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下村 健太; 山下 拓哉; 永江 勇二

JAEA-Data/Code 2022-012, 270 Pages, 2023/03


発電用原子炉である軽水炉において、東京電力ホールディングス株式会社福島第一原子力発電所と同様な全交流電源喪失が発生した場合には、原子炉圧力容器(RPV: Reactor Pressure Vessel)内の冷却機能の喪失、炉内の水位低下による燃料棒の露出、炉心溶融に伴うRPVの破損やRPV破損に伴う炉内の放射線物質の漏えいが発生することが考えられる。事故進展におけるRPVの損傷、溶融した燃料デブリの流出・拡大等の過程を検証、推定することは、廃炉作業を進める上で重要な情報となる。RPVの破損要因については、RPV下部構造部に加えられる荷重・拘束に起因する破損(力学的破損)、低融点金属や高融点酸化物とRPV底部の構造部材との共晶現象による破損(材料間反応による破損)、RPV底部の構造部材の融点近傍での破損が考えられる。破損要因の内、力学的破損については、数値解析(熱流動解析及び構造解析)により検証を行う。このような数値解析を実施する際には、RPV及び炉内構造物を構成する材料(ジルコニウム,炭化ホウ素,ステンレス鋼,ニッケル合金,低合金鋼等)の融点近傍までの伝熱特性(熱伝導率,比熱,密度)や材料特性(熱膨張係数,ヤング率,ポアソン比,引張,クリープ)が必要となる。本資料においては、公開文献を基に、RPV及び炉内構造物を構成する各材料の融点近傍までの母材の特性データをデータ集として取りまとめた。なお、RPV及び炉内構造物を構成する構造物の中には溶接部も存在するため、今回限られたデータであるが、溶接部に関する特性データも併せて示した。


Thermodynamic analysis for solidification path of simulated ex-vessel corium

佐藤 拓未; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝; Quaini, A.*; Gu$'e$neau, C.*

CALPHAD; Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry, 79, p.102481_1 - 102481_11, 2022/12

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Thermodynamics)

Investigation of the primary containment vessel inside the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station showed that a significant amount of the molten corium reached the bottom of the pedestal region. The molten corium and concrete likely caused a complex interaction called Molten Corium Concrete Interaction. The solidification hysteresis of these ex-vessel debris significantly influences its properties. We performed a thermodynamic analysis using the TAF-ID database to infer the solidification path of U-Zr-Al-Ca-Si-O molten corium, which was chosen for a prototypic system of ex-vessel debris. The solidification path for the CaO-rich sim-corium showed that (i) melting as a single liquid phase above 2430 K, (ii) selective solidification of the oxide-rich corium mainly consisted of fuel materials, and (iii) solidification of the remaining materials as a silicate matrix. In contrast, the solidification path for the SiO$$_{2}$$-rich corium indicated that (i) formation of liquid miscibility gap above 2200 K between U-rich and Zr-rich oxidic melts, (ii) individual precipitation of solid phases in each liquid phase.


X ray spectroscopy on $$Xi$$$$^-$$ atoms (J-PARC E03, E07 and future)

山本 剛史; 藤田 真奈美; 後神 利志*; 原田 健志*; 早川 修平*; 細見 健二; 市川 裕大; 石川 勇二*; 鎌田 健人*; 叶内 萌香*; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences, 271, p.03001_1 - 03001_5, 2022/11

X-ray spectroscopy of hadronic atoms give us various information on the strong interaction between hadrons and nuclei. At J-PARC, we are aiming for the world-first detection of the X rays from atoms with a doubly strange hyperon, $$Xi$$$$^-$$. Recently, two experiments, J-PARC E07 and J-PARC E03, have been performed for the detection of X rays from $$Xi$$$$^-$$ atoms. Overview and status of these measurements will be presented. We will also discuss future plan of X-ray spectroscopy on $$Xi$$$$^-$$-atoms, which can be performed together with high resolution $$Xi$$$$^-$$ hyper nuclear spectroscopy using newly constructed S-2S spectrometer. Preparation status will be shown in this contribution.


BWR lower head penetration failure test focusing on eutectic melting

山下 拓哉; 佐藤 拓未; 間所 寛; 永江 勇二

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 173, p.109129_1 - 109129_15, 2022/08

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Decommissioning work occasioned by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F) accident of March 2011 is in progress. Severe accident (SA) analysis, testing, and internal investigation are being used to grasp the 1F internal state. A PWR system that refers to the TMI-2 accident is typical for SA codes and testing, on the other hand, a BWR system like 1F is uncommon, understanding the 1F internal state is challenging. The present study conducted the ELSA-1 test, a test that focused on damage from eutectic melting of the liquid metal pool and control rod drive (CRD), to elucidate the lower head (LH) failure mechanism in the 1F accident. The results demonstrated that depending on the condition of the melt pool formed in the lower plenum, a factor of LH boundary failure was due to eutectic melting. In addition, the state related to the CRD structure of 1F unit 2 were estimated.


Ten years of Fukushima Dai-ichi post-accident research on the degradation phenomenology of the BWR core components

Pshenichnikov, A.; 柴田 裕樹; 山下 拓哉; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(3), p.267 - 291, 2022/03

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The paper reviews the results of the JAEA and some International activities over the last ten years of research on the understanding of the core components melting and debris formation in boiling water reactors.


Raman investigation of the CLADS-MADE-02 test debris to confirm the mechanism of the volatile and non-volatile boron compounds formation

Pshenichnikov, A.; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

Proceedings of TopFuel 2021 (Internet), 12 Pages, 2021/10

The results of the several recent tests performed in JAEA/CLADS are outlined in this paper. However, particular point of this work is focused on the interesting effect that was found on the debris, that contained partially reacted B$$_{4}$$C (control blade debris). A Raman investigation of the control blade metallic debris helped to refine the governing mechanism of the B-compounds formation and transport, which is probably specific mostly for BWRs due to unique bundle configuration and materials morphology. All these factors may directly influence the accident progression in BWR and influence the final debris properties.


A BWR control blade degradation observed in situ during a CLADS-MADE-02 test under Fukushima Dai-Ichi Unit 3 postulated conditions

Pshenichnikov, A.; 倉田 正輝; 永江 勇二

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(9), p.1025 - 1037, 2021/09

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The paper summarizes the results of the control blade degradation test CLADS-MADE-02 performed in JAEA. The test focused at the beginning phase of the accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi (1F) Unit 3. The investigation provided important data, especially on the temperature history, exhaust gas measurement and in situ video of metallic debris formation and relocation to the colder elevations under the test scenario, which reproduced oxidizing conditions during the initial phase of the 1F Unit 3 reactor heat-up. Based on the test results, some decommissioning related conclusions concerning the formation of new B-rich phases containing Cr and Fe were made.


Features of a BWR neutron absorber melt relocation in an oxidative environment during the CLADS-MADE-02 test

Pshenichnikov, A.; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 28) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2021/08

The work on the understanding of the accident progression at the Units of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) is ongoing. This contribution gives a part of detailed investigations of the control blade melt propagation downwards through the prototypic BWR bundle assembly during the CLADS-MADE-02 test, where the conditions of the 1F Unit 3 was simulated. Interesting features emerged in an oxidative environment.


Comparison of the observed Fukushima Dai-ichi Unit 2 debris with simulated debris from the CLADS-MADE-01 control blade degradation test

Pshenichnikov, A.; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(4), p.416 - 425, 2021/04

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:73.86(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The paper describes the attempt of comparison of the simulated test CLADS-MADE-01 debris with the observed in the Unit 2. Similarities between them allowed to make conclusions on their possible source. During the test under postulated 1F Unit 2 simulated conditions a complex behaviour of the test sample with formation of mostly three types of debris was observed. A possible mechanism of stone-like debris formation in 1F case is discussed. The results of this paper broaden our understanding of the metallic debris properties after core degradation for a special case of steam-starved conditions at 1F Unit 2.


Visualization of the boron distribution in core material melting and relocation specimen by neutron energy resolving method

阿部 雄太; 土川 雄介; 甲斐 哲也; 松本 吉弘*; Parker, J. D.*; 篠原 武尚; 大石 佑治*; 加美山 隆*; 永江 勇二; 佐藤 一憲

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011075_1 - 011075_6, 2021/03

Since the hardness of fuel debris containing boride from B$$_{4}$$C pellet in control rod is estimated to be two times higher as that of oxide, such as UO$$_{2}$$ and ZrO$$_{2}$$, distribution of such boride in the fuel debris formed in the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants may affect the process of debris cutting and removal. The high neutron absorption of boron may affect the possibility of re-criticality during the process of debris removal. Therefore, boride distribution in fuel debris is regarded as an important issue to be addressed. However, boron tends to have difficult in quantification with conventionally applied methods like EPMA and XPS. In this study, accelerator-driven neutron-imaging system was applied. Since boron is the material for neutron absorption, its sensitivity in terms of neutron penetration through specimens is concerned. To adjust neutron attenuation of a specimen to suit a particular measurement by selecting the neutron energy range, we focused on the energy resolved neutron imaging system RADEN, which utilizes wide energy range from meV to keV. Development of a method to visualize boron distribution using energy-resolved neutrons has been started. In this presentation the authors show the status of the development of a method utilizing energy-resolved neutrons and provide some outcome from its application to the Core Material Melting and Relocation (CMMR)-0 and -2 specimens.


Feasibility study of PGAA for boride identification in simulated melted core materials

土川 雄介; 阿部 雄太; 大石 佑治*; 甲斐 哲也; 藤 暢輔; 瀬川 麻里子; 前田 亮; 木村 敦; 中村 詔司; 原田 正英; et al.

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011074_1 - 011074_6, 2021/03

福島原子力発電所の解体作業では、溶融した燃料棒に含まれるホウ素分布を事前に把握することが重要である。溶融燃料棒の模擬試験体を用意し、ホウ素やホウ化物の含有量を調査する研究が行われてきた。本研究では、その一環として中性子を用いたホウ素並びにホウ化物分布の測定技術開発を行った。ホウ素の中性子吸収に伴う即発ガンマ線を測定し、ホウ素量や二次元分布を測定した。また、n(B,$$alpha$$$$gamma$$)反応における478keV$$gamma$$線は、ホウ素の化合状態により、$$gamma$$線ピークの幅が変化することが知られている。このことを用い、特に溶融燃料棒周辺に存在することが予測されているZrBやFeBといったホウ化物の識別可能性について調査した。測定はJ-PARC/MLFのANNRI, NOBORU, RADENにて行った。これらの解析結果について報告する。


Development of three-dimensional distribution visualization technology for boron using energy resolved neutron-imaging system (RADEN)

阿部 雄太; 土川 雄介; 甲斐 哲也; 松本 吉弘*; Parker, J. D.*; 篠原 武尚; 大石 佑治*; 加美山 隆*; 永江 勇二; 佐藤 一憲

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2020/08

Boron carbide is used as a neutron-absorbing material in Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), producing borides that are twice as hard as oxides (such as UO$$_{2}$$ and ZrO$$_{2}$$). The high neutron absorption of boron affects the evaluation of re-criticality during the process of debris retrieval. Therefore, it is important not only to determine the presence of boron but also to investigate the distribution of boron inside the material in a non-destructive manner during decommissioning. To address the uncertainties in the core material relocation behavior of boiling water reactor (BWR) during a severe accident (SA), solidified melt specimens of a simulated fuel assembly were prepared by plasma heating. If core material melting and relocation (CMMR) specimens can be used to estimate the B distribution in 1F Unit-3, that will provide valuable information in the decommissioning of 1F. To address this, the authors focused on the energy-resolved neutron imaging system, RADEN, which utilizes a wide energy range, from meV to keV. This is an innovative three-dimensional analysis technology for boride distribution that affects the evaluation of hardness and re-criticality. In the calibration standard samples (Zr$$_{x}$$B$$_{1-x}$$ and Fe$$_{x}$$B$$_{1-x}$$), there was a good correlation between boron concentration and the energy-dependence of the cross sections of cold and epi-thermal neutrons. In the CMMR specimens, boron distribution was confirmed from the contrast difference between cold and epi-thermal neutrons. In the future, the results of calibration standard samples will be applied to the results of CMMR specimens. With this method, three-dimensional boron distribution will be measured, and the understanding of boride distribution 1F Unit-3 will be improved, which may be reflected in an improved SA code.


On the degradation progression of a BWR control blade under high-temperature steam-starved conditions

Pshenichnikov, A.; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00503_1 - 19-00503_10, 2020/06

High-temperature control blade degradation tests simulating a beginning phase of a severe accident in BWRs has been comprehensively performed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). In the latest test, a mock-up of BWR bundle material has been investigated under postulated Fukushima Dai-Ichi (1F) Unit 2 accident conditions in a complex heating transient scenario including a phase of lack of available steam. The progress in control blade degradation was monitored with help of an in situ video and the detailed analysis of the solidified metallic melt, so-called metallic debris, was carried out by conventional SEM and XRD methods. These results indicated that the composition of the metallic debris at different elevations has been significantly changed due to the redistribution and relocation of steel elements under the influence of B and C, sometimes accompanied by a formation of high-melting-point layers. The results of this paper significantly contribute to the physical understanding of control blade degradation phenomenology during beginning phase of a core degradation for a special case of steam-starved conditions at 1F Unit 2.


Segregation behavior of Fe and Gd in molten corium during solidification progress

須藤 彩子; Meszaros, B.*; Poznyak, I.*; 佐藤 拓未; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 533, p.152093_1 - 152093_8, 2020/05

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:58.08(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

For a criticality assessment of the fuel debris generated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, knowing the segregation of neutron absorber materials, ${it i.e.}$, Gd, B, and Fe, in the fuel debris is necessary. Although B may mostly evaporate during melting, Fe and Gd are expected to remain in the molten corium. To understand the redistribution behavior of Gd and Fe during the solidification of the molten corium, solidification experiments with simulated corium (containing UO$$_{2}$$, ZrO$$_{2}$$, FeO, and Gd$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ with a small amount of simulated fission products such as MoO$$_{3}$$, Nd$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$, SrO, and RuO$$_{2}$$) were performed using a cold crucible induction heating method. The simulated corium was slowly cooled from 2,500$$^{circ}$$C and solidified from the bottom to the top of the melt. An elemental analysis analysis of the solidified material showed that the Fe concentration in the inner region increased up to approximately 3.4 times that in the bottom region. This suggested that FeO might be concentrated in the residual melt and that, consequently, the concentration of Fe increased in the later solidification region. On the contrary, the Gd concentration in the periphery region was found to be approximately 2.0 times higher than that in the inner region, suggesting the segregation of Gd in the early solidified phase. No significant segregation was observed for the simulated fission products.


New research programme of JAEA/CLADS to reduce the knowledge gaps revealed after an accident at Fukushima-1; Introduction of boiling water reactor mock-up assembly degradation test programme

Pshenichnikov, A.; 倉田 正輝; Bottomley, D.; 佐藤 一憲; 永江 勇二; 山崎 宰春

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(4), p.370 - 379, 2020/04

 被引用回数:10 パーセンタイル:67.91(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The new research and development programme of JAEA/CLADS tests complement the previous investigations related to BWR severe accidents. A series of tests aiming at closing the gaps in understanding of the Fukushima Daiichi degradation sequence at each unit. The paper emphasises the problem of control blade degradation, which influences the accident progression at an early stage and shows the approach for thorough investigation of this problem.


Raman characterization of the simulated control blade debris to understand the boric compounds transformations during severe accidents

Pshenichnikov, A.; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(2), p.19-00477_1 - 19-00477_8, 2020/04

In order to address the challenge of the future Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station (1F) debris characterization a new Raman spectroscopy investigation of simulated debris obtained after two control blade degradation tests CLADS-MADE-01 and CLADS-MADE-02 has been performed. A mechanism of the B$$_{4}$$C degradation during the beginning phase of a severe accident until approximately 1873 K is described. A sequence of material interactions of B$$_{4}$$C with stainless steel resulted in partial transformation of B$$_{4}$$C granules into pure graphite, that later experienced oxidation with formation of COx gas. Especially this mechanism is active during melting phase in oxidative environment. At the same time boron was associated with formation of new Cr-B-containing solid phases in liquid melt, that continued relocation depleted by Cr and B, which resulted in redistribution of elements within the degrading reactor core. This knowledge would provide new insights for understanding of the absorber blade degradation mechanism under specific accident conditions close to 1F Unit 2 and Unit 3 reactors and especially would be helpful during potential characterization of metallic debris of 1F.


Oxidation kinetics of silicon carbide in steam at temperature range of 1400 to 1800$$^{circ}$$C studied by laser heating

Pham, V. H.; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝; Bottomley, D.; 古本 健一郎*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 529, p.151939_1 - 151939_8, 2020/02


 被引用回数:11 パーセンタイル:90.64(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

As expected for accident tolerant fuels, investigation of steam oxidation for silicon carbide under the conditions beyond design basis accident scenarios is needed. Many studies focused on steam oxidation of SiC at temperatures up 1600$$^{circ}$$C have been conducted and reported in the literature. However, behavior of SiC in steam at temperatures above 1600$$^{circ}$$C still remains unclear. To complete this task, we have designed and manufactured a laser heating facility for steam oxidation at extreme temperatures. With the facility, we report the first results on the steam oxidation behavior of SiC at temperatures range of 1400-1800$$^{circ}$$C for short term exposure of 1-7 h under atmospheric pressure. Based on the mass change of SiC samples, parabolic oxidation rate and linear volatilization rate were calculated. The oxidation layer appears to be maintained at 1800$$^{circ}$$C in steam, but the bubble formation phenomenon suggests other volatilization reactions may limit its life.


Oxidation of silicon carbide in steam studied by laser heating

Pham, V. H.; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝; 古本 健一郎*; 佐藤 寿樹*; 石橋 良*; 山下 真一郎

Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.670 - 674, 2019/09

Silicon carbide (SiC) has recently attracted much attention as a potential material for accident tolerant fuel cladding. To investigate the performance of SiC in severe accident conditions, study of steam oxidation at high temperatures is necessary. However, the study focusing on steam oxidation of SiC at temperatures above 1600$$^{circ}$$C is still certainly limited due to lack of test facilities. With the extreme oxidation/corrosion environment in steam at high temperatures, current refractory materials such as alumina and zirconia would not survive during the tests. Application of laser heating technique could be a great solution for this problem. Using laser heating technique, we can localize the heat and focus them on the test sample only. In this study, we developed a laser heating facility to investigate high-temperature oxidation of SiC in steam at temperature range of 1400-1800$$^{circ}$$C for 1-7 h. The oxidation kinetics is then being studied based on the weight gain and observation on cross-sectioned surface of tested sample using field emission scanning electron microscope. Off-gas measurement of hydrogen (H$$_{2}$$) and carbon monoxide (CO) generated during the test is also being conducted via a sensor gas chromatography. Current results showed that the SiC sample experienced a mass loss process which obeyed paralinear laws. Parabolic oxidation rate constant and linear volatilization rate constant of the process were calculated from the mass change of the samples. The apparent activation energy of the parabolic oxidation process was calculated to be 85 kJ.mol$$^{-1}$$. The data of the study also indicated that the mass change of SiC under the investigated conditions reached to its steady stage where hydrogen generation became stable. Above 1800$$^{circ}$$C, a unique bubble formation on sample surface was recorded.



須藤 彩子; 水迫 文樹*; 星野 国義*; 佐藤 拓未; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

日本原子力学会和文論文誌, 18(3), p.111 - 118, 2019/08

炉心溶融物の凝固過程での冷却速度の違いは燃料デブリ構成成分の偏析に大きく影響する。偏析傾向を把握するため、模擬コリウム(UO$$_{2}$$, ZrO$$_{2}$$, FeO, B$$_{4}$$C, FP酸化物)の溶融/凝固試験を行った。模擬コリウムはAr雰囲気化で2600$$^{circ}$$まで加熱し、2つの冷却速度での降温を行った。(炉冷(平均744$$^{circ}$$C/min)および徐冷(2600$$^{circ}$$C$$sim$$2300$$^{circ}$$C:5$$^{circ}$$C/min、2300$$^{circ}$$C$$sim$$1120$$^{circ}$$C:平均788$$^{circ}$$C/min)元素分析により、炉冷条件および徐冷条件両方の固化後の試料中に3つの異なる組成を持つ酸化物相および1つの金属相が確認された。炉冷条件、徐冷条件ともにこれら3つの酸化物相へのFeO固溶度はおおよそ12$$pm$$5at%であった。この結果はUO$$_{2}$$-ZrO$$_{2}$$-FeO状態図におおよそ一致している。一方、徐冷条件での試料中に、Zrリッチ相の大粒形化が確認された。この相の組成は液相の初期組成と一致しており、遅い凝固中で液滴の連結が起こり、凝集したと評価した。


Characterization of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Unit 2 sediments / debris based on the on-site video investigations in comparison to the debris obtained after integral CLADS-MADE-01 test

Pshenichnikov, A.; 倉田 正輝; 永江 勇二

第24回動力・エネルギー技術シンポジウム講演論文集(USB Flash Drive), 4 Pages, 2019/06

The new data from video investigation of the 1F Unit 2 pedestal debris performed by TEPCO was analysed. The debris features as derived from visual appearance on the video compared with the debris obtained after the CLADS-MADE-01 test. Some speculative conclusions concerning the properties and possible nature of the debris can be made.

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