of mixed solid particles

Sheikh, Md. A. R.*; Son, E.*; 神山 基紀*; 森岡 徹*; 松元 達也*; 守田 幸路*; 松場 賢一; 神山 健司; 鈴木 徹*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(6), p.623 - 633, 2018/01

 パーセンタイル:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

高速炉の炉心損傷事故時に形成される燃料デブリの堆積高さは、燃料デブリの冷却性及び臨界特性に影響する重要な要因の一つである。本研究では、燃料デブリの堆積挙動に関する実験データベースを構築するため、燃料デブリを模擬した特性(粒子径,密度,球形度等)の異なる固体粒子(アルミナ,スティール)の混合粒子を水プール中へ落下・堆積させる実験を行い、粒子ベッドの堆積高さを測定するとともに、均質粒子及び混合粒子から成るデブリベッドの堆積高さを予測する実験相関式を構築した。構築した実験相関式は粒子ベッドの堆積高さの測定結果と良く一致することを確認した。

論文

Numerical simulation of solid-particle sedimentation behavior using a multi-fluid model coupled with DEM

河田 凌*; 大原 陽平*; Sheikh, Md. A. R.*; Liu, X.*; 松元 達也*; 守田 幸路*; Guo, L.*; 神山 健司; 鈴木 徹

Proceedings of 17th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-17) (USB Flash Drive), 14 Pages, 2017/09

Numerical simulations of various thermal-hydraulic phenomena with multiphase and multicomponent flows in postulated core disruptive accidents (CDAs) are regarded as particular difficulties in the safety analysis of liquid-metal cooled reactors. In a material relocation phase of CDAs, core debris may settle on the core-support structure and/or in the lower inlet plenum of the reactor vessel and then form the debris bed. In particular, the shape of debris bed is crucial for the relocation of molten core and heat-removal capability of the debris bed as well as re-criticality. In the present study, a hybrid numerical simulation method, which couples the multi-fluid model of the 3D fast reactor safety analysis code SIMMER-IV with the discrete element method (DEM), was applied to analyze sedimentation and bed formation behaviors of core debris. In the present study, 3D simulations were performed for a series of particle sedimentation experiments with gravity driven discharge of solid particles into a quiescent cylindrical water pool. The present simulation predicts the sedimentation behavior of mixed particles with different density or particle size as well as homogeneous particles. The simulation results on bed shapes and particle distribution in the bed agree well with the experimental ones. They demonstrate the fundamental applicability of the present hybrid method to solid-particle sedimentation and bed formation simulations.

論文

Experimental database for bed formation behaviors of solid particles

Sheikh, M. A. R.*; Son, E.*; 神山 基紀*; 森岡 徹*; 松元 達也*; 守田 幸路*; 松場 賢一; 神山 健司; 鈴木 徹

Proceedings of 10th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS-10) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2016/11

ナトリウム冷却高速炉の炉心損傷事故における再配置過程では、微粒化デブリによる堆積ベッド形成挙動がデブリベッド冷却による炉容器内事故終息の観点で重要である。本研究では、粒子堆積ベッド形成挙動に関する実験データベースを構築するため、微粒化デブリを模擬した固体粒子を円筒型の水プール中へ重力落下によって放出させ、粒子堆積ベッドの形状及び高さを測定する実験を行った。本実験では、材質及びサイズの異なる3種類(アルミナ,ジルコニア,スティール)の球形・非球形粒子を用い、これらのパラメータが粒子ベッドの堆積形状に及ぼす影響を調べるとともに、その結果に基づき粒子ベッドの堆積高さを予測する整理式を実験データベースとして開発した。開発した整理式は、本実験で把握された重要パラメータに対する堆積ベッド高さの変化傾向をよく再現しており、広範な適用性を有していることが示された。

論文

New reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with passive safety features; A Comparative methodology between a real RCCS and a scaled-down heat-removal test facility

高松 邦吉; 松元 達也*; 守田 幸路*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 96, p.137 - 147, 2016/10

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:76.09(Nuclear Science & Technology)

東京電力の福島第一原子力発電所事故(以下、福島事故)後、深層防護の観点から炉心損傷の防止対策が重要になった。そこで、動的機器および非常用電源等を必要とせず、福島事故のようにヒートシンクを喪失することのない、受動的安全性を持つ原子炉圧力容器の冷却設備を提案する。本冷却設備は安定して冷却できるため、定格運転時の一部の放出熱、および炉停止後の一部の崩壊熱を、常に安定的に受動的に除去できる。特に事故時において、本冷却設備が持つ冷却能力の範囲まで崩壊熱が減少した際、それ以降は非常用電源等が必要なくなり、長期間(無限時間)に渡って受動的な除熱が可能となる。一方、本冷却設備の優れた除熱性能を示すために、等倍縮小した除熱試験装置を製作し、ふく射および自然対流に関する実験条件をグラスホフ数を用いて決定することもできた。

論文

Experimental investigation on characteristics of mixed particle debris in sedimentation and bed formation behavior

Sheikh, M. A. R.*; Son, E.*; 神山 基紀*; 森岡 徹*; 松元 達也*; 守田 幸路*; 松場 賢一; 神山 健司; 鈴木 徹

Proceedings of 11th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-11) (USB Flash Drive), 12 Pages, 2016/10

高速炉の炉心損傷事故時に形成される燃料デブリの落下・堆積挙動を明らかにするため、燃料デブリを模擬した特性の異なる固体粒子(アルミナ、スティール)の混合粒子を水プール中へ落下・堆積させる粒子ベッド形成実験を行い、堆積デブリベッドの形状に対する主要パラメータの影響を検討した。本研究により、燃料デブリの落下・堆積に関する数値モデル及びシミュレーションコードの検証に有効な実験データ及び知見が得られた。

論文

New reactor cavity cooling system with a novel shape and passive safety features

高松 邦吉; 松元 達也*; 守田 幸路*

Proceedings of 2016 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2016) (CD-ROM), p.1250 - 1257, 2016/04

東京電力の福島第一原子力発電所事故(以下、福島事故)後、深層防護の観点から炉心損傷の防止対策が重要になった。そこで、動的機器および非常用電源等を必要とせず、福島事故のようにヒートシンクを喪失することのない、受動的安全性を持つ原子炉圧力容器の冷却設備を提案する。本冷却設備は安定して冷却できるため、定格運転時の一部の放出熱、および炉停止後の一部の崩壊熱を、常に安定的に受動的に除去できる。特に事故時において、本冷却設備が持つ冷却能力の範囲まで崩壊熱が減少した際、それ以降は非常用電源等が必要なくなり、長期間(無限時間)に渡って受動的な除熱が可能となる。一方、本冷却設備の優れた除熱性能を示すために、等倍縮小した除熱試験装置を製作し、ふく射および自然対流に関する実験条件をグラスホフ数を用いて決定することもできた。

論文

An Investigation on debris bed self-leveling behavior with non-spherical particles

Cheng, S.; 田上 浩孝; 山野 秀将; 鈴木 徹; 飛田 吉春; 竹田 祥平*; 西 津平*; 錦戸 達也*; Zhang, B.*; 松元 達也*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 51(9), p.1096 - 1106, 2014/09

AA2013-0303.pdf:1.68MB

 被引用回数:13 パーセンタイル:12.31(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Studies on debris bed self-leveling behavior with non-spherical particles are crucial in the assessment of actual leveling behavior that could occur in core disruptive accident of sodium-cooled fast reactors. Although in our previous publications, a simple empirical model (based model), with its wide applicability confirmed over various experimental conditions, has been successfully advanced to predict the transient leveling behavior, up until now this model is restricted to calculations of debris bed of spherical particles. Focusing on this aspect, in this study a series of experiments using non-spherical particles was performed within a recently-developed comparatively larger-scale experimental facility. Based on the knowledge and data obtained, an extension scheme is suggested with the intention to extend the base model to cover the particle-shape influence. Through detailed analyses, it is found that by coupling this scheme, good agreement between experimental and predicted results can be achieved for both spherical and non-spherical particles given current range of experimental conditions.

論文

Experimental study and empirical model development for self-leveling behavior of debris bed using gas-injection

Cheng, S.; 田上 浩孝; 山野 秀将; 鈴木 徹; 飛田 吉春; 中村 裕也*; 竹田 祥平*; 西 津平*; Zhang, B.*; 松元 達也*; et al.

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 1(4), p.TEP0022_1 - TEP0022_16, 2014/08

To clarify the mechanisms underlying the debris-bed self-leveling behavior, several series of experiments were elaborately designed and conducted within a variety of conditions in recent years, under the collaboration between Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Kyushu University. The current contribution, including knowledge from both experimental analyses and empirical model development, is focused on a recently developed comparatively larger-scale experimental facility using gas-injection to simulate the coolant boiling. Based on the experimental observation and quantitative data obtained, influence of various experimental parameters, including gas flow rate ($$sim$$ 300 L/min), water depth (180 mm and 400 mm), bed volume (3 $$sim$$ 7 L), particle size (1 $$sim$$ 6 mm), particle density (beads of alumina, zirconia and stainless steel) along with particle shape (spherical and irregularly-shaped) on the leveling is checked and compared. As for the empirical model development, aside from a base model which is restricted to calculations of spherical particles, the status of potential considerations on how to cover more realistic conditions (esp. debris beds formed with non-spherical particles), is also presented and discussed.

論文

Evaluation of debris bed self-leveling behavior; A Simple empirical approach and its validations

Cheng, S.; 田上 浩孝; 山野 秀将; 鈴木 徹; 飛田 吉春; Zhang, B.*; 松元 達也*; 守田 幸路*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 63, p.188 - 198, 2014/01

 被引用回数:21 パーセンタイル:4.37(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To clarify the mechanisms underlying the debris bed self-leveling behavior, several series of experiments were elaborately designed and conducted in recent years under the constructive collaboration between Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Kyushu University (Japan). Based on the experimental observations and quantitative data obtained from various conditions, a simple empirical approach to predict the self-leveling development depending on particle size, particle density and gas velocity was proposed. To confirm the rationality and wide applicability of this approach, over the past few years extensive efforts have been made by performing modeling investigations against a large number of experimental data covering various conditions (including difference in bubbling mode, bed geometry and range of experimental parameters). The present contribution synthesizes these efforts and gives detailed comparative analyses of the performed validations, thus, providing some insight for a better understanding of CDAs and improved verifications of computer models developed in advanced fast reactor safety analysis codes.

論文

A Methodological study extending an empirical model to predict self-leveling behavior of debris beds with non-spherical particles

Cheng, S.; 田上 浩孝; 山野 秀将; 鈴木 徹; 飛田 吉春; 中村 裕也*; Zhang, B.*; 松元 達也*; 守田 幸路*

Proceedings of International Conference on Power Engineering 2013 (ICOPE 2013) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2013/10

In our previous publications, a simple empirical model, with its wide applicability confirmed over various experimental conditions, has been successfully proposed to predict the debris bed self-leveling behavior of spherical particles. Based on existing experimental knowledge obtained, in this study a methodological framework is developed with the purpose of extending its predicative capability for non-spherical particles. The proposed framework principally consists of two empirical terms - with one for correcting the terminal velocity of single non-spherical particles, which is the key parameter in our modeling, and the other for representing the additional particle-particle interactions caused by the shape-related parameters. Through the preliminary analyses, it was found that by linking the Geldart's method with our recently developed pressure-drop measurement facility, the terminal velocity of irregularly-shaped particles can be readily achieved, while for modeling the additional particle-particle interactions, based on the latest data available a parametric study is also conducted to identify the potential contributors.

論文

An Experimental investigation on self-leveling behavior of debris beds using gas-injection

Cheng, S.; 山野 秀将; 鈴木 徹; 飛田 吉春; 権代 陽嗣*; 中村 裕也*; Zhang, B.*; 松元 達也*; 守田 幸路*

Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 48, p.110 - 121, 2013/07

 被引用回数:13 パーセンタイル:29.21(Thermodynamics)

Although in the past, several experiments have been conducted to investigate the self-leveling behavior of debris beds, most of these were under comparatively lower gas velocities, the findings of which might be not directly applicable to actual reactor accident conditions. Current experiments were conducted using gas-injection in a large-scale cylindrical tank, in which nitrogen gas, water and different kinds of solid particles, simulate the fission gas, coolant and fuel debris, respectively. During experiments, to accomplish the bubble-based leveling as expected in reactor conditions, two experimental approaches, termed respectively as the gas pre-charge method and the pressure-adjustment method, have been attempted. Through elaborate comparisons and evaluations, it is found that compared to the gas pre-charge way the pressure-adjustment method can alleviate the liquid disturbance from bottom inlet pipelines more effectively. Further, based on experimental data using pressure-adjustment method, influence of particle size, particle density and gas flow rate on the leveling has been confirmed under current higher gas velocities. In addition, the liquid convection in the water pool, which is not evident within lower gas velocities, is observed to play an important role within current conditions, especially for experimental runs using larger-size but lower-density particles at rather higher gas flow rates.

論文

Recent knowledge from an experimental investigation on self-leveling behavior of debris bed

Cheng, S.; 山野 秀将; 鈴木 徹; 飛田 吉春; 中村 裕也*; 竹田 祥平*; 西 津平*; Zhang, B.*; 松元 達也*; 守田 幸路*

Proceedings of 21st International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-21) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2013/07

To confirm the mechanisms of self-leveling behavior, several series of experiments were elaborately designed and performed in recent years under the constructive collaboration between Japan Atomic Energy Agency and Kyushu University. This paper summarizes the recent knowledge obtained from the newly developed large-scale experiments using gas-injection to simulate coolant boiling. Compared to previous investigations, it can cover a much wider range of gas velocities (presently up to a flow rate of around 300 L/min). The experiments were conducted in a cylindrical tank, in which water, nitrogen gas and different kinds of solid particles, simulate the coolant, vapor and fuel debris, respectively. Based on the quantitative data obtained, influence of various experimental parameters, including gas flow rate, water depth, particle size as well as particle density on the leveling was checked and compared. Moreover, with the help of dimensional analysis technique, a set of empirical correlations to predict the self-leveling development depending on particle size, particle density and gas injection velocity was proposed and validated over current conditions.

論文

Characteristics of self-leveling behavior of debris beds in a series of experiments

Cheng, S.; 山野 秀将; 鈴木 徹; 飛田 吉春; 中村 裕也*; Zhang, B.*; 松元 達也*; 守田 幸路*

Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 45(3), p.323 - 334, 2013/06

 被引用回数:22 パーセンタイル:5.42(Nuclear Science & Technology)

During a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (CDA) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), degraded core materials can form conically-shaped debris beds over the core-support structure and/or in the lower inlet plenum of the reactor vessel from rapid quenching and fragmentation of core material pool. However, coolant boiling may lead ultimately to leveling of the debris bed that is crucial to the relocation of molten core and heat-removal capability of debris bed. To clarify the mechanisms underlying this self-leveling behavior, a great amount of experiments were performed within a variety of conditions in recent years under the constructive collaboration between Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Kyushu University (Japan). The present contribution synthesizes and gives detailed comparative analyses of those experiments. Effects of various experimental parameters that may have potential influence on the leveling process such as boiling mode (bottom-heated, depressurization boiling and gas injection), particle size, particle density, particle shape (spherical and non-spherical), boiling intensity (or gas flow rate), water depth along with column geometry, were investigated, thus, giving a large palette of favorable data for better understanding of CDAs and improved verifications of computer models developed in advanced fast reactor safety analysis codes.

論文

Empirical correlations for predicting the self-leveling behavior of debris bed

Cheng, S.; 山野 秀将; 鈴木 徹; 飛田 吉春; 中村 裕也*; Zhang, B.*; 松元 達也*; 守田 幸路*

Nuclear Science and Techniques, 24(1), p.010602_1 - 010602_10, 2013/02

Studies on the self-leveling behavior of debris bed are crucial for the assessment of core-disruptive accident (CDA) occurred in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR). To clarify this behavior over a wide range of gas velocities, a series of experiments was performed by injecting nitrogen gas uniformly from a pool bottom. Current experiments were conducted in a cylindrical tank, in which water, nitrogen gas and different kinds of solid particles, simulate the coolant, vapor (generated by coolant boiling) and fuel debris, respectively. Based on the quantitative data obtained (mainly the time variation of bed inclination angle), with the help of dimensional analysis technique, a set of empirical correlations to predict the self-leveling development depending on particle size, particle density and gas injection velocity was proposed and discussed. It was seen that good agreement could be obtained between the calculated and experimental values. Rationality of the correlations was further confirmed through detailed analyses of the effects of experimental parameters such as particle size, particle density, gas flow rate and boiling mode. In order to facilitate future analyses and simulations of CDAs in SFRs more efficiently, the obtained results in this work will be incorporated into advanced fast reactor safety analysis codes.

論文

Experimental investigation of debris sedimentation behaviour on bed formation characteristics

Shamsuzzaman, M.*; 堀江 達郎*; 浮池 亮太*; 甲斐 貴之*; Zhang, B.*; 松元 達也*; 守田 幸路*; 田上 浩孝; 鈴木 徹; 飛田 吉春

Proceedings of 8th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS-8) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2012/12

溶融炉心物質の微粒化したデブリの堆積挙動の研究は、ナトリウム冷却型高速炉における炉心損傷事故事象を評価するうえで重要である。本研究では、この挙動を解明するため、静止水プール中にノズルから固体デブリを重力によって放出する一連の実験を実施した。最大10Lの量の放出デブリは、容器底部の収集板上に最終的に堆積し、実験パラメータに依存してガウス型の凸状あるいはリング型の凹状の山を形成した。直径2, 4, 6mm、Al$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$, ZrO$$_{2}$$及びステンレス鋼の三種類の球形デブリを用い、デブリ径及びデブリ体積とともにノズル径及びデブリ堆積がデブリベッドの山の高さに与える影響を調べた。本デブリ堆積実験では、山の高さはノズル径が大きくなるにつれて低くなり、デブリ体積が増加するにつれて高くなった。一方、密度の増加に対して山の高さは低くなり、デブリ径に対してはそのような変化は観察されなかった。実験観察で得られたデータに基づき、堆積過程におけるデブリデッドの山の高さの変化を予測する経験モデルを次元解析を適用することで開発した。

論文

An Experimental study on self-leveling behavior of debris beds with comparatively higher gas velocities

Cheng, S.; 山野 秀将; 鈴木 徹; 飛田 吉春; 権代 陽嗣*; 中村 裕也*; Zhang, B.*; 松元 達也*; 守田 幸路*

Proceedings of 8th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS-8) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2012/12

Studies on self-leveling behavior of debris bed are crucial for the assessment of core-disruptive accident (CDA) occurred in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR). Although in the past, several experiments have been conducted to investigate this behavior, most of these were under comparatively lower gas velocities, the findings of which might be not directly applicable to actual reactor accident conditions. To further clarify this behavior, a series of experiments has been performed by percolating nitrogen gas uniformly from pool bottom. Current experiments were conducted in a cylindrical tank, in which nitrogen gas, water and different kinds of solid particles, simulate the fission gas, coolant and fuel debris, respectively. During experiments, to alleviate the liquid disturbance from the bottom inlet pipelines, within the upper region of the test tank a condition of comparatively lower pressure was created. It is found that in this way the bubble-based leveling as expected in actual reactor accident conditions can be achieved effectively throughout the whole experimental process. Further, based on the quantitative data obtained, influence of various experimental parameters, including gas flow rate (up to 300 L/min), water height (180 mm, 400 mm), particle size (2 $$sim$$ 6 mm), particle density as well as column geometry on the leveling was checked and compared. Current work provides fundamental data for better understanding and improved estimation of CDAs in SFRs.

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