Annals of Nuclear Energy, 171, p.109052_1 - 109052_8, 2022/06
The fracture threshold of the fuel decreases if the oxidized Zr alloy cladding is strongly constrained by the spacer grid during quenching in a loss-of-coolant accident. Therefore, the estimation of realistic levels of the axial constraint has been a subject of significant interest on fuel safety. In this study, a test assembly consisting of a PWR-type simulated fuel segment and a 33 grid piece was heated in steam, cooled, and quenched, and the axial constraint force on the fuel segment was measured. The constraint force of the Zircaloy grid gradually decreased with temperature. Once the Zircaloy grid was heated to 1060 K, the reduced constraint force had difficulty recovering, and thus the maximum constraint force during cooling and quenching was 10 N. The constraint force was clearly reduced at 1070 K during the tests with the Inconel grid. However, the reduced constraint force partially recovered during cooling. As a result, the maximum constraint force during cooling and quenching was 20 to 50 N for the Inconel grid. In conclusion, oxidation, ballooning, rupture, or eutectic formation would not generally cause an extremely strong constraint, as predicted by previous studies, at the grid position.
Nagase, Fumihisa; Otomo, Takashi; Uetsuka, Hiroshi*
Nuclear Technology, 208(3), p.484 - 493, 2022/03
An Ag-In-Cd control rod alloy was heated in argon or oxygen at 1073-1673 K for 60-3600 s and the release behavior of the elements was examined. Complete liquefaction of the alloy occurred between 1123 and 1173 K, and elemental release was quite limited below the liquefaction temperature. In argon, almost all of the Cd content was released within 3600 s at 1173 K and within 60 s at 1573 K, while the released fractions of Ag and In were 3% and 8%, respectively. In oxygen, the release of Cd, which was quite small at temperatures up to 1573 K, drastically increased to 30-50% at 1673 K for short periods. Releases of Ag and In were also small in oxygen under the examined conditions. Comparison with the experimental data suggests that conventional empirical release models may underestimate the Cd release at lower temperatures just after control rod failure in severe accidents.
Nagase, Fumihisa; Narukawa, Takafumi; Amaya, Masaki
JAEA-Review 2020-076, 129 Pages, 2021/03
Each light-water reactor (LWR) is equipped with the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) to maintain the coolability of the reactor core and to suppress the release of radioactive fission products to the environment even in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) caused by breaks in the reactor coolant pressure boundary. The acceptance criteria for ECCS have been established in order to evaluate the ECCS performance and confirm the sufficient safety margin in the evaluation. The limits defined in the criteria were determined in 1975 and reviewed based on state-of-the-art knowledge in 1981. Though the fuel burnup extension and necessary improvements of cladding materials and fuel design have been conducted, the criteria have not been reviewed since then. Meanwhile, much technical knowledge has been accumulated regarding the behavior of high-burnup fuel during LOCAs and the applicability of the criteria to the high-burnup fuel. This report provides a comprehensive review of the history and technical bases of the current criteria and summarizes state-of-the-art technical findings regarding the fuel behavior during LOCAs. The applicability of the current criteria to the high-burnup fuel is also discussed.
Fuketa, Toyoshi*; Nagase, Fumihisa
Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry; 18th International Symposium (ASTM STP 1597), p.52 - 92, 2018/01
Extensive research programs have been performed for more than two decades in JAEA and a better understanding has been developed for fuel behavior under accident conditions. The program is comprised of: RIA studies including pulse-irradiation experiments in the NSRR, cladding mechanical tests, and development and verification of a computer code RANNS; LOCA tests including integral thermal shock tests, oxidation rate measurements, and cladding mechanical tests; development and verification of a computer code FEMAXI-6, etc. Data and findings from the research programs provided technical basis directly and indirectly for regulatory criteria in Japan and other countries. This paper reviews and summarizes the major outcome from the research programs and identifies further research needs, as the acceptance technical paper for the Kroll Medal award of ASTM.
Shirasu, Noriko; Saito, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Shinichiro; Nagase, Fumihisa
Proceedings of 2017 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 8 Pages, 2017/09
Silicon carbide (SiC) is an attractive candidate of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding material because of its high chemical stability, high radiation resistance and low neutron absorption. FEMAXI-ATF has been developed to analysis SiC cladding fuel behaviors. The thermal, mechanical and irradiation property models were implemented to FEMAXI-7, which is a fuel behavior analysis code being developed in JAEA. Fuel rod behavior analysis was performed under typical boiling water reactor (BWR) operating conditions with a model based on a 99 BWR fuel (Step III Type B), in which the cladding material was replaced from Zircaloy to SiC. The SiC cladding shows large swelling by irradiation. It increases the gap size and decreases cladding thermal conductivity. The mechanism of relaxation of stress is also different from the Zircaloy cladding. The experimental data for SiC materials are still insufficient to construct the models, especially for evaluating fracture behavior.
Yamashita, Shinichiro; Nagase, Fumihisa; Kurata, Masaki; Nozawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Seiichi*; Kirimura, Kazuki*; Kakiuchi, Kazuo*; Kondo, Takao*; Sakamoto, Kan*; Kusagaya, Kazuyuki*; et al.
Proceedings of 2017 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/09
In Japan, the research and development (R&D) project on accident tolerant fuel and other components (ATFs) of light water reactors (LWRs) has been initiated in 2015 for establishing technical basis of ATFs. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has coordinated and carried out this ATF R&D project in cooperation with power plant providers, fuel venders and universities for making the best use of the experiences, knowledges in commercial uses of zirconium-base alloys (Zircaloy) in LWRs. ATF candidate materials under consideration in the project are FeCrAl steel strengthened by dispersion of fine oxide particles(FeCrAl-ODS) and silicon carbide (SiC) composite, and are expecting to endure severe accident conditions in the reactor core for a longer period of time than the Zircaloy while maintaining or improving fuel performance during normal operations. In this paper, the progresses of the R&D project are reported.
Ishibashi, Ryo*; Tanabe, Shigetada*; Kondo, Takao*; Yamashita, Shinichiro; Nagase, Fumihisa
Proceedings of 2017 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/09
For improving the corrosion resistance of silicon carbide (SiC) in boiling-water-reactor environments, corrosion-resistant coatings on SiC were evaluated. Due to its hydrogen-generation rate and reaction heat being lower than those of conventional Zircaloy, SiC is expected to be an appropriate material for accident-tolerant fuels. However, there are still many critical issues with the practical application of SiC fuel cladding and fuel channel boxes, one of which is hydrothermal corrosion. Silicon carbide is chemically stable, but silicon oxide formed by oxidation of SiC dissolves in high temperature water. Although the rate of SiC dissolution is very small, the dissolution must be suppressed to comply with regulations for dissolved silica concentration in reactor coolant. In this study, the corrosion behavior of candidate coatings for SiC substrates were evaluated before and after exposure to unirradiated high-purity-water environments.
Sato, Hisaki*; Takeuchi, Yutaka*; Kakiuchi, Kazuo*; Yamashita, Shinichiro; Nagase, Fumihisa
Proceedings of 2017 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 9 Pages, 2017/09
Since JFY2015, new Japanese national program has been initiated for the purpose of establishing the technical basis to apply ATF for the existing LWRs. SiC is one of ATF candidates material and the comprehensive applicability is being studied in the program, such as fuel rod design, core and plant design, safety evaluation for design basis accident (DBA) and severe accident (SA) as well. As one of the works in the program, the new procedure including fuel rod performance analysis during DBA was developed and the preliminary analysis was conducted. As a result, it was concluded that the typical transient and LOCA behavior between Zircaloy and SiC was not so much different.
Nagase, Fumihisa; Sakamoto, Kan*; Yamashita, Shinichiro
Corrosion Reviews, 35(3), p.129 - 140, 2017/08
As the lessons learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, advanced cladding materials are being developed to enhance accident tolerance comparing with conventional zirconium alloys. The present paper reviews the progress of the development and summarizes subjects to be solved for the enhanced accident-tolerance fuel cladding, focusing on performance degradation under various corrosive environmental conditions that should be considered in designing the LWR fuel.
Nagase, Fumihisa; Gauntt, R. O.*; Naito, Masanori*
Nuclear Technology, 196(3), p.499 - 510, 2016/12
The OECD/NEA Benchmark Study of the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF) project was established in November 2012. The primary objectives of this benchmark study are to estimate accident progression and status inside the nuclear reactors, including fuel debris distribution, and consequently to contribute to the decommissioning activity at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Fifteen organizations of eight countries calculated thermo-hydraulic behavior inside the three reactors for the time span of about six days from the occurrence of the earthquake with their severe accident integral codes. The submitted results were compared on coolant level change, hydrogen generation, initiation and progression of melt in fuel bundle and control blade, failure of reactor pressure vessel, distribution and composition of molten and solidified materials, and progression of molten core concrete interaction. This issue summarizes the results of the comparison and discussion with still remaining uncertainties and data needs as the output from the project.
Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Uesawa, Shinichiro; Yamashita, Susumu; Nagase, Fumihisa
Proceedings of 10th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS-10) (USB Flash Drive), 7 Pages, 2016/11
Yamashita, Shinichiro; Nagase, Fumihisa; Kurata, Masaki; Kaji, Yoshiyuki
Proceedings of Annual Topical Meeting on LWR Fuels with Enhanced Safety and Performance (TopFuel 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.21 - 30, 2016/09
Fuel rod, channel box, and control rod designed with new materials and concepts have been developed in Japan for increasing accident tolerance of LWRs. In order to efficiently and properly implement the accident tolerant fuels (ATFs) and the other components, it is necessary not only to accumulate fundamental and practical data but also to consider technology readiness, recognize knowledge gaps, and establish strategy for design and fabrication. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has established the above "technical basis" and drafted a research plan towards implementation of the ATFs and components as a program sponsored and organized by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). It is useful to take advantage of the experiences in commercial uses of zirconium-base alloys in LWRs and, therefore, JAEA has conducted this METI project in cooperation with power plant providers, fuel venders, research institutes and universities who have been involved in the development of the ATF materials. The present paper describes the main results of the project conducted to establish the technical basis of the ATFs and components.
Ota, Hirokazu*; Nakamura, Kinya*; Ogata, Takanari*; Nagase, Fumihisa
Proceedings of Annual Topical Meeting on LWR Fuels with Enhanced Safety and Performance (TopFuel 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.159 - 168, 2016/09
Control rods can be disintegrated and neutron absorber would be removed from the core region before most of the fuel pins are still not damaged seriously in severe accidents of LWRs. The present study investigates a concept of accident tolerant control rod (ATCR) with the following characteristics; (1) sufficiently-high melting and eutectic temperatures, (2) high miscibility with molten and solidified fuel materials, and (3) enough control rod worth. It has been shown that rare-earth sesqui-oxides are expected to be compatible with iron up to higher temperatures than the melting points of structure materials of control rods, and that SmO, EuO, GdO, DyO or their mixtures with HfO are available as alternative neutron absorbers to conventional Ag-In-Cd alloy.
Nagase, Fumihisa; Gauntt, R. O.*; Naito, Masanori*
Proceedings of 16th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-16) (USB Flash Drive), p.7033 - 7045, 2015/08
The OECD/NEA Benchmark Study of the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (BSAF) Project has been established in November 2012. Fifteen organizations of eight countries calculated thermo-hydraulic behavior with severe accident integral codes. The primary objective of this benchmark study is to estimate accident progression, status in the reactor pressure vessels and primary containment vessels, and status of debris distribution for a debris removal plan. Finally the calculated results submitted by the participants were compared and evaluated to estimate the accident progression and status inside the reactors though the results showed wide variations. Still remaining uncertainties and data needs that are useful to the communication between analysts and decommissioning activities are also summarized as the output from the project.
Miwa, Shuhei; Yamashita, Shinichiro; Ishimi, Akihiro; Osaka, Masahiko; Amaya, Masaki; Tanaka, Kosuke; Nagase, Fumihisa
Energy Procedia, 71, p.168 - 181, 2015/05
A basic study towards enhanced safety management of irradiated fuels and materials from a severe accident is underway utilizing JAEA's hot laboratory complex in Oarai. The present study that consists of three basic research programs is aimed at contributing to building enhanced safety management measures (including radioactive decontamination, evaluation measurements, safekeeping, treatment and disposal) of irradiated fuels and materials from the severe accident. In this paper, not only the overview of activities of individual research programs but also the several preliminary results were shown together with future plans.
Yamato, Masaaki; Nagase, Fumihisa; Amaya, Masaki
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 51(9), p.1125 - 1132, 2014/09
To evaluate fracture resistance of LWR fuel rods under LOCA and post-LOCA cooling conditions, four-point-bend tests were performed on non-irradiated Zircaloy cladding samples that were ruptured, oxidized in high-temperature steam, and quenched in flooding water. The bend test methodology was designed to apply a uniform bending moment to the entire rupture region and to generate tensile stress on the ruptured side. The fracture bending moment of the cladding decreased with oxidation temperature and hydrogen concentration as well as oxidation amount. Comparison with bending moments estimated from design basis seismic ground motion indicated that the cladding is unlikely to be fractured by seismic loads during post-LOCA cooling if high-temperature oxidation is kept below 15% ECR, the oxidation limit of the Japanese LOCA criteria.
Sato, Isamu; Miwa, Shuhei; Tanaka, Kosuke; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Hirosawa, Takashi; Iwasaki, Maho; Onishi, Takashi; Osaka, Masahiko; Takai, Toshihide; Amaya, Masaki; et al.
Proceedings of 2014 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting/ Top Fuel / LWR Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2014) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2014/09
A new research program on severe accidents is lunched for the evaluation of FP release and transport behavior in BWR system. The purpose of the program is to improve the FP release and transport model using experimental database about FP chemistry focusing on Cs and I chemistry. In this program, effects of B including in control rod materials, BC for the Cs and I chemistry are paid attention. The experimental database used for the improvement will consist of results to obtain with newly-prepared test device under atmosphere with broad-ranging oxygen and/or steam partial pressure simulated those in BWR. The state of preparation for these experimental studies and analyses is introduced. In addition, the preliminary test was moved into action to show B chemical effect on Cs and I transport under one of the processes, which is deposited Cs compounds and B vapor and aerosol interaction. In this experiment, a "B stripping effect" to deposited CsI was observed.
Jiao, L.; Liu, W.; Nagatake, Taku; Takase, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Nagase, Fumihisa
Proceedings of 15th International Heat Transfer Conference (IHTC 2014) (USB Flash Drive), 11 Pages, 2014/08
In Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, seawater was injected into the nuclear core, which may change the heat transfer characteristics in the reactor pressure vessels (RPV) due to the different physical properties of seawater and pure water. To remove molten fuel from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants, it is necessary to know the current status of the reactors. Therefore, in this paper, we measured the basic thermal-hydraulic data in an annular tube with a co-axial heater, which includes the heat transfer rate and the pressure drop, using the sodium chloride aqueous solutions and the synthetic seawater as working fluids. The experiments were performed under atmosphere pressure, with the salinity, the fluid mass flux, the inlet temperature and the heat flux used as the parameters. The experimental results and analyses are reported in this paper and the basic influence of the salinity on the heat transfer and the hydraulic characters are proposed.
Suzuki, Takayuki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Nagase, Fumihisa
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 51(7-8), p.968 - 976, 2014/07
Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO, 56(4), p.235 - 239, 2014/04
To proceed the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, management of criticality safety is required during and after the fuel debris retrieval. The information about size of fuel debris, degree of mixture of fuel and structure materials, fuel burnup distribution, FP retention in fuel debris, etc. is important in the R&D for the management of criticality safety. The present issue review the knowledge on fuel and core materials behavior during a severe accident and characteristics of TMI-2 debris, and discusses composition and morphology of fuel debris in the Fukushima Daiichi NPP.