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Journal Articles

Japanese population dose from natural radiation

Omori, Yasutaka*; Hosoda, Masahiro*; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sanada, Tetsuya*; Hirao, Shigekazu*; Ono, Koji*; Furukawa, Masahide*

Journal of Radiological Protection, 40(3), p.R99 - R140, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:14.47(Environmental Sciences)

UNSCEAR and the Nuclear Safety Research Association report the annual effective doses from cosmic rays, terrestrial radiation, inhalation and ingestion from natural sources. In this study, radiation doses from natural radiation sources in Japan were reviewed with the latest knowledge and data. Total annual effective dose from cosmic-ray exposure can be evaluated as 0.29 mSv. The annual effective dose from external exposure to terrestrial radiation for Japanese population can be evaluated as 0.33 mSv using the data of nationwide survey by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The Japan Chemical Analysis Center (JCAC) performed the nationwide radon survey using a unified method for radon measurements in indoor, outdoor and workplace. The annual effective dose for radon inhalation was estimated using a current dose conversion factor, and the values were estimated to be 0.50 mSv. The annual effective dose from thoron was reported as 0.09 mSv by UNSCEAR and then the annual effective dose from inhalation can be described as 0.59 mSv. According to the report of large scale survey of foodstuff by JCAC, the effective dose from main radionuclides due to dietary intake can be evaluated to be 0.99 mSv. Finally, Japanese population dose from natural radiation can be assessed as 2.2 mSv which is near to the world average value of 2.4 mSv.

Journal Articles

Applying image recognition technology by convolutional neural networks to mountain plot images

Nomura, Masahiro; Tamura, Fumihiko; Shimada, Taihei; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Furusawa, Masashi*; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki*; Hara, Keigo*; Hasegawa, Katsushi*; Omori, Chihiro*; Yoshii, Masahito*

Proceedings of 17th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.64 - 67, 2020/09

Image recognition using a convolutional neural network (CNN) has been used in a wide range of fields and has produced excellent results. If this image recognition technology is used effectively, it should be possible to obtain information from an image equal to or more than the information that a person can obtain from an image. At J-PARC, researchers with specialized knowledge obtain beam information needed to adjust the equipment from an image called mountain plot. In this study, we applied the image recognition technology by using CNN to this mountain plot image, and tried to obtain the information about the beam necessary for adjustment. As a result, we were able to obtain more information than is currently available by using the image recognition technology. In the future, we plan to adjust the equipment based on the information actually obtained from the image recognition technology and confirm its effectiveness

Journal Articles

Visualizing cation vacancies in Ce:Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$ scintillators by gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

Fujimori, Kosuke*; Kitaura, Mamoru*; Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Zen, H.*; Watanabe, Shinta*; Kamada, Kei*; Okano, Yasuaki*; Kato, Masahiro*; Hosaka, Masahito*; et al.

Applied Physics Express, 13(8), p.085505_1 - 085505_4, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Physics, Applied)

To clarify the existence of cation vacancies in Ce-doped Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$ (Ce:GAGG) scintillators, we performed gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (GiPALS). GiPAL spectra of GAGG and Ce:GAGG comprised two exponential decay components, which were assigned to positron annihilation at bulk and defect states. By an analogy with Ce:Y$$_{3}$$Al$$_{5}$$O$$_{12}$$, the defect-related component was attributed to Al/Ga-O divacancy complexes. This component was weaker for Ce, Mg:GAGG, which correlated with the suppression of shallow electron traps responsible for phosphorescence. Oxygen vacancies were charge compensators for Al/Ga vacancies. The lifetime of the defect-related component was significantly changed by Mg co-doping. This was understood by considering aggregates of Mg$$^{2+}$$ ions at Al/Ga sites with oxygen vacancies, which resulted in the formation of vacancy clusters.

Journal Articles

Development of an external radiation dose estimation model for children returning to their homes in areas affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

Mori, Airi; Takahara, Shogo; Yoshida, Hiroko*; Sanada, Yukihisa; Munakata, Masahiro

Health Physics, 117(6), p.606 - 617, 2019/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Environmental Sciences)

Journal Articles

Development of a laser chipping technique combined with water jet for retrieval of fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

Yamada, Tomonori; Takebe, Toshihiko*; Ishizuka, Ippei*; Daido, Hiroyuki*; Hanari, Toshihide; Shibata, Takuya; Omori, Shinya*; Kurosawa, Koichi*; Sasaki, Go*; Nakada, Masahiro*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(12), p.1171 - 1179, 2019/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We describe a new chipping technique combined with a water-jet technique as one of the candidate techniques for the retrieval of fuel debris and support structures as part of the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. We performed proof-of-principle experiments to demonstrate the removal capability of metal parts, where we focused on the observation of removal processes from a metallic sample using a 5.5-kW continuous wave fiber laser combined with continuous and pulsed water jets.

Journal Articles

Simulations of beam loading compensation in a wideband accelerating cavity using a circuit simulator including a LLRF feedback control

Tamura, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki*; Yoshii, Masahito*; Omori, Chihiro*; Shimada, Taihei; Nomura, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Katsushi*; Hara, Keigo*; Furusawa, Masashi*

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 1350(1), p.012189_1 - 012189_7, 2019/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100

Magnetic alloy cavities are employed in the J-PARC RCS to generate high accelerating voltages. The cavity, which is driven by a vacuum tube amplifier, has a wideband frequency response and the beam loading in the cavity is multiharmonic. Therefore, the tube must generate a multiharmonic output current. An LTspice circuit model is developed to analyze the vacuum tube operation and the compensation of the multiharmonic beam loading. The model includes the cavity, tube amplifier, beam current, and LLRF feedback control. The feedback control consists of the I/Q demodulator including low pass filters, PI control, and I/Q modulator. In this presentation, we present the implementation of the LLRF functions in the LTspice simulations. The preliminary simulation results are also presented. The simulations fairly agree with the beam test results.

Journal Articles

Multiharmonic vector rf voltage control for wideband cavities driven by vacuum tube amplifiers in a rapid cycling synchrotron

Tamura, Fumihiko; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki*; Yoshii, Masahito*; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Omori, Chihiro*; Nomura, Masahiro; Shimada, Taihei; Hasegawa, Katsushi*; Hara, Keigo*; Furusawa, Masashi*

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 22(9), p.092001_1 - 092001_22, 2019/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Physics, Nuclear)

Beam loading compensation in the rf cavities is a key for acceleration of high intensity beams in 3 GeV RCS of the J-PARC. Since we employ wideband magnetic alloy rf cavities for the J-PARC RCS and the wake voltage contains several harmonics, a multiharmonic beam loading compensation is required. The multiharmonic rf feedforward for the most important six harmonics is implemented in the existing low level rf (LLRF) control system, which has been working fairly well for acceleration of high intensity beams of up to 1 MW. However, we found the degradation of the performance for compensation of the feedforward with very high intensity beams. Therefore, a multiharmonic vector rf voltage control has been developed. The detail of system configuration, commissioning methodology, and beam test results using very high intensity beams are described. The beam loading by the 1 MW equivalent beam in the cavity is successfully compensated.

Journal Articles

Applying neural networks to investigations of the influence of weather conditions on the power consumption of J-PARC

Nomura, Masahiro; Tamura, Fumihiko; Shimada, Taihei; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Furusawa, Masashi*; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki*; Hara, Keigo*; Hasegawa, Katsushi*; Omori, Chihiro*; Yoshii, Masahito*

Proceedings of 16th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.258 - 261, 2019/07

In recent years, summer temperatures have tended to increase, so understanding the amount of power consumption in summer from weather information has become important in terms of contract power and power saving measures. The relationship between the amount of power consumption and weather conditions is that the accelerator facility has many cooling facilities, so it can be thought that the amount of power used to cool each device increases as the temperature and humidity increase. It seems that it has not been investigated specifically what kind of dependence there is. Therefore, considering the neural network as a kind of fitting function or a model of calculation, we investigated the influence of weather conditions on the power consumption. As a result, it was found that the power consumption of the accelerators mostly depends only on the temperature, and the electric power of Linac and RCS increases by about 1 MW when the temperature of Mito rises by 10$$^{circ}$$C.

Journal Articles

Investigation of removal factors of various materials inside houses after Nuclear Power Station Accident

Mori, Airi; Ishizaki, Azusa; Futemma, Akira; Tanabe, Tsutomu; Wada, Takao; Kato, Mitsugu; Munakata, Masahiro

Hoken Butsuri (Internet), 54(1), p.45 - 54, 2019/04

Journal Articles

Baseband simulation model of the vector rf voltage control system for the J-PARC RCS

Tamura, Fumihiko; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki*; Yoshii, Masahito*; Omori, Chihiro*; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Shimada, Taihei; Nomura, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Katsushi*; Hara, Keigo*; Furusawa, Masashi*

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 1067, p.072030_1 - 072030_6, 2018/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:32.42

Vector RF voltage feedback control for the wideband magnetic alloy cavity of the J-PARC RCS is considered to be employed to compensate the heavy beam loading caused by high intensity proton beams. A prototype system of multiharmonic RF vector voltage control has been developed and is under testing. To characterize the system performance, full RF simulations could be performed by software like Simulink, while the software is proprietary and expensive. Also, it requires much computing power and time. We performed the simplified baseband simulations of the system in z-domain by using free software, Scilab and Python control library. It seems to be beneficial for searching the parameters that the baseband simulation can be performed quickly. In this presentation, we present the setup and results of the simulations. The simulations well reproduce the open and closed loop responses of the prototype system.

Journal Articles

Conceptual design of a single-ended MA cavity for J-PARC RCS upgrade

Yamamoto, Masanobu; Nomura, Masahiro; Shimada, Taihei; Tamura, Fumihiko; Furusawa, Masashi*; Hara, Keigo*; Hasegawa, Katsushi*; Omori, Chihiro*; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki*; Yoshii, Masahito*

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 1067, p.052014_1 - 052014_6, 2018/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:32.42

The J-PARC RCS employs Magnetic Alloy (MA) loaded cavities. The RF power is fed by vacuum tubes in push-pull operation. We realize multi-harmonic RF driving and beam loading compensation thanks to the broadband characteristics of the MA. However, the push-pull operation has disadvantages in multi-harmonics. An unbalance of the anode voltage swing remarkably appears at very high intensity beam acceleration. We propose a single-ended MA cavity for the RCS beam power upgrade, where no unbalance arises intrinsically.

Journal Articles

Next generation LLRF control system for J-PARC RCS

Tamura, Fumihiko; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki*; Yoshii, Masahito*; Omori, Chihiro*; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Nomura, Masahiro; Shimada, Taihei; Hasegawa, Katsushi*; Hara, Keigo*; Furusawa, Masashi*

Proceedings of 15th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.1131 - 1135, 2018/08

The LLRF control system for the J-PARC RCS has been playing important roles for acceleration of high intensity proton beams. The key functions of the system are the dual harmonic voltage control and the multiharmonic rf feedforward to compensate the heavy beam loading in the wideband cavities. The system has been working fine for more than ten years, however, the old FPGAs in the system are already discontinued and not supported by current development environment. Maintenance of the system will be difficult soon. We are developing the next generation LLRF control system with the new form factor, MicroTCA.4, while the existing system is based on the VME. In this article, we describe the configuration of the new system, its functions, and the status of the development.

Journal Articles

Measurement of thermal deformation of magnetic alloy cores of radio frequency cavities in 3-GeV rapid-cycling synchrotron of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

Shimada, Taihei; Nomura, Masahiro; Tamura, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki*; Omori, Chihiro*; Hasegawa, Katsushi*; Hara, Keigo*; Yoshii, Masahito*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 875, p.92 - 103, 2017/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Journal Articles

Observation of simultaneous oscillations of bunch shape and position caused by odd-harmonic beam loading in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex Rapid Cycling Synchrotron

Yamamoto, Masanobu; Nomura, Masahiro; Shimada, Taihei; Tamura, Fumihiko; Hara, Keigo*; Hasegawa, Katsushi*; Omori, Chihiro*; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki*; Yoshii, Masahito*

Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Internet), 2017(11), p.113G01_1 - 113G01_24, 2017/11

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:80.76(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Two proton bunches circulates the accelerator ring in the J-PARC 3GeV synchrotoron (RCS). The accelerating voltage is also generated in twice of the revolution frequency. The major Fourier component of the wake voltage should become even harmonics. However, the odd harmonics grow and cause a large number of beam loss. The beam measurement suggests that the odd harmonic wake voltages promote oscillations of not only the bunch position but also the bunch shape. The oscillations continue because they amplify the odd harmonic beam components. A particle tracking simulation can reproduce these simultaneous oscillations. It is found that the odd harmonic wake voltages lead to severe rf bucket distortion that results in beam loss. As a result, introducing a beam loading compensation system for the minor harmonics can prevent the beam loss and it would contribute the stable accelerator operation with the reduction of the activation.

Journal Articles

Demonstration of laser processing technique combined with water jet technique for retrieval of fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

Hanari, Toshihide; Takebe, Toshihiko*; Yamada, Tomonori; Daido, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Ippei*; Omori, Shinya*; Kurosawa, Koichi*; Sasaki, Go*; Nakada, Masahiro*; Sakai, Hideaki*

Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (CD-ROM), 3 Pages, 2017/04

In decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, a retrieval process of fuel debris in the Primary Containment Vessel by a remote operation is one of the key issues. In this process, prevention of spreading radioactive materials is one of the important considerations. Furthermore, an applicable technique to the process requires keeping of reasonable processing-efficiency. We propose to use the combined technique including a laser light and a water jet as a retrieval technique of the fuel debris. The laser processing technique combined with a repetitive pulsed water jet could perform an efficient retrieval processing. Our experimental result encourages us to promote further development of the technique towards a real application at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station.

Journal Articles

Assessment of residual doses to population after decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture

Mori, Airi; Takahara, Shogo; Ishizaki, Azusa; Iijima, Masashi; Sanada, Yukihisa; Munakata, Masahiro

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 166(Part 1), p.74 - 82, 2017/01

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:63.24(Environmental Sciences)

Large quantities of radioactive materials were released into the environment as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Many inhabitants residing in the affected areas are now exposed to radiation in their daily lives. In an attempt to manage this radiation dose, an additional radiation dose of 1 mSv/y was adopted as a long-term dosimetric target. An activity level reading of 0.23 $$mu$$Sv/h was then determined as a guidance value to achieve the target by implementing decontamination measures. The objectives of this study are to assess the effects of decontamination based on this guidance value and to predict any possible future problems with the decontamination strategy. Using a probabilistic approach, we assessed the annual effective dose of indoor workers, outdoor workers, and pensioners in the Fukushima Prefecture. Our probabilistic model considers the variabilities in behavioral patterns and Cs-137 surface-activity levels. Five years after the initial contamination, the 95th percentiles of indoor workers and pensioners in 53 of the 59 municipalities were found to receive annual effective doses of below 1 mSv/y (0.026-0.73 mSv/y). However, for outdoor workers in 25 municipalities, the annual doses were over 1 mSv/y (1.0-35 mSv/y). Therefore, the guidance value is effective for indoor workers and pensioners; to determine whether additional countermeasures for outdoor workers should be implemented, a detailed assessment that uses more realistic assumptions is required.

Journal Articles

Vacuum tube operation analysis under multi-harmonic driving and heavy beam loading effect in J-PARC RCS

Yamamoto, Masanobu; Nomura, Masahiro; Shimada, Taihei; Tamura, Fumihiko; Hara, Keigo*; Hasegawa, Katsushi*; Omori, Chihiro*; Toda, Makoto*; Yoshii, Masahito*; Schnase, A.*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 835, p.119 - 135, 2016/11

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:56.53(Instruments & Instrumentation)

A magnetic alloy loaded cavity is used to generate multi-harmonic rf voltage in J-PARC RCS. However, a vacuum tube operation analysis under the multi-harmonic driving is very complicated because many variables should be solved with a self consistency. At the conventional operation analysis, a hand work by tracing the constant current curve of the tube was performed, or an appropriate single harmonic wave form was assumed. We have developed a numerical analysis code which calculates the vacuum tube operation automatically and it realizes the multi-harmonic vacuum tube operation analysis. The code is verified at the high power beam acceleration test and we confirm the calculation results are consistent with the measurement ones. We can calculate the vacuum tube operation precisely by using the code, and it will contribute to improving the quality of the beam in the high intensity proton synchrotron.

Journal Articles

Cavity voltage variation at beam extraction in the J-PARC MR

Tamura, Fumihiko; Yoshii, Masahito*; Omori, Chihiro*; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Nomura, Masahiro; Shimada, Taihei; Hasegawa, Katsushi*; Hara, Keigo*

Proceedings of 13th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.808 - 810, 2016/11

J-PARC MR provides high intensity proton beams of 390 kW to the neutrino experiment. The proton beams are extracted by fast extraction. It has been found that the cavity voltage goes up for about 20 $$mu$$s just after extraction. It is because the rf feed forward system for beam loading compensation outputs compensation signals for its system delay. The MR cavity has a relatively low Q value of 22 and the cavity voltage can varies in the order of 10 $$mu$$s. The voltage variation of the cavity voltage increases with the beam intensity and it is a possible reason of the damage of the gap capacitors. A counter measure using the inhibit function of the summation amplifier in the LLRF system has been applied. In this presentation, we present the details of the cavity voltage variation and the results of the counter measure. Also, we present the analysis of beam loading using the voltage variation.

Journal Articles

Investigation of snow cover effects and attenuation correction of $$gamma$$ ray in aerial radiation monitoring

Ishizaki, Azusa; Sanada, Yukihisa; Mori, Airi; Imura, Mitsuo; Ishida, Mutsushi; Munakata, Masahiro

Remote Sensing, 8(11), p.892_1 - 892_12, 2016/11

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:69.54(Remote Sensing)

In aerial radiation monitoring (ARM), the air dose rate cannot be appropriately estimated under snowy conditions due to attenuation of $$gamma$$ ray by the snow layer. A technique to address this issue is required for ARM to obtain enough signals for air dose rate. To develop this technique, we investigated the relationship between snow depth and ARM measurement results using ARM, laser imaging detection and ranging, and ground measurement before and after snowfall. From the measured data, the results obtained using three different correction factors were examined and compared. An appropriate correction improved the underestimation of the air dose rate. However, further improvement in the accuracy of the analysis require accurate estimation of the snow water equivalent.

JAEA Reports

Radiation monitoring using manned helicopter around the nuclear power station in the fiscal year 2015 (Contract research)

Sanada, Yukihisa; Munakata, Masahiro; Mori, Airi; Ishizaki, Azusa; Shimada, Kazumasa; Hirouchi, Jun; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Urabe, Yoshimi; Nakanishi, Chika*; Yamada, Tsutomu*; et al.

JAEA-Research 2016-016, 131 Pages, 2016/10

JAEA-Research-2016-016.pdf:20.59MB

By the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), caused by the East Japan earthquake and the following tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive materials was released from the NPS. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter was conducted around FDNPS. In addition, background dose rate monitoring was conducted around Sendai Nuclear Power Station. These results of the aerial radiation monitoring using the manned helicopter in the fiscal 2015 were summarized in the report.

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