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Journal Articles

Analysis of the ozone reduction event over the southern tip of South America in November 2009

Akiyoshi, Hideharu*; Kadowaki, Masanao; Nakamura, Haruna*; Sugita, Takafumi*; Hirooka, Toshihiko*; Harada, Yayoi*; Mizuno, Akira*

Journal of Geophysical Research; Atmospheres, 123(22), p.12523 - 12542, 2018/11

AA2018-0443.pdf:12.61MB

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences)

A reduction of the total ozone over the southern tip of South America lasting 3 weeks occurred in November 2009. Analyses of the ERA-Interim reanalysis data and the total ozone observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument indicate that the total ozone reduction event was caused by a migration of the polar vortex toward the South American continent at the time of the vortex breakup. The vortex migration is associated with an enhanced wave flux from the troposphere at 120-150$$^{circ}$$W and 50-60$$^{circ}$$S to the west of the South American continent to the stratosphere over the southern part of the continent, which led to a large negative geopotential height anomaly in the lower stratosphere. In November, a blocking event was diagnosed from the 500-hPa geopotential height over the west of the South American continent. These results suggest a relation between the long-lasting reduction of the total ozone over the southern tip of South America and the blocking phenomenon in the troposphere of the Southern Hemisphere through wave propagation from the blocking region in 2009. Analysis of the total ozone anomaly for 50-60$$^{circ}$$S and 65-75$$^{circ}$$W over the southern tip of South America in November for 1979-2015 indicates that the negative ozone anomaly in November 2009 was one of the largest anomalies in this 37-year period and was associated with the large negative geopotential height anomaly in the lower stratosphere. Analyses of dynamical fields were also conducted for other years with large geopotential height anomalies.

Journal Articles

Initial results of the large liquid lithium test loop for the IFMIF target

Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Kanemura, Takuji; Ida, Mizuho; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Horiike, Hiroshi*; Yamaoka, Nobuo*; Matsushita, Izuru*; et al.

Proceedings of 24th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2012) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2013/03

Construction and initial performance tests of EVEDA (Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities) Lithium Test Loop (ELTL) were completed and therefore one of the major milestones in the engineering validation toward IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) was accomplished. The ELTL, which holds 2.5-ton Li, is a proto-type of a Li target facility of the IFMIF and is the largest-ever liquid lithium loop in the history of the fusion research.

Journal Articles

Completion of IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop construction

Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Iuchi, Hiroshi; Kanemura, Takuji; Ida, Mizuho; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Horiike, Hiroshi*; Yamaoka, Nobuo*; Matsushita, Izuru*; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 87(5-6), p.418 - 422, 2012/08

 Times Cited Count:21 Percentile:11.66(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The EVEDA Li test loop (ELTL) successfully completed its construction and installation of a total of 2.5-ton Li in the frame work of the IFMIF/EVEDA as one of the ITER-BA. The construction was started on Nov. 2009 in the Oarai site of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and completed on the middle of Nov. 2010 after passing an authority inspection by a fire department in Oarai town. Subsequently, the 2.5-ton Li was installed to the ELTL by using a glove box. The nitrogen concentration in the 2.5-ton Li was found to be 127 wppm.

Journal Articles

Engineering design of contact-type liquid level sensor for measuring thickness validation of liquid lithium jet in IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop

Kanemura, Takuji; Kondo, Hiroo; Suzuki, Sachiko*; Hoashi, Eiji*; Yamaoka, Nobuo*; Horiike, Hiroshi*; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Ida, Mizuho; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Matsushita, Izuru*; et al.

Fusion Science and Technology, 62(1), p.258 - 264, 2012/07

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:61.15(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) project of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), which is one of the Broader Approach (BA) activities, thickness variation of a liquid lithium (Li) jet simulating the IFMIF Li target is planned to be measured in the EVEDA Li Test Loop (ELTL). For this purpose, a contact-type liquid level sensor was developed, which can detect contacts between a probe and Li. Analysis of the contact signals yields average jet thickness and amplitude distribution. One of the key development requirements is to drive the probe by 0.1 mm step with positioning accuracy of 0.01 mm under the vacuum condition of 10$$^{-3}$$Pa. To satisfy such a requirement, the sensor's own weight load and moment load were calculated, and based on those calculation results a powerful motor and a friction-reduced ball screw were selected and strong structure was adopted. We have successfully completed the design work of the sensor.

Journal Articles

IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop; Design and fabrication technology of target assembly as a key component

Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Ida, Mizuho; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Kanemura, Takuji; Wakai, Eiichi; Horiike, Hiroshi*; Yamaoka, Nobuo*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 51(12), p.123008_1 - 123008_12, 2011/12

 Times Cited Count:35 Percentile:13.81(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity (EVEDA) for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is proceeded as one of the ITER Broader Approach (BA) activities. The EVEDA Li test loop (ELTL) is aimed at validating stability of the Li target and feasibility of a Li purification system as the key issues. In this paper, the design of the ELTL especially of a target assembly in which the Li target is produced by the contraction nozzle is presented.

Journal Articles

Completion of IFMIF/EVEDA Li test loop construction and commissioning

Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Iuchi, Hiroshi; Kanemura, Takuji; Ida, Mizuho; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Horiike, Hiroshi*; Yamaoka, Nobuo*; Matsushita, Izuru*; et al.

Proceedings of Plasma Conference 2011 (PLASMA 2011) (CD-ROM), 2 Pages, 2011/11

The EVEDA Li test loop (ELTL) successfully completed its construction and commissioning in the frame work of the IFMIF/EVEDA as one of the ITER-BA. The construction was started on Nov. 2009 in the O-arai site of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and completed on the middle of Nov. 2010. In the commissioning conducted subsequently, the following tests were performed: (1) Li ingots installation into the ELTL, (2) Li charging and draining operation, (3) Li circulation tests. In a final phase of the circulation test, stable liquid Li flow at a velocity of 5 m/s was successfully achieved.

Journal Articles

Present status of Japanese tasks for lithium target facility under IFMIF/EVEDA

Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Kanemura, Takuji; Kondo, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Niitsuma, Shigeto; Otaka, Masahiko; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Horiike, Hiroshi*; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 86(9-11), p.2491 - 2494, 2011/10

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:35.08(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In IFMIF/EVEDA, tasks for lithium target system are shared to 5 validation tasks (LF1-5) and a design task (LF6). The purpose of LF1 task is to construct and operate the EVEDA lithium test loop, and JAEA has a main responsibility to the performance of the Li test loop. LF2 is a task for the diagnostics of the Li test loop and IFMIF design. Basic research for the diagnostics equipment has been completed, and the construction for the Li test loop will be finished before March in 2011. LF4 is a task for the purification systems with nitrogen and hydrogen. Basic research for the purification equipment has been completed, and the construction of the nitrogen system for the Li test loop will be finished before March in 2011. LF5 is a task for the remote handling system with the target assembly. JAEA has an idea to use the laser beam for cutting and welding of the lip part of the flanges. LF6 is a task for the design of the IFMIF based on the validation experiments of LF1-5.

Journal Articles

Safety concept of the IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop

Furukawa, Tomohiro; Kondo, Hiroo; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Kato, Shoichi; Matsushita, Izuru*; Ida, Mizuho; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

Fusion Engineering and Design, 86(9-11), p.2433 - 2436, 2011/10

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:35.08(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In order to obtain the engineering data on the lithium target system, which is the neutron source of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), the design and fabrication of the IFMIF/EVEDA Lithium Test Loop are being carried out under the Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity (EVEDA). The loop will hold 2.5 tons of lithium. Since lithium is specified by Japanese law as a dangerous substance, countermeasures which assumed a lithium leak incident and various abnormal issues are indispensable. This paper describes about the safety principles and measures for lithium leaks of the IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop decided under the detailed design process.

Journal Articles

Design of purification loop and traps for the IFMIF/EVEDA Li test loop; Design of cold trap

Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Iuchi, Hiroshi; Ida, Mizuho; Yagi, Juro*; Suzuki, Akihiro*; Fukada, Satoshi*; Matsushita, Izuru*; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

Fusion Engineering and Design, 86(9-11), p.2437 - 2441, 2011/10

 Times Cited Count:17 Percentile:16.68(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) for The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) were started from July 2007 under an international agreement called ITER Broader Approach. As a major Japanese activity, EVEDA Li test loop (ELTL) to simulate hydraulic and impurity conditions of IFMIF has already designed and is under construction, in which feasibility of hydraulic stability of the liquid Li target, the purification systems of hot traps are major key issues to be validated in this loop. This paper focuses on the purification systems of the ELTL. Design of a cold trap and hot traps are discussed in this paper.

Journal Articles

Thermo-structural analysis of integrated back plate in IFMIF/EVEDA liquid lithium target

Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Ida, Mizuho; Kondo, Hiroo; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Wakai, Eiichi

Fusion Engineering and Design, 86(9-11), p.2482 - 2486, 2011/10

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:78.31(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) are in progress under the Broader Approach (BA) Agreement. As a part of this engineering design, we carried out thermo-structural analysis of the back plate in the IFMIF target. In this analysis, the target assembly of the integrated back plate option was modeled with the nuclear heating to simulate the IFMIF usual operation. The calculation parameters were thermal boundary conditions of a mechanical joint between the target assembly and the beam duct. The calculation results showed the influence of parameters on thermal stress was small. The maximum von Mises stresses occurred at the back plate center and those values, 204 - 218 MPa were lower than half of the yield strength of F82H (455 MPa). The maximum thermal deformations occurred at the same place and those values, about 0.3 mm will be important input parameter for the Li flow stability analysis.

Journal Articles

Hydraulic analysis on effects of back-plate deformation upon stability of high-speed free-surface lithium flow for IFMIF target design

Ida, Mizuho; Kondo, Hiroo; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Wakai, Eiichi

Fusion Engineering and Design, 86(9-11), p.2478 - 2481, 2011/10

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:61.89(Nuclear Science & Technology)

For engineering design of liquid lithium (Li) target of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), two-dimensional hydraulic analysis was performed using code FLUENT. The analysis clarified effects of smooth deformation at the center of the back-plate part of the flow channel upon velocity and pressure in the high-speed free-surface Li flow. Convex deformations caused decrease in jet thickness and thus increase in velocity and decrease in pressure. Convex deformations caused vice versa. Acceptable limit of the back-plate deformation to avoid Li boiling in IFMIF target was 1.0 mm for the convex deformation and 3.0 mm for the concave deformation. Spatial range of the effects of the deformation was localized around deformation as far as no boiling.

Journal Articles

Thermo-structural analysis of target assembly and back plate in the IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop

Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Ida, Mizuho; Kondo, Hiroo; Miyashita, Makoto; Nakamura, Hiroo

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 417(1-3), p.1299 - 1302, 2011/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity (EVEDA) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) has been started under the Broader Approach Agreement. For the target assembly in the EVEDA Li test loop, two kinds of the back plates, "Integrated type" of SUS316L and "Bayonet type" of F82H, are going to be manufactured and tested. For thermo-structural design of the target assembly, we carried out thermo-structural analysis for these two types of the back plates by using the ABAQUS computer code. In the case of assuming thermal insulation for outer surface of the target assembly, the maximum stress of integrated type was 39.2 MPa, and that of Bayonet type was 340 MPa. These were lower than the permissible stress of their materials, therefore it was evaluated that insulation was effective against decreasing thermal stress.

Journal Articles

Target system of IFMIF-EVEDA in Japanese activities

Ida, Mizuho; Fukada, Satoshi*; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Horiike, Hiroshi*; Kanemura, Takuji*; Kondo, Hiroo; Miyashita, Makoto; Nakamura, Hiroo; Sugiura, Hirokazu*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 417(1-3), p.1294 - 1298, 2011/10

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:69.54(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) was started. As a Japanese activity for the target system, EVEDA Lithium Test Loop simulating hydraulic and impurity conditions of IFMIF is under design and preparation for fabrication. Feasibility of thermo-mechanical structure of the target assembly and the replaceable back-plate made of F82H (a RAFM) and 316L (a stainless steel) is a key issue. Toward final validation on the EVEDA loop, diagnostics applicable to a high-speed free-surface Li flow and hot traps to control nitrogen and hydrogen in Li are under tests. For remote handling of target assemblies and the replaceable back-plates activated up to 50 dpa/y, lip weld on 316L-316L by laser and dissimilar weld on F82H-316L are under investigation. As engineering design of the IFMIF target system, water experiments and hydraulic/thermo-mechanical analyses of the back-plate are going.

Journal Articles

Engineering design of IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop; Electro-magnetic pump and pressure drop

Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Iuchi, Hiroshi; Ida, Mizuho; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Kanemura, Takuji; Horiike, Hiroshi*; Yamaoka, Nobuo*; Matsushita, Izuru*; et al.

Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-19) (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2011/10

Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) were started from July 2007 under an international agreement called ITER Broader Approach. As a major Japanese activity, EVEDA Li test loop (ELTL) to simulate hydraulic and impurity conditions of IFMIF has already designed and is under construction, in which feasibility of hydraulic stability of the liquid Li target, the purification systems of hot traps are major key issues to be validated in this loop. This paper presents the engineering design of the main electro-magnetic pump of the ELTL including the pressure drop calculation and evaluation of the cavitation inception.

Journal Articles

Diagnostics of high-speed liquid lithium jet for IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop

Kanemura, Takuji; Kondo, Hiroo; Sugiura, Hirokazu*; Horiike, Hiroshi*; Yamaoka, Nobuo*; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Ida, Mizuho; Matsushita, Izuru*; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-19) (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2011/10

Regarding R&Ds on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), validation of hydraulic stability of a liquid Li jet simulating the IFMIF Li target is of crucial importance and thus, is planned to be performed using EVEDA Li test loop. This paper presents diagnostics of the Li jet to be implemented in validation tests of the jet stability. In the tests, the following physical parameters need to be measured; thickness of the jet; height, length and frequency of free-surface waves; and Li evaporation rate. A high-speed video (HSV) camera is planned to be used for understanding of detailed structure of free-surface waves, and the HSV images are to be analyzed to obtain wave velocity and frequency. To measure jet thickness and wave height, a contact-type liquid level sensor is to be used. With regard to Li evaporation rate, deposition of Li on the specimens installed near the free surface is to be measured. In addition, frequency change of a crystal quartz will be utilized.

Journal Articles

Development of measurement technique for surface waves on high-speed liquid lithium jet for IFMIF target

Kondo, Hiroo; Kanemura, Takuji*; Sugiura, Hirokazu*; Yamaoka, Nobuo*; Ida, Mizuho; Nakamura, Hiroo; Matsushita, Izuru*; Muroga, Takeo*; Horiike, Hiroshi*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 85(7-9), p.1102 - 1105, 2010/12

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:37.22(Nuclear Science & Technology)

This paper reports a measurement technique for surface waves on a liquid lithium jet for a Li target of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility. The characteristic of the waves was successfully clarified by a contact-type liquid level detector. As a result, it was found that the wave distributions in the all jet velocity range up to 15 m/s were conformed each other in normalized form and Rayleigh distribution which is one of popular model to show irregular water wave.

Journal Articles

Design and construction of IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop

Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Ida, Mizuho; Matsushita, Izuru*; Horiike, Hiroshi*; Kanemura, Takuji; Sugiura, Hirokazu*; Yagi, Juro*; Suzuki, Akihiro*; et al.

Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 133(5), p.052910_1 - 052910_6, 2010/12

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:54.74(Engineering, Mechanical)

As a major Japanese activity for the IFMIF/EVEDA, EVEDA Li Test Loop (ELTL) to simulate hydraulic and impurity conditions of IFMIF is under design and preparation for fabrication. Feasibility of hydraulic stability of the liquid Li target and the purification systems of hot traps are major key issues to be validated. This paper presents the current status of the design and construction of the EVEDA Li Test Loop. Detail designs of the loop components such as the target assembly, tanks, an electro-magnetic pump and flow meter and a cold trap for purification system are described in addition to the flow diagnostics system and the hot traps.

Journal Articles

Engineering design and construction of IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop; Design and fabrication of integrated target assembly

Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Nakamura, Hiroo*; Ida, Mizuho; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Miyashita, Makoto*; Horiike, Hiroshi*; Yamaoka, Nobuo*; Kanemura, Takuji; et al.

Proceedings of 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2010) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2010/10

The Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity (EVEDA) for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is proceeded as one of the ITER Broader Approach (BA) activities. The EVEDA Li test loop (ELTL) is aimed at validating stability of the Li target and feasibility of a Li purification system as the key issues. In this paper, the design of the ELTL especially of a target assembly in which the Li target is produced by the contraction nozzle is presented.

Journal Articles

Update on lithium safety handling work

Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Kato, Shoichi; Kondo, Hiroo; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

Proceedings of 3rd IFMIF/EVEDA Workshop (Internet), 4 Pages, 2010/09

The object of this task, Development of Li safety handing technology in EVEDA LF-5, is to dedicate data needed for design relating safety and Li treatment and impurity monitoring. This task consists of (a) experiments of lithium fire, (b) chemical analysis of impurity in lithium and (c) experiments of lithium chemical reaction. The validation test on the lithium fire and the preliminary tests on lithium impurity and lithium chemical reaction were started in 2009. This paper describes the current status of the lithium safety handling task.

Journal Articles

Experimental study on fire-extinguishing of lithium

Furukawa, Tomohiro; Kato, Shoichi; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Kondo, Hiroo; Nakamura, Hiroo

Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-18) (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2010/05

The EVEDA lithium test loop is constructed at the Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Since lithium is specified as a dangerous substance by a Japanese law, the countermeasure which assumed the lithium combustion incident is indispensable. In this experimental study, the fire-extinguishing behavior of four kinds of fire extinguishers - dryness sand, pearlite, Natrex-L and Natrex-M - to burning lithium was examined. In addition, the effect of depth of lithium pool on the fire-extinguishing performance of the candidate fire extinguisher was investigated to determine the amount of the fire extinguisher placed at the EVEDA lithium test loop.

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