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Journal Articles

Dynamics of radiocaesium within forests in Fukushima; Results and analysis of a model inter-comparison

Hashimoto, Shoji*; Tanaka, Taku*; Komatsu, Masabumi*; Gonze, M.-A.*; Sakashita, Wataru*; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Nishina, Kazuya*; Ota, Masakazu; Ohashi, Shinta*; Calmon, P.*; et al.

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 238-239, p.106721_1 - 106721_10, 2021/11

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

This study was aimed at analysing performance of models for radiocesium migration mainly in evergreen coniferous forest in Fukushima, by inter-comparison between models of several research teams. The exercise included two scenarios of countermeasures against the contamination, namely removal of soil surface litter and forest renewal, and a specific konara oak forest scenario in addition to the evergreen forest scenario. All the models reproduced trend of time evolution of radiocesium inventories and concentrations in each of the components in forest such as leaf and organic soil layer. However, the variations between models enlarged in long-term predictions over 50 years after the fallout, meaning continuous field monitoring and model verification/validation is necessary.

Journal Articles

Calculations for ambient dose equivalent rates in nine forests in eastern Japan from $$^{134}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs radioactivity measurements

Malins, A.; Imamura, Naohiro*; Niizato, Tadafumi; Takahashi, Junko*; Kim, M.; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Shinomiya, Yoshiki*; Miura, Satoru*; Machida, Masahiko

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 226, p.106456_1 - 106456_12, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

JAEA Reports

The Second periodic safety review report of Tokai Reprocessing Plant

Shirai, Nobutoshi; Miura, Yasushi; Tachibana, Ikuya; Omori, Satoru; Wake, Junichi; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Nakano, Takafumi; Nagasato, Yoshihiko

JAEA-Technology 2016-007, 951 Pages, 2016/07

JAEA-Technology-2016-007-01.pdf:11.93MB
JAEA-Technology-2016-007-02.pdf:4.7MB

The periodic safety review of TRP is to confirm the safety activities and get effective additional measures the facility safety and its reliability. We implemented 4 items; for (1) evaluation of safety activity implementation, we confirmed we are adequately expanding its safety activities by the necessary documents and schemes. For (2) evaluation of status of safety activities reflecting the latest technical knowledges, we confirmed we reflect latest knowledges for improvement of safety and reliability. For (3) technical evaluation about aging degradation, we can keep the safety of the facilities important to safety and the sea discharge line, under assumption of the present maintenance, because of "focuses for aging degradation". For (4) planning measures about a 10-years-plan that the operator shall implement to keep the facility condition, by the technical evaluation, we found no additional safety plans into maintenance strategies.

Journal Articles

Quantitative aspects of heterogeneity in soil organic matter dynamics in a cool-temperate Japanese beech forest; A Radiocarbon-based approach

Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Ishizuka, Shigehiro*; Miura, Satoru*; Saito, Takeshi*; Hirai, Keizo*

Global Change Biology, 15(3), p.631 - 642, 2009/03

 Times Cited Count:35 Percentile:73.07(Biodiversity Conservation)

Although it is well documented the possibility that global warming can lead to an acceleration of microbial decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC), the magnitude and timing of this effect remains highly uncertain. The main reason is a lack of quantitative aspect of the heterogeneity in SOC biodegradability. To quantify the heterogeneity, we collected the soil and litter samples within a cool-temperate deciduous forest in Japan, separated chemically the samples into SOC fractions, determined their mean residence times (MRTs) based on the radiocarbon ($$^{14}$$C) measurements, and finally represented the soil as a complex of six SOC pools with different range of MRTs. Predicted response of the SOC pools to warming demonstrates that the rate of SOC loss from the fast-cycling SOC pool diminishes quickly because of the substrate availability; in contrast, the warming continues to accelerate SOC loss from slow-cycling pools with MRTs of 20-200 year over the next century.

Journal Articles

Radiocarbon-based estimation of soil carbon turnover in a cool-temperate beech forest

Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Ishizuka, Shigehiro*; Saito, Takeshi*; Hirai, Keizo*; Miura, Satoru*

Proceedings of International Symposium on Application of a Closed Experimental System to Modeling of $$^{14}$$C Transfer in the Environment, p.72 - 76, 2008/00

Recent debate has emphasized that our capacity to predict the response of soil organic carbon (SOC) to climate change depends on a clear understanding of the heterogeneity in SOC biodegradability. We collected soil samples from the Appi forest meteorology research site dominated by Japanese beech, separated the soil samples into three SOC fractions with a chemical method, and determined their radiocarbon isotope ratios using an accelerator mass spectrometry. The radiocarbon signatures allow us to estimate their turnover times (TTs), quantifying the rates of SOC decomposition. According to the estimated TTs, the SOC was distinguished into six SOC pools with distinct TTs of several years to $$>$$ 1000 years. The annual SOC decomposition rate was summed up to 0.47 kgC m$$^{-2}$$ y$$^{-1}$$, about a half of which was from the fastest-cycling pool (litter). Approximately 5% of SOC gave the over-millennium TTs, suggesting that this pool plays a role of a long-term carbon sequestration in the carbon cycle.

Journal Articles

Overview of national centralized tokamak program; Mission, design and strategy to contribute ITER and DEMO

Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Akiba, Masato; Fujii, Tsuneyuki; Fujita, Takaaki; Fujiwara, Masami*; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Nobuyuki; et al.

Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 49, p.S428 - S432, 2006/12

To contribute DEMO and ITER, the design to modify the present JT-60U into superconducting coil machine, named National Centralized Tokamak (NCT), is being progressed under nationwide collaborations in Japan. Mission, design and strategy of this NCT program is summarized.

Journal Articles

Impact of wall saturation on particle control in long and high-power-heated discharges in JT-60U

Nakano, Tomohide; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Takenaga, Hidenobu; Kubo, Hirotaka; Miura, Yukitoshi; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Konoshima, Shigeru; Masaki, Kei; Higashijima, Satoru; JT-60 Team

Nuclear Fusion, 46(5), p.626 - 634, 2006/05

 Times Cited Count:19 Percentile:56.94(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

In order to understand plasma-wall interactions in a long time scale, the discharge pulse length has been extended from 15 s to 65 s, with the NB-heating duration extended to 30 s. Nearly-saturation of the divertor plates was observed in the latter half of long pulse ELMy H-mode discharges. Particle sink into the divertor plates gradually decreased, and subsequently, wall-pumping efficiency became zero. This wall saturation resulted in a rise of the main plasma density without any auxiliary particle supply besides NB with divertor-pumping. Even when the total injected energy reached up to $$sim$$ 350 MJ in a discharge, neither sudden increase of carbon generation such as carbon bloom nor increase of the dilution of the main plasma was observed.

Journal Articles

Overview of the national centralized tokamak programme

Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Tamai, Hiroshi; Matsukawa, Makoto; Fujita, Takaaki; Takase, Yuichi*; Sakurai, Shinji; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Kurita, Genichi; Morioka, Atsuhiko; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 46(3), p.S29 - S38, 2006/03

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:44.28(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The National Centralized Tokamak (NCT) facility program is a domestic research program for advanced tokamak research to succeed JT-60U incorporating Japanese university accomplishments. The mission of NCT is to establish high beta steady-state operation for DEMO and to contribute to ITER. The machine flexibility and mobility is pursued in aspect ratio and shape controllability, feedback control of resistive wall modes, wide current and pressure profile control capability for the demonstration of the high-b steady state.

Journal Articles

Engineering design and control scenario for steady-state high-beta operation in national centralized tokamak

Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Akiba, Masato; Azechi, Hiroshi*; Fujii, Tsuneyuki; Fujita, Takaaki; Fujiwara, Masami*; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Hashizume, Hidetoshi*; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Horiike, Hiroshi*; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 81(8-14), p.1599 - 1605, 2006/02

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:10.64(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Compatibility of advanced tokamak plasma with high density and high radiation loss operation in JT-60U

Takenaga, Hidenobu; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Kubo, Hirotaka; Higashijima, Satoru; Konoshima, Shigeru; Nakano, Tomohide; Oyama, Naoyuki; Porter, G. D.*; Rognlien, T. D.*; Rensink, M. E.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 45(12), p.1618 - 1627, 2005/12

 Times Cited Count:18 Percentile:53.86(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Design study of national centralized tokamak facility for the demonstration of steady state high-$$beta$$ plasma operation

Tamai, Hiroshi; Akiba, Masato; Azechi, Hiroshi*; Fujita, Takaaki; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Hashizume, Hidetoshi*; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Horiike, Hiroshi*; Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Ichimura, Makoto*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 45(12), p.1676 - 1683, 2005/12

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:48.09(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Design studies are shown on the National Centralized Tokamak facility. The machine design is carried out to investigate the capability for the flexibility in aspect ratio and shape controllability for the demonstration of the high-beta steady state operation with nation-wide collaboration, in parallel with ITER towards DEMO. Two designs are proposed and assessed with respect to the physics requirements such as confinement, stability, current drive, divertor, and energetic particle confinement. The operation range in the aspect ratio and the plasma shape is widely enhanced in consistent with the sufficient divertor pumping. Evaluations of the plasma performance towards the determination of machine design are presented.

Journal Articles

Study of plasma wall interactions in the long-pulse NB-heated discharges of JT-60U towards steady-state operation

Takenaga, Hidenobu; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Higashijima, Satoru; Nakano, Tomohide; Kubo, Hirotaka; Konoshima, Shigeru; Oyama, Naoyuki; Isayama, Akihiko; Ide, Shunsuke; Fujita, Takaaki; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 337-339, p.802 - 807, 2005/03

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:70.37(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Compatibility of advanced tokamak plasma with high density and high radiation loss operation in JT-60U

Takenaga, Hidenobu; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Kubo, Hirotaka; Higashijima, Satoru; Konoshima, Shigeru; Nakano, Tomohide; Oyama, Naoyuki; Porter, G. D.*; Rognlien, T. D.*; Rensink, M. E.*; et al.

Proceedings of 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2004) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2004/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Advanced fusion technologies developed for JT-60 superconducting Tokamak

Sakasai, Akira; Ishida, Shinichi; Matsukawa, Makoto; Akino, Noboru; Ando, Toshinari*; Arai, Takashi; Ezato, Koichiro; Hamada, Kazuya; Ichige, Hisashi; Isono, Takaaki; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 44(2), p.329 - 334, 2004/02

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Advanced fusion technologies developed for JT-60 superconducting Tokamak

Sakasai, Akira; Ishida, Shinichi; Matsukawa, Makoto; Akino, Noboru; Ando, Toshinari*; Arai, Takashi; Ezato, Koichiro; Hamada, Kazuya; Ichige, Hisashi; Isono, Takaaki; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 44(2), p.329 - 334, 2004/02

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:24.51(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Asymmetry of collapse of density pedestal by type I ELM on JT-60U

Oyama, Naoyuki; Miura, Yukitoshi; Chankin, A. V.; Takenaga, Hidenobu; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Kamada, Yutaka; Oikawa, Toshihiro; Shinohara, Koji; Takeji, Satoru

Nuclear Fusion, 43(10), p.1250 - 1257, 2003/10

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:48.5(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Objectives and design of the JT-60 superconducting tokamak

Ishida, Shinichi; Abe, Katsunori*; Ando, Akira*; Chujo, T.*; Fujii, Tsuneyuki; Fujita, Takaaki; Goto, Seiichi*; Hanada, Kazuaki*; Hatayama, Akiyoshi*; Hino, Tomoaki*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 43(7), p.606 - 613, 2003/07

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Objectives and design of the JT-60 superconducting tokamak

Ishida, Shinichi; Abe, Katsunori*; Ando, Akira*; Cho, T.*; Fujii, Tsuneyuki; Fujita, Takaaki; Goto, Seiichi*; Hanada, Kazuaki*; Hatayama, Akiyoshi*; Hino, Tomoaki*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 43(7), p.606 - 613, 2003/07

 Times Cited Count:33 Percentile:71.47(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Two-dimensional distribution of divertor radiation in JT-60U

Konoshima, Shigeru; Tamai, Hiroshi; Miura, Yukitoshi; Higashijima, Satoru; Kubo, Hirotaka; Sakurai, Shinji; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Takizuka, Tomonori; Koide, Yoshihiko; Hatae, Takaki; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 313-316(1-3), p.888 - 892, 2003/03

 Times Cited Count:18 Percentile:76.42(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The emissivity distribution of the JT-60U divertor plasmas has been studied with the bolometer diagnostics. Line integrated bolometer signals of 48 chords have been successfully mapped onto the JT-60U W-shaped divertor geometry. 2D radiation profiles provide an intuitive understanding of the experiments and comparison of experiment with simulation for divertor characterization. An extended region of the radiation along both divertor legs was found in ELMing H-mode discharges with line-average density of 3.7x10$$^{19}$$m$$^{-3}$$. A highly radiative zone with an emissivity of around 15 MWm$$^{-3}$$ at the inboard side and around 8 MWm$$^{-3}$$ at outboard side has been identified to extend more than 10 cm from each target plate toward the x-point. About 70 % of the input neutral beam power, 11 MW, is dissipated as a divertor radiation in that region.

Journal Articles

Influence of Plasma-wall interactions on the behaviour of ELMs in JT-60U

Chankin, A. V.; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Fukuda, Takeshi; Isayama, Akihiko; Itami, Kiyoshi; Kamada, Yutaka; Kubo, Hirotaka; Miura, Yukitoshi; Nakano, Tomohide; Oyama, Naoyuki; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 313-316, p.828 - 833, 2003/03

 Times Cited Count:21 Percentile:80.27(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

In JT-60U, extensive plasma-neutral exchange during a typical type I ELM leads to a transient increase in the total number of charged particles in the plasma. The density rise is especially large at the edge, with the increase in the inner vertical interferometer signal (FIR1) of up to 40%, in the case of a giant ELM. Fast measurements of edge plasma density, electron temperature, magnetic fluctuations and Bremsstrahlung emission have been conducted to study the dynamics of the ELM evolution. In order to pinpoint the exact location of the density rise, a dedicated set of experiments with the horizontal plasma sweep to scan the separatrix position at the inner midplane with respect to the FIR1 chord, has been carried out at different wall conditions.

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