Sugawara, Takanori; Moriguchi, Daisuke*; Ban, Yasutoshi; Tsubata, Yasuhiro; Takano, Masahide; Nishihara, Kenji
JAEA-Research 2021-008, 63 Pages, 2021/10
This study aims to perform the neutronics calculations for accelerator-driven system (ADS) with a new fuel composition based on the SELECT process developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency because the previous studies had used the ideal MA (minor actinide) fuel composition without uranium and rare earth elements. Through the neutronics calculations, it is shown that two calculation cases, with/without neptunium, satisfy the design criteria. Although the new fuel composition includes uranium and rare earth elements, the ADS core with the new fuel composition is feasible and consistent with the partitioning and transmutation (P&T) cycle. Based on the new fuel composition, the heat removal during fuel powder storage and fuel assembly assembling is evaluated. For the fuel powder storage, it is found that a cylindrical tube container with a length of 500 [mm] and a diameter of 11 - 21 [mm] should be stored under water. For the fuel assembly assembling, CFD analysis indicates that the cladding tube temperature would satisfy the criterion if the inlet velocity of air is larger than 0.5 [m/s]. Through these studies, the new fuel composition which is consistent with the P&T cycle is obtained and the heat removal with the latest conditions is investigated. It is also shown that the new fuel composition can be practically handled with respect to heat generation, which is one of the most difficult points in handling MA fuel.
Watanabe, Nao; Sugawara, Takanori; Okubo, Nariaki; Nishihara, Kenji
JAEA-Technology 2020-026, 59 Pages, 2021/03
As a part of partitioning and transmutation technology development to reduce the burden of radioactive disposal, an investigation of Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) has been performed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. A beam window, which is an inherent structure of the ADS, is planned to be made from T91 steel and its shape is a thin hemisphere shell. However, it had never been tried to manufacture it out of T91 steel. In this investigation, we tried to manufacture miniature beam windows by cutting T91 steel, and to discuss the process, manufacturing accuracy and geometry measurement methods. As a result, considering a real scale ADS beam window, a figure error between designing and machining ones is estimated to be about 5%. Its effect would be very small to the structural strength.
Okamura, Tomohiro*; Oizumi, Akito; Nishihara, Kenji; Nakase, Masahiko*; Takeshita, Kenji*
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-023, 32 Pages, 2021/03
Nuclear Material Balance code (NMB code) have been developed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The NMB code will be updated with the function of mass balance analysis at the backend process such as reprocessing, vitrification and geological disposal. In order to perform its analysis with high accuracy, it is necessary to expand the number of FP nuclides calculated in the NMB code. In this study, depletion calculation by ORIGEN code was performed under 3 different burn-up conditions such as spent uranium fuel from light water reactor, and nuclides were selected from 5 evaluation indexes such as mass and heat generation. In addition, the FP nuclides required to configure a simple burnup chain with the same calculation accuracy as ORIGEN in the NMB code was selected. As the result, two lists with different number of nuclides, such as "Detailed list" and a "Simplified list", were created.
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-005, 48 Pages, 2020/07
In order to discuss the technological development and human resource development necessary for the future nuclear fuel cycle, various quantitative analyzes were conducted assuming a wide range of future nuclear power generation scenarios. In the evaluation of quantities, the future power generation of LWR and fast reactor, the amount of spent fuel reprocessing, etc. were assumed, and the amount of uranium demand, the accumulation of spent fuel, plutonium, vitrified waste etc. were estimated.
Kunieda, Satoshi; Furutachi, Naoya; Minato, Futoshi; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Iwamoto, Osamu; Nakayama, Shinsuke; Ebata, Shuichiro*; Yoshida, Toru*; Nishihara, Kenji; Watanabe, Yukinobu*; et al.
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(12), p.1073 - 1091, 2019/12
A new nuclear data library, JENDL/ImPACT-2018, is developed for an innovative study on the transmutation of long-lived fission products. Nuclear reaction cross- sections are newly evaluated for incident neutrons and protons up to 200 MeV for 163 nuclides including long-lived nuclei such as Se, Zr, Pd and Cs. Our challenge is an evaluation of cross-sections for a number of unstable nuclei over a wide energy range where the experimental data are very scarce. We estimated cross- sections based on a nuclear model code CCONE that incorporates an advanced knowledge on the nuclear structure theory and a model-parameterization based on a new experimental cross-sections measured by the inverse kinematics. Through comparisons with available experimental data on the stable isotopes, it is found that the present data give predictions of cross-sections better than those in the existing libraries.
Watanabe, Nao; Obayashi, Hironari; Sugawara, Takanori; Sasa, Toshinobu; Nishihara, Kenji; Castelliti, D.*
Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.248 - 261, 2019/08
For the R&D for lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS), installation of experimental facility using LBE spallation target dedicated for ADS materials irradiation under flowing high temperature LBE environment is planned within the J-PARC project. JAEA has recently finalized the construction of "IMMORTAL", a demonstrative test loop representing a 1:1 model of the above LBE spallation target system. Such facility pursues several different objectives such as studies on the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the target, and validation of the LBE physical properties, the pressure drops and the heat transfer correlations. These results will be useful for design of the facility and LBE target/cooled ADS. In the frame of a bi-lateral collaboration between JAEA and SCK-CEN, a benchmark exercise on the experimental results from IMMORTAL has been carried out. The calculations have been performed with RELAP5-3D System Thermal-Hydraulic code. To assess and predict the thermal-hydraulic behavior of its primary loop, RELAP5-3D calculation models have been configured. The calculated results from these models represented that a valid contribution towards the validation of the LBE properties and empirical correlations present in RELAP5-3D code.
Sugawara, Takanori; Ban, Yasutoshi; Katano, Ryota; Tateno, Haruka; Nishihara, Kenji
Proceedings of International Conference on the Management of Spent Fuel from Nuclear Power Reactors 2019 (Internet), 9 Pages, 2019/06
The JAEA has proposed the double-strata strategy which will introduce a dedicated minor actinide (MA) transmutation cycle using an accelerator-driven system (ADS). In the previous study, the ideal fuel condition was supposed in the neutronics design of the ADS. For example, impurities such as rare earth (RE) nuclides which would accompany with MA, were not assumed. However, these nuclides would accompany with the ADS fuel and the capture reaction of these nuclides deteriorates the neutron economy of the ADS core. This study investigates a new fuel composition based on the SELECT (Solvent Extraction from Liquid-waste using Extractants of CHON-type for Transmutation) process proposed by JAEA. By performing the neutronics calculation of the ADS with the new fuel composition, a feasibility of the new fuel composition will be investigated.
ImPACT Fujita Puroguramu Kokai Seika Hokokukai "Kaku Henkan Niyoru Koreberu Hoshasei Haikibutsu No Ohaba Na Teigen, Shigenka" Seika Hokokusho, Shiryoshu, p.28 - 31, 2019/03
In this project, long-lived fission products (LLFP) contained in conventional high-level radioactive wastes are separated and their life is reduced, and elements that can be used as resources are separated. By shortening the life of LLFP, it has been shown that it may be possible to dispose in intermediate depth of several tens of meters, meeting safety requirements, instead of geological disposal. In addition, for reassuring recycling of usable elements, possible exposure pathways were evaluated to estimate the safe concentration level of radioactivity.
ImPACT Fujita Puroguramu Kokai Seika Hokokukai "Kaku Henkan Niyoru Koreberu Hoshasei Haikibutsu No Ohaba Na Teigen, Shigenka" Seika Hokokusho, Shiryoshu, p.130 - 133, 2019/03
High level radioactive waste contains elements with various characteristics. It is possible to reduce the load on the disposal site by separating them according to those characteristics and appropriately dealing with them. In this project, we are working to shorten the life span of long-lived fission products (LLFP). When this technology is realized, high-level radioactive wastes will become new radioactive wastes with low radioactivity. As a result of investigation of disposal concept of new radioactive waste, it turned out that intermediate-depth disposal currently considered for low level radioactive waste may be suitable. Intermediate-depth disposal is a method of small-scale disposal in shallow locations as compared to geological disposal for conventional high-level radioactive waste. We conducted a safety assessment when this disposal is applied to new radioactive wastes, and found that it is possible to safely dispose of for the four LLFPs addressed by this project.
Morita, Yasuji; Nishihara, Kenji; Tsubata, Yasuhiro
JAEA-Data/Code 2018-017, 32 Pages, 2019/02
Potential radiotoxicity defined as a summation of intake dose was estimated for each actinide element to suppose target of recovery ratio of minor actinide (MA). Importance of each element from the viewpoint of the radiotoxicity was evaluated from the evolution of the radiotoxicity and ratio to the total radiotoxicity. In all the 4 types of spent fuels examined, Am is the most important element. For instance, the potential radiotoxicity of Am accounts for 93% of the total radiotoxicity of actinide elements in HLW produced by reprocessing of spent fuel from pressurized water reactor (PWR). Residual Pu after the recovery of 99.5% in reprocessing still gives contribution that cannot be ignored in radiotoxicity. When the burn-up of the UO fuel in PWR increased, the potential radiotoxicity of actinide elements increased almost in proportion to the burn-up, but in case of MOX fuel in PWR and minor-actinide-recycled MOX fuel in fast reactor, the radiotoxicity of actinide elements increased further. Much consideration is required for the recovery of actinide elements in HLW from different types of fuel.
Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu (CD-ROM), 25(2), p.131 - 134, 2018/12
Impact of reduction of source term on design and safety assessment of disposal concept for high level radioactive waste is considered. Reduction of source term in partitioning and transmutation technology is shown with impact on disposal concept. Moreover, cost and technological readiness is outlined.
Eguchi, Yuta; Sugawara, Takanori; Nishihara, Kenji; Tazawa, Yujiro; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2018/07
In order to investigate the basic neutronics characteristics of the accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS), JAEA has a plan to construct a new critical assembly in the J-PARC project, Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P). This study aims to evaluate the natural cooling characteristics of TEF-P core which has large decay heat by minor actinide (MA) fuel, and to achieve a design that does not damage the core and the fuels during the failure of the core cooling system. In the evaluation of the TEF-P core temperature, empty rectangular lattice tube outer of the core has a significant effect on the heat transfer characteristics. The experiments by using the mockup device were performed to validate the heat transfer coefficient and experimental results were obtained. By using the obtained experimental results, the three-dimensional heat transfer analysis of TEF-P core were performed, and the maximum core temperature was obtained, 294C. This result shows TEF-P core temperature would be less than 327C that the design criterion of temperature.
Sugawara, Takanori; Takei, Hayanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Oizumi, Akito; Nishihara, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
Progress in Nuclear Energy, 106, p.27 - 33, 2018/07
The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has investigated an accelerator-driven system (ADS) to transmute minor actinides which will be partitioned from the high level waste. There are various inherent issues for the research and development on the ADS. The recent two activities to realize a feasible and reliable ADS concept are introduced in this paper. For the feasibility, the design of a beam window which is a boundary of the accelerator and the subcritical core, is one of the most important issues. To mitigate the design condition of the beam window, namely to reduce the proton beam current, the subcritical core concept with subcriticality adjustment rods were investigated. For the reliability, the beam-trip is the inherent and serious issue for the ADS design because it induces rapid temperature change to coolant and structures in the subcritical core. To improve the beam-trip frequencies, a double-accelerator concept was proposed and its beam-trip frequency was estimated.
Tatematsu, Kenji; Nishihara, Tetsuo
JAEA-Evaluation 2018-001, 71 Pages, 2018/06
Executive Director of Sector of Nuclear Science Research in Japan Atomic Energy Agency consulted with the "Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor and Related Hydrogen Production Technology" (hereinafter referred to as "Evaluation Committee"), which consists of specialists in the fields of the evaluation subjects of high temperature gas-cooled reactor and related heat application technology, about the relevance of the management and research activities of the HTGR Hydrogen and Heat Application Research Center in FY2017.Research activity for FY2017, The Evaluation Committee concluded with a score of S for "Conformity confirmation conformity to HTTR's new regulatory standards", "Cooperation with industry" and "Promotion of international cooperation". Therefore, the Evaluation Committee concluded with a score of A for the overall activity by evaluating that more results than originally required were acquired. Also, regarding the research plan for FY2018, it was judged appropriate. This report summarizes the members of the Evaluation Committee, outlines the method, the review process for procedure of the assessment and that result.
Pyeon, C. H.*; Vu, T. M.*; Yamanaka, Masao*; Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Kim, S. H.*; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki*; Nakajima, Ken*; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(2), p.190 - 198, 2018/02
At the Kyoto University Critical Assembly, a series of reaction rate experiments is conducted on the accelerator-driven system (ADS) with spallation neutrons generated by the combined use of 100 MeV protons and a lead and bismuth target in the subcritical state. The reaction rates are measured by the foil activation method to obtain neutron spectrum information on ADS. Numerical calculations are performed with MCNP6.1 and JENDL/HE-2007 for high-energy protons and spallation process, JENDL-4.0 for transport and JENDL/D-99 for reaction rates. The reaction rates depend on subcriticality is revealed by the accuracy of the C/E (calculation/experiment) values. Nonetheless, the accuracy of the reaction rates at high-energy thresholds remains an important issue in the fixed-source calculations.
Tatematsu, Kenji; Nishihara, Tetsuo
JAEA-Evaluation 2017-001, 107 Pages, 2017/09
President of Japan Atomic Energy Agency consulted with the "Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor and Related Hydrogen Production Technology" (hereinafter referred to as "Evaluation Committee"), which consists of specialists in the fields of the evaluation subjects of high temperature gas-cooled reactor and related heat application technology, about the relevance of the management and research activities of the HTGR Hydrogen and Heat Application Research Center during the period from April 2015 to March 2017. The assessment of the Evaluation Committee concluded with a score of B for the confirmation of adjustability to the new regulation standard for restarting HTTR and for the development of hydrogen production technology, a score of A for the design of HTTR-GT/H test plant completing all equipment design specification and for the development exceeding the original scope of an oxidation resistant fuel element containing SiC. The Evaluation Committee concluded with a score of A for the overall activity. In addition, the Evaluation Committee recommended that the judgement to move to the construction phase of the HTTR-GT/H test plant be made after 3-4 years, after the HTTR will be restarted and the thermal load fluctuation tests using HTTR will be carried out. This report lists the members of the Evaluation Committee and outlines the method and procedure of the assessment. The assessment report by the Evaluation Committee is attached.
Enerugi Rebyu, 37(9), p.7 - 10, 2017/08
The present article describes reduction technology of radioactive waste by accelerator that aims to reduce burden of underground disposal. If the technology will be realized, amount of waste will be decreased, period of confinement in underground will be shorten to several hundreds of years, and, the concept of waste disposal can be renewed.
Oizumi, Akito; Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
NEA/NSC/R(2017)2, p.152 - 160, 2017/06
Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Yagi, Takahiro*; Pyeon, C.-H.*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(4), p.432 - 443, 2017/04
Pyeon, C. H.*; Fujimoto, Atsushi*; Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki*; Nakajima, Ken*; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
Nuclear Science and Engineering, 185(3), p.460 - 472, 2017/03
Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of lead (Pb) isotope cross sections are conducted with the use of sample reactivity experiments at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA). With the combined use of the SRAC2006 and MARBLE code systems, attempts are made to precisely examine the contributions of the reactions and energy regions of Pb isotope cross sections to reactivity based on the covariance data of JENDL-4.0. Moreover, the effect of decreasing uncertainty is discussed in terms of the accuracy of sample reactivity by applying the cross section adjustment method to the uncertainty analyses. From the results of the sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, the reliability of Pb isotope cross sections, such as the Pb isotope covariance data of JENDL-4.0, is compared with the JENDL-3.3, ENDF/B-VII.0, and JEFF-3.1 libraries.