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論文

Upgrade of the small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer SANS-J at JRR-3

熊田 高之; 元川 竜平; 大場 洋次郎; 中川 洋; 関根 由莉奈; Micheau, C.; 上田 祐生; 杉田 剛; 美留町 厚; 佐々木 未来; et al.

Journal of Applied Crystallography, 56(6), p.1776 - 1783, 2023/12

既存のメイン検出器および高位置分解能フォトマル検出器に加えて新規に導入した前面検出器を組み合わせることにより、波数0.002nm$$^{-1}$$から6nm$$^{-1}$$にわたる散乱を3つの光学機器配置により切れ目なく測定できるようになった。またグラフィカルユーザーインターフェースの導入と併せて装置のユーザビリティが大幅に向上した。

論文

Water fraction dependence of the aggregation behavior of hydrophobic fluorescent solutes in water-tetrahydrofuran

辻 勇人*; 中畑 雅樹*; 菱田 真史*; 瀬戸 秀紀*; 元川 竜平; 井上 大傑*; 江川 泰暢*

Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (Internet), 14(49), p.11235 - 11241, 2023/12

This work investigates the water-fraction dependence of the aggregation behavior of hydrophobic solutes in water-tetrahydrofuran (THF) and the elucidation of the role of THF using fluorescence microscopy, dynamic light scattering, neutron and X-ray scattering, as well as photoluminescence measurements. Based on the obtained results, the following model is proposed: hydrophobic molecules are molecularly dispersed in the low-water-content region (10-20 vol %), while they form mesoscopic particles upon increasing the water fraction to $$sim$$30 vol percent. This abrupt change is due to the composition fluctuation of the water-THF binary system to form hydrophobic areas in THF, followed by THF-rich droplets where hydrophobic solutes are incorporated and form loose aggregates. Further increasing the water content prompts the desolvation of THF, which decreases the particle size and generates tight aggregates of solute molecules. This model is consistent with the luminescence behavior of the solutes and will be helpful to control the aggregation state of hydrophobic solutes in various applications.

論文

Structural changes of polystyrene particles in subcritical and supercritical water revealed by in situ small-angle neutron scattering

柴田 基樹*; 中西 洋平*; 阿部 淳*; 有馬 寛*; 岩瀬 裕希*; 柴山 充弘*; 元川 竜平; 熊田 高之; 高田 慎一; 山本 勝宏*; et al.

Polymer Journal, 55(11), p.1165 - 1170, 2023/11

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:56.45(Polymer Science)

Marine ecosystem degradation due to micro plastics is a significant environmental problem, as acknowledged by Sustainable Development Goal 14. Decomposition of plastics using near critical or supercritical water is one of the promising methods to reduce micro plastics. To attain the optimization of the method for improving environmental friendliness, it is necessary to clarify the structural change of materials during the process. We, thus, investigated the decomposition processes of polystyrene particles dispersed in deuterated water (D$$_{2}$$O) during heating under near critical or supercritical conditions by using in situ small-angle neutron scattering. Under subcritical conditions, the PS particles were swollen by D$$_{2}$$O due to increased compatibility with temperature. Near the critical point in subcritical conditions, the cleavage of PS chains in the particles occurred, so that the swollen ratio was much enhanced though the PS particles kept their shapes. In a supercritical condition, the PS particles were degraded into oil including oligomers or monomers and the phase-separated structures with styrene-rich and D$$_{2}$$O-rich regions.

論文

Polarized neutrons observed nanometer-thick crystalline ice plates in frozen glucose solution

熊田 高之; 中川 洋; 三浦 大輔; 関根 由莉奈; 元川 竜平; 廣井 孝介; 稲村 泰弘; 奥 隆之; 大石 一城*; 森川 利明*; et al.

Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (Internet), 14(34), p.7638 - 7643, 2023/08

スピンコントラスト変調中性子小角散乱法を用いて急冷したグルコース濃厚溶液中に生成するナノアイス結晶の構造解析を行ったところ、厚さ1nm程度、半径数十nm以上の平面上の氷晶が生成していることを見出した。本結果はグルコース分子が特定の成長面に吸着することによりその面からの結晶成長を阻害していることを示す。

論文

Heterogeneous aggregation of humic acids studied by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering

斉藤 拓巳*; 元川 竜平; 大窪 貴洋*; 三浦 大輔*; 熊田 高之

Environmental Science & Technology, 57(26), p.9802 - 9810, 2023/07

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Engineering, Environmental)

Aggregation of humic acids (HAs) were studied by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering techniques. The combination of these techniques enables us to examine aggregation structures of heterogeneous HA particles. Two HAs with distinctive compositions were examined; a commercial HA (PAHA) and a HA extracted from deep sedimentary groundwater (HHA). While macroscopic coagulation tests showed that these HAs were stable in solutions except for HHA at pH $$<$$ 6, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that they formed aggregates with the sizes exceeding sub-micrometer length scale. The SAXS curves of PAHA remarkably varied with pD, whereas the SANS curves did not. With the help of theoretical fittings, it was revealed that PAHA aggregates consisted of two domains: poorly hydrated cores and well-hydrated proton-rich shells. The cores are (dis)aggregated with pD inside the aggregates of the shell. The SANS and SAXS curves of HHA resemble each other, and their intensities at low q increased with a decrease of pD, indicating the formation of homogeneous aggregates. This study revealed that distinctive aggregation behaviors exist in humic substances with heterogeneous structures like PAHA, which is invaluable for their roles in the fate of contaminants or nutrients in aqueous environments.

論文

Foam flotation of clay particles using a bifunctional amine surfactant

Micheau, C.; 上田 祐生; 元川 竜平; Bauduin, P.*; Girard, L.*; Diat, O.*

Langmuir, 39(31), p.10965 - 10977, 2023/07

Understanding clay flotation mechanisms has become a major concern because of the increasing level of environmental contamination of soil and ground water by heavy metals and radionuclides. Clays are often used as sorbents for extracting metals in indirect flotation processes but can function simultaneously as defoamers. However, how foam generation and stability depend on the molecular interactions between the clays and surfactant is still controversial. In the present study, an amine polyethoxylated surfactant was used as a bifunctional surfactant that collected clay particles and acted as a foaming agent in the flotation process. The pH conditions strongly affected the surfactant physicochemical properties, allowing the clay extraction efficiency to be tuned. The interfacial recovery factor of the clays almost reached 100 percent under acidic (pH lower than 6) and neutral (pH 6-10) conditions, whereas it was negative under alkaline conditions (pH higher than 10), contrary to expectations. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in the particle flotation process for each of the pH conditions, the bulk and foam phases were analyzed. The effects of electrostatic interactions between the solutes and multiscale structure on the clay extraction behavior were investigated by electrophoretic measurements, dynamic light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering, and image analysis. Based on these results, three flotation processes were found depending on pH range: surfactant foam fractionation at pH higher than 10; clay particle foam flotation at pH 6-10; and particle froth flotation at pH lower than 6.

論文

Neutron resonance absorption imaging of simulated high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass

大場 洋次郎; 元川 竜平; 金子 耕士; 永井 崇之; 土川 雄介; 篠原 武尚; Parker, J. D.*; 岡本 芳浩

Scientific Reports (Internet), 13, p.10071_1 - 10071_8, 2023/06

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01

The spatial distribution of constituent elements in borosilicate glasses containing simulated high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW) was investigated using neutron resonance absorption imaging. The resonance absorption dips of Rh, Pd, Na, Gd, Cs, and Sm were detected in the neutron transmission spectra of the glass samples. The neutron transmission images at the resonance energies of these elements provided the spatial distributions within the glass samples. Rh and Pd led sedimentation, while Gd, Sm, and Cs were uniformly dispersed. These results clearly show the potential of neutron resonance absorption imaging for characterizing borosilicate glasses.

論文

Hierarchical aggregation in a complex fluid; The Role of isomeric interconversion

Massey, D.*; Williams, C. D.*; Mu, J.*; Masters, A. J.*; 元川 竜平; 青柳 登; 上田 祐生; Antonio, M. R.*

Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 127(9), p.2052 - 2065, 2023/03

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Chemistry, Physical)

There is an ever-increasing body of evidence that metallic complexes, involving amphiphilic ligands, do not form normal solutions in organic solvents. Instead, they form complex fluids with intricate structures. For example, the metallic complexes may aggregate into clusters and these clusters themselves may aggregate into super-clusters. In order to gain a deeper insight into the mechanisms at play, we have used an improved force field to conduct extensive molecular dynamics simulations of a system composed of zirconium nitrate, water, nitric acid, tri-$$n$$-butyl phosphate and $$n$$-octane. The important new finding is that a dynamic equilibrium between the cis and trans isomers of the metal complex is likely to play a key role in the aggregation behavior. The isolated cis and trans isomers have similar energies but simulation indicates that the clusters consist predominantly of cis isomers. With increasing metal concentration, we hypothesize that more clustering occurs and the chemical equilibrium shifts towards the cis isomer. It is possible that such isomeric effects play a role in the liquid-liquid extraction of other species and the inclusion of such effects in flowsheet modelling may lead to a better description of the process.

論文

Deuterated malonamide synthesis for fundamental research on solvent extraction systems

Micheau, C.; 上田 祐生; 阿久津 和宏*; Bourgeois, D.*; 元川 竜平

Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange, 41(2), p.221 - 240, 2023/02

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:56.57(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Malonamide derivatives, which are among the most extensively investigated extractants in solvent extraction of lanthanoids, actinides, and platinum group metal ions, were deuterated by using Pd/C and Rh/C catalysts with a D$$_{2}$$O/2-propanol mixture. This method enables to replace the hydrogen atoms by deuterium atoms in the malonamide chemical structure with a controllable deuteration rate. The maximum rate reaches 75 percent approximately, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In addition, it has been demonstrated that extraction behavior of the malonamide molecules remains unchanged after the deuteration procedure. Deuterated malonamides should be a powerful tool for fundamental researches on solvent extraction systems, in particular, for structural analysis of the organic phases. The large difference in the neutron scattering cross-section between hydrogen and deuterium leads to a large difference in neutron scattering length density of the malonamide derivatives before and after the deuteration reaction. Therefore, using deuterated malonamides in small-angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectivity studies could give access to the nanoscopic structure of the specific solute species in the bulk organic phase and at the liquid-liquid interface, respectively. This deuteration method could become a general one and be extended to a wide variety of extractant molecules. In this way this work contributes to the development of the fundamental researches in solvent extraction systems.

論文

Structural Approach to Understanding the Formation of Amorphous Metal Hydroxides

小林 大志*; 伏見 朋和*; 水越 寛文*; 元川 竜平; 佐々木 隆之*

Langmuir, 38(48), p.14656 - 14665, 2022/12

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:32.1(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

This study investigates the colloidal behavior of M(IV)(OH)$$_{4}$$ based on its zeta potential and hierarchical structure. The zeta potentials of ZrO$$_{2}$$ and ThO$$_{2}$$ in NaCl, NaNO$$_{3}$$, and CaCl$$_{2}$$ solutions under various pH and ionic strength conditions were measured and elucidated by a surface ionization and complexation model combined with an electric double layer. Based on the assumed similarity of the surface reactions, the model was applied to interpret the zeta potentials of Zr(OH)$$_{4}$$ and Th(OH)$$_{4}$$ in NaCl, NaNO$$_{3}$$, and CaCl$$_{2}$$ solutions. The differences in the model parameters were deduced from the different origins of M(IV)(OH)$$_{4}$$ formed by hydrolysis reactions. The size distributions of the selected Zr(OH)$$_{4}$$ suspensions measured by dynamic light scattering techniques suggest that the classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory governs the colloidal behavior of large aggregates. Additionally, the small angle X-ray scattering measurements elucidated the structure of Zr(OH)$$_{4}$$ in the nanometer scale. The primary and secondary particle sizes were found to be more dependent on the ionic strength of the electrolyte solutions than on the zeta potentials. The direct interaction of counter ions may affect the formation of primary and secondary particles with comparable size ranges.

論文

Polymer photonic crystals prepared by triblock copolymerization-induced ${it in situ}$ microphase separation

磯崎 祐嘉*; 東原口 誠也*; 金子 直矢*; 山崎 駿*; 谷口 竜王*; 唐津 孝*; 上田 祐生; 元川 竜平

Chemistry Letters, 51(6), p.625 - 628, 2022/06

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:32.1(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Polymer photonic crystals (PPCs) that selectively reflect visible light were prepared by triblock polymerization-induced ${it in situ}$ microphase separation via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The addition of homopolymer to the polymerization system swelled a specific phase of the microdomains, enabling the preparation of PPCs with long-wavelength structural colors. Small-angle neutron scattering confirmed the increase in the domain spacing of the lamellar microdomains with the addition of homopolymer, while maintaining their morphology.

論文

New design of a sample cell for neutron reflectometry in liquid-liquid systems and its application for studying structures at air-liquid and liquid-liquid interfaces

阿久津 和宏*; 山田 悟史*; 上田 祐生; 元川 竜平; 成田 弘一*

Applied Sciences (Internet), 12(3), p.1215_1 - 1215_10, 2022/02

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:30(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

液-液系の界面構造を知ることは、二相系の生物・化学反応の理解には必須である。本研究では、界面の層構造を観察できる中性子反射率(NR)測定用の新しいサンプルセルを開発し、典型的な界面活性剤であるドデシル硫酸ナトリウム(SDS)の重トルエン-重水界面への吸着挙動を調べた。開発したセルは、滑らかな界面を作るためにPTFEフレームを底部に配置し、従来のセルに比べて小型化したことが特徴である。得られたNRプロファイルは容易に解析可能であり、重トルエン-重水系と空気-重水系では界面のSDS吸着層構造にわずかな違いがあることがわかった。これは、界面の条件によってSDS分子の吸着挙動が異なることに起因すると考えられる。

論文

Nanoscopic structure of borosilicate glass with additives for nuclear waste vitrification

元川 竜平; 金子 耕士; 大場 洋次郎; 永井 崇之; 岡本 芳浩; 小林 大志*; 熊田 高之; Heller, W. T.*

Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 578, p.121352_1 - 121352_7, 2022/02

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:23.99(Materials Science, Ceramics)

We investigated the nanoscopic structure of borosilicate glasses as a host for high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW) in the presence of the additives Na$$_{2}$$O and CaO/ZnO with and without Li$$_{2}$$O. These additives have been practically used to lower the glass melting point, suppress the macroscopic phase separation, and increase the chemical durability of glasses. Small-angle neutron scattering was used to elucidate the effect of the additives on the nanoscopic structure along with macro- and atomic-scale observations obtained using neutron imaging and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The borosilicate glass formed a microphase-separated structure of SiO$$_{2}$$- and B$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$-rich domains approximately 100 nm in size in the absence of Na$$_{2}$$O, even in a structure homogeneous on a millimeter scale, and the domain spacing decreased with increasing Na$$_{2}$$O content rate. The CaO/ZnO additives induced inhomogeneities, such as void structures several nanometers in size, although the inhomogeneity was suppressed by the coaddition of Li$$_{2}$$O. These results provide insights into the performance of host glasses for HLLW vitrification; incorporating HLLW into glasses is likely to cause changes in the nanoscopic structure of host glasses similar to those revealed here.

論文

Polarization analysis for small-angle neutron scattering with a $$^{3}$$He spin filter at a pulsed neutron source

奥平 琢也; 上田 祐生; 廣井 孝介; 元川 竜平; 稲村 泰弘; 高田 慎一; 奥 隆之; 鈴木 淳市*; 高橋 慎吾*; 遠藤 仁*; et al.

Journal of Applied Crystallography, 54(2), p.548 - 556, 2021/04

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:34.11(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

$$^{3}$$Heスピンフィルタを中性子スピン解析子として使用することにより、パルス中性子源での中性子小角散乱実験において、偏極解析を行うことに成功した。本実験に使用した$$^{3}$$Heスピンフィルタは中性子小角散乱実験を行うために十分な立体角をカバーすることができ、$$^{3}$$He偏極緩和時間も数日と長く、これは実験を完遂するために十分な性能である。水素原子による非干渉性散乱は非常に大きく、試料の組成から計算によって非干渉性散乱量を見積もる試みが行われていたが、正確に非干渉性散乱量を決定することは難しかった。しかし本研究では試料内での中性子の多重散乱を考慮した偏極解析実験を行うことで、干渉性散乱と非干渉性散乱を正確に分離することが可能となった。現在までパルス中性子源での中性子小角散乱では、偏極解析の手法が確立されていなかったが、本成果によって、様々な種類の試料に対して干渉性散乱と非干渉性散乱を正確に分離することができるようになると予想される。

論文

Development of spin-contrast-variation neutron powder diffractometry for extracting the structure factor of hydrogen atoms

三浦 大輔*; 熊田 高之; 関根 由莉奈; 元川 竜平; 中川 洋; 大場 洋次郎; 大原 高志; 高田 慎一; 廣井 孝介; 森川 利明*; et al.

Journal of Applied Crystallography, 54(2), p.454 - 460, 2021/04

AA2020-0724.pdf:2.05MB

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:18.34(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

山形大学が原子核物理実験用に開発した結晶試料の核スピン偏極技術を、スピンコントラスト偏極中性子回折測定法に展開し、水素核偏極化されたグルタミン酸を用いて粉末結晶試料中の水素の配向および凝集・分散などの構造情報を抽出できることを実証した。

論文

SANS-JとPNOの紹介

熊田 高之; 元川 竜平; 中川 洋; 大場 洋次郎; 関根 由莉奈

波紋, 31(1), p.5 - 6, 2021/02

SANS-Jはナノからサブマイクロメートルの幅広い空間スケールの階層構造を決定することができる。その特徴の一点目は、速度選別機で切り出された高強度の中性子(10$$^{5}$$ neutrons/s/cm$$^{2}$$)を用いることができる。二点目は、試料と透過した全ての中性子は色収差の影響を受けることなくレンズを用いて検出器上に集光することができる。そのため、散乱角0.01$$^{circ}$$に相当する波数Q=3$$times$$10$$^{-3}$$ nm$$^{-1}$$までの散乱中性子を透過中性子と識別して検出し、実空間スケールでサブマイクロメートルの構造を決定することができる。三点目は、偏極中性子および偏極解析が使えることである。偏極中性子はマグネットと組み合わせて磁性体の磁気構造解析に利用できるほか、ソフトマテリアルにおいても偏極解析や後述するスピンコントラスト変調実験に利用することができる。PNOは、単色化結晶とアナライザー結晶の間に試料を挟んだBonse-Hart型熱中性子小角散乱装置である。その最大の特徴は、SANS-Jより一桁小さい最小波数3$$times$$10$$^{-4}$$ nm$$^{-1}$$までの超小角散乱を測定し、実空間スケールで10um近くまでの構造を決定することができることである。

論文

Precious metal separations

成田 弘一*; 粕谷 亮*; 鈴木 智也*; 元川 竜平; 田中 幹也*

Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry (Internet), 28 Pages, 2020/12

The increasing use of precious metals (PMs) in industrial products such as electronics and catalysts has been increasingly important in PM separations. Most of PM separation and purification processes are performed using acidic chloride solutions; therefore, understanding of chemical properties and separation mechanisms of PM chloridometalates in solution is of key importance for improving the processes. This article focuses on solvent extraction of PMs from acidic chloride solutions as the main technology for the mutual separation of PMs and extensively covers the classical and modern methods. In addition, leaching methods, dominant species in acidic chloride solutions, and non-solvent extraction separation methods are also described.

論文

Nanostructural characterization of oleyl acid phosphate in poly-$$alpha$$-olefin using small-angle X-ray scattering

大場 洋次郎; 元川 竜平; 日野 正裕*; 足立 望*; 戸高 義一*; 井上 倫太郎*; 杉山 正明*

Chemistry Letters, 49(7), p.823 - 825, 2020/07

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Nanostructures in lubricants play a key role in lubrication properties. In this study, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was applied to characterize the nanostructures of oleyl acid phosphate (OLAP) in base oil. The results show that OLAP forms reverse-micellar-like aggregates. This information from SAXS will drive further development of lubricants.

論文

Anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS) study of irradiation-induced nanostructure change in Fe-ion beam irradiated oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steel

熊田 高之; 大場 洋次郎; 元川 竜平; 諸岡 聡; 冨永 亜希; 谷田 肇; 菖蒲 敬久; 金野 杏彩; 大和田 謙二*; 大野 直子*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 528, p.151890_1 - 151890_7, 2020/01

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:12.47(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

ステンレス鋼の放射線照射によるナノ構造変化観測用異常分散X線小角散乱(ASAXS)装置を開発した。イオンビーム照射前後のMA956試料の散乱パターンを比較したところ、Cr析出物の形状は全く変化していないことが判明した。

論文

Proton chelating ligands drive improved chemical separations for rhodium

成田 弘一*; Nicolson, R. M.*; 元川 竜平; 伊藤 文之*; 森作 員子*; 後藤 みどり*; 田中 幹也*; Heller, W. T.*; 塩飽 秀啓; 矢板 毅; et al.

Inorganic Chemistry, 58(13), p.8720 - 8734, 2019/07

 被引用回数:13 パーセンタイル:70.31(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

Current industrial practices to extract rhodium from virgin ores carry a heavy environmental burden. Improving the efficiency of the hydrometallurgical processes to separate and recover rhodium from other precious metals provides an opportunity to improve the materials and energy balances, but the presence of mixed chloride-rhodium species following leaching by acid chloride media complicates the recovery process. In this work we have applied a broad range of analytical techniques (FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, EXAFS, water-transfer analysis, small-angle neutron scattering, NMR spectroscopy, and electrospray mass spectrometry), which together show that the amino-amide reagent preferentially transports chlorido-rhodium species as a 1:2 neutral assembly from aqueous 2.0 M HCl phase into an organic phase. The extractants then ligate in the outer coordination shell of the chloride-rhodium anion, making this an efficient separation process. In this study, we found that protonation to the extractants induced to form a proton chelate ring, which pre-organises the ligand to present an array of charge diffuse C-H bonds. This templated arrangement of positive dipoles favors complexation to the charge diffuse chloride-rhodium anion over the more charge-dense chloride anion.

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