Novello, L.*; Cara, P.*; Coletti, A.*; Gaio, E.*; Maistrello, A.*; 松川 誠; Philipps, G.*; Tomarchio, V.*; 山内 邦仁
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 26(2), p.4700507_1 - 4700507_7, 2016/03
The voltage transient appearing across and inside the toroidal field (TF) coils of JT-60SA in case of fast voltage variation, such as a safety discharge operated by the quench protection circuit (QPC), can be significantly high. In fact, the voltage distribution between coils and inside the winding can be not uniform during fast transient, being influenced by the presence of parasitic capacitances. A simplified electrical model of the TF coils has been developed to investigate this aspect. The obtained model has been used in conjunction with an electrical model of the TF circuit elements, including a simplified model of the QPC. The worst case in terms of transient voltage applied to the winding has been identified, corresponding to a fault to ground occurring just after QPC operation. It has been verified that the resulting voltage is largely inside the coil insulation capability defined by performed insulation voltage tests.
Ferro, A.*; Gaio, E.*; Novello, L.*; 松川 誠; 島田 勝弘; 川俣 陽一; 武智 学
Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.1053 - 1057, 2015/10
JT-60SA is the satellite tokamak under construction in Naka, Japan, in the framework of the EU - JA "Broader Approach" Agreement. In JT-60SA, to attain steady-state high-beta plasmas, suppression of Resistive Wall Modes (RWM) is necessary. At this purpose, a passive stabilizing plate (SP) and an active control system based on 18 in-vessel sector coils (SC) are foreseen. This paper firstly reports the main requirements for the RWM control system. Then, the reference design of the RWM-PS is described. It includes an ac/dc conversion system, dc-link capacitor banks and a set of 18 fast inverters. The advantages of the proposed scheme are discussed and the main electrical parameters are shown in detail. The main requirements of the control section are given, with details on possible implementation and interfaces with JT-60SA central control.
Lampasi, A.*; Zito, P.*; Coletti, A.*; Novello, L.*; 松川 誠; 島田 勝弘; Burini, F.*; Kuate-Fone, Y.*; Taddia, G.*; Tenconi, S.*
Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.1098 - 1102, 2015/10
In JT-60SA, the first SNU (prototype), consisting of six cubicles, was assembled in 2013. The factory tests on this system, including tests at full current and voltage, are being performed throughout 2014. The manufacturing of the remaining three SNUs will proceed after the success of such tests. The main characteristics of the developed SNU are; (1) Snchronized use of an electronic static circuit breaker (SCB) in parallel with an electromechanical bypass switch (BPS), (2) Nominal voltage of 5 kV, with a specific circuit to limit the transient voltage to 5.5 kV, (3) DC current interruption up to 20 kA, (4) Light BPS with opening and closing times shorter than 15 ms and 65 ms, respectively, (5) Breakdown resistance adaptable from 0.25 to 3.75 by four selectors, (7) Fully electronic making switch (MS) and (8) Breakdown resistors that could dissipate much more than 90 MJ.
Zito, P.*; Lampasi, A.*; Coletti, A.*; Novello, L.*; 松川 誠; 島田 勝弘; Cinarelli, D.*; Portesine, M.*; Dorronsoro, A.*; Vian, D.*
Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.1191 - 1196, 2015/10
In JT-60SA, Fast Plasma Position Control Coils Power Supplies (FPPCC PSs) control vertical position of the plasma during a plasma shot, against Vertical Displacements Event (VDE). For this task, the FPPCC PSs have to be as fast as possible and provide as much voltage as possible. Further, these will be open loop feed forward voltage controlled. The main characteristics are: 4-quadrant AC/DC converter 12-pulse with circulating current, DC load voltage 1000 V and DC load current 5 kA. The induced overvoltage in FPPC coil during a plasma disruption can reach 10 kV and it is bounded by a nonlinear resistor in parallel to the crowbar. All these technical characteristics have strongly influenced the design of the FPPC converter and of the FPPC transformers, that have been validated by simulation model of FPPCC PS. The outcomes of the simulation have allowed to finalize the performances and dynamic behavior of voltage response.
Maistrello, A.*; Gaio, E.*; Novello, L.*; 松川 誠; 山内 邦仁
Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.1109 - 1112, 2015/10
The interruption of high direct currents, required in fusion experiments, is a challenging task. Depending on the technology of the circuit breakers the resulting current derivative may be high, leading to dangerous transient overvoltages. This aspect has been analyzed for JT-60SA Quench Protection Circuits (QPC) devoted to the protection of superconducting coils. The QPC adopts edge technology solutions: a Hybrid mechanical-static Circuit Breaker (HCB) as main circuit breaker in series with a PyroBreaker (PB) as backup protection. Snubbers or clamp networks can be provided in parallel to the breakers to smooth the voltage waveform. Dedicated clamp networks for the HCB have been designed and tested during the qualification of the QPC prototypes. On the contrary, it was preferred not to apply any component in parallel to the PB, the ultimate protection, to avoid reducing its reliability. For PB a different approach has been worked out, based on the optimization of the layout of the QPC connections. Analyses have been performed to highlight the impact of different busbar routes on the transient voltage across the toroidal field coils at the PB intervention. The results indeed showed a variation of the peak voltage in between 30% of the maximum allowed value. The paper will present the analyses and will discuss the results.
Novello, L.*; Baulaigue, O.*; Coletti, A.*; Dumas, N.*; Ferro, A.*; Gaio, E.*; Lampasi, A.*; Maistrello, A.*; 松川 誠; 島田 勝弘; et al.
Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.1122 - 1126, 2015/10
JT-60SA, the superconducting tokamak under construction in Japan, will be equipped with a mix of new and reused Power Supplies (PS). Most of the new PS are procured by European Voluntary Contributors under the framework of Broader Approach agreement between F4E and JAEA. For the toroidal circuit, the 6 pulses ac/dc converter will be procured by CEA. It is rated 25.7 kA and 80 V dc, and will work in steady state condition. For the poloidal circuits the procurement of ten ac/dc converters, rated 20 kA and about 1 kV is shared between CEA and ENEA. They are 24 pulses four quadrant converters, with back to back thyristor bridges. Plasma initiation requires a fast variation of current in the Central Solenoids, obtained with the insertion of a settable resistor in series to the coils. This is achieved with the operation of four Switching Network Units procured by ENEA, producing up to 5 kV at the nominal 20 kA. The protection of superconducting magnets, both toroidal and poloidal, is assured by 13 Quench Protection Circuits procured by Consorzio RFX, rated 20 kA and 3.8 kV for poloidal QPCs and 25.7 kA and 2.8 kV for toroidal ones. The present status of the aforementioned PS is described in the paper: their detailed design has been completed and some systems have been already manufactured and tested.
Zito, P.*; Lampasi, A.*; Novello, L.*; 松川 誠; 島田 勝弘; Portesine, M.*; Fasce, F.*; Cinarelli, D.*; Dorronsoro, A.*; Vian, D.*
Proceedings of IEEE 15th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (IEEE-EEEIC 2015), p.156 - 160, 2015/06
In JT-60SA, Fast Plasma Position Control Coils (FPPCC) PSs allow controlling the vertical position of the plasma during a plasma shot, against Vertical Displacements Event (VDE). An open loop feed forward voltage control is adopted in order to achieve a fast control of FPPCC PSs. The characteristics of the PS are: 4-quadrant AC/DC converter 12-pulse, DC load voltage 1000 V and DC load current 5 kA. The design of the FPPCC converters has been validated by a simulation model, finalizing the performances and dynamic behavior of voltage response. After the completion of the realization phase, the testing phase has been carried out in accordance to the IEC60146 Standards and this is the focus of the paper. The tests performed have pointed out a good dynamic behavior of the FPPCC converter in open loop feed forward voltage control, for a reference voltage step of 1kV, the rise time of output voltage is 2.88 ms, confirming outcomes achieved by simulations.
Burini, F.*; Kuate-Fone, Y.*; Taddia, G.*; Tenconi, S.*; Lampasi, A.*; Zito, P.*; 松川 誠; 島田 勝弘; Coletti, A.*; Novello, L.*
Proceedings of 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON 2014), p.5035 - 5040, 2014/10
This paper describes the design and implementation of the Switching Network Unit (SNU) for the superconducting Central Solenoid coils of the international nuclear fusion experiment JT-60SA to be built in Naka, Japan. The SNU can interrupt a current up to 20 kA in less than 1 ms to create a voltage up to 5 kV. It is realized with a hybrid switch integrating an electro-mechanical device and a solid state Static Circuit Breaker, parallel connected. SNU resistance can be pre-arranged and dynamically reduced by a solid state making switch. Preliminary test results confirmed the current balance of the multiple parallel branches constituting the solid state switch and proper behavior of the devices, confirming simulations results. Further applications could be medium voltage DC networks (either naval or land based); higher DC voltages are practicable.
Maistrello, A.*; Gaio, E.*; Ferro, A.*; Perna, M.*; Panizza, C.*; Soso, F.*; Novello, L.*; 松川 誠; 山内 邦仁
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 24(3), p.3801505_1 - 3801505_5, 2014/06
This paper deals with the qualification process of the full scale prototypes of the Hybrid mechanical-static dc Circuit Breaker (HCB) for the Quench Protection Circuits (QPC) of the Toroidal Field (TF) and Poloidal Field (PF) superconducting coils of the Satellite Tokamak JT-60SA. The HCB developed for JT-60SA QPC is the first dc circuit breaker based on hybrid mechanical-static design at this level of power (25.7 kA - 1.93 kV, 20 kA - 3.8 kV). Special type tests have been designed to verify the performance of the device up to the nominal ratings and beyond, thus proving the suitability of the technology, the design margins and the reliability; the results of the most significant tests are presented and discussed. The qualification program also includes the validation of the electrical models developed during the design phase, which are described in the paper too.
Gaio, E.*; Maistrello, A.*; Barp, M.*; Perna, M.*; Coffetti, A.*; Soso, F.*; Novello, L.*; 松川 誠; 山内 邦仁
Fusion Engineering and Design, 88(6-8), p.563 - 567, 2013/10
This paper deals with the development, manufacturing and testing of the full scale prototype of the Quench Protection Circuit (QPC) for the superconducting magnets of the JT-60SA Satellite Tokamak, which will operate in Naka, Japan. After the completion of the system detailed design in summer 2011, the manufacture of the poloidal and toroidal prototypes was launched and completed at the beginning of 2012. Several factory type tests on the main components have been done at the manufacturers' premises and are described in this paper. Then, two main campaigns have been performed to test the operation of the overall poloidal and toroidal QPC prototypes; the main results are reported in the paper too.
松川 誠; 島田 勝弘; 山内 邦仁; Gaio, E.*; Ferro, A.*; Novello, L.*
Plasma Science and Technology, 15(3), p.257 - 260, 2013/03
島田 勝弘; 寺門 恒久; 山内 邦仁; 松川 誠; Baulaigue, O.*; Coletti, R.*; Coletti, A.*; Novello, L.*
Plasma Science and Technology, 15(2), p.184 - 187, 2013/02
In JT-60SA, the four thyristor converters in poloidal field coil (PFC) power supplies are used for plasma initiation. In this case, the large reactive power fluctuation induced by the "Booster PS" is the cause of large voltage fluctuation across the terminals of the motor-generator. To minimize the reactive power fluctuation during plasma initiation, an asymmetric control method and a sequential timing control to start/stop each "Booster PS" are foreseen. To evaluate the effectiveness of above control methods for the "Booster PS", the reactive power has been simulated by using "PSCAD/EMTDC" code. From the simulation it results that the reactive power induced by the four units of the "Booster PS" can be dramatically reduced. In addition, the voltage fluctuation of the motor-generator connected to the "Booster PS" is expected to be suppressed to less than 10%, which ensures the stable control of JT-60SA magnet power supplies.
山内 邦仁; 島田 勝弘; 寺門 恒久; 松川 誠; Coletti, R.*; Lampasi, A.*; Gaio, E.*; Coletti, A.*; Novello, L.*
Plasma Science and Technology, 15(2), p.148 - 151, 2013/02
One of the most essential issues for designing a power supply system of superconducting coil is to avoid any overvoltage. Here, the most concerned overvoltage can appear between turns due to the transiently concentrated voltage distribution inside the coil, which is mainly caused by parasitic capacitances and high dv/dt. For this reason, the coil power supply, especially fast high voltage generation circuit, should equip proper snubber(s) in order to suppress the dv/dt. However, it is too complicated to accurately evaluate the transient voltage in the coil because of the distributed parameters of the mutual inductance between turns and the capacitance between adjacent conductors. In this study, such a complicated system is modeled with reasonably detailed circuit network with lumped ones, and is integrated into the overall simulation model of JT-60SA PF coil circuit. Then a detailed circuit analysis is conducted in order to evaluate the possible voltage transient in the coil circuit. As a result, appropriate circuit parameters in the coil power supply including the snubbers are obtained.
Gaio, E.*; Maistrello, A.*; Coffetti, A.*; Gargano, T.*; Perna, M.*; Novello, L.*; Coletti, A.*; 松川 誠; 山内 邦仁
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 40(3), p.557 - 563, 2012/03
This paper describes the detailed design of the quench protection circuits (QPC) for the superconducting toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) magnets of the Satellite Tokamak JT-60SA, which will be installed in Naka, Japan. The nominal currents to be interrupted and the maximum reapplied voltages are 25.7 kA and 2.8 kV for the TF QPCs and 20 kA and 5 kV for PF QPCs. The innovative solution proposed in the QPC design is based on a hybrid circuit breaker (CB) composed of a mechanical Bypass Switch for conducting the continuous current, in parallel to a static CB for current interruption. The main choices of the final design are presented and discussed, either to confirm or to update and complete the study performed at the conceptual design level.
Coletti, A.*; Baulaigue, O.*; Cara, P.*; Coletti, R.*; Ferro, A.*; Gaio, E.*; 松川 誠; Novello, L.*; Santinelli, M.*; 島田 勝弘; et al.
Fusion Engineering and Design, 86(6-8), p.1373 - 1376, 2011/10
JT-60SA is a joint international research and development project involving Japan and Europe, in the frame of the "Broader Approach Agreement", for the construction and operation of a new tokamak intended to prepare and support ITER operation. JT-60SA is to be built in Naka, Japan, using existing infrastructures and subsystems of the former JT-60U experiment, as much as possible. SA, as "super advanced", refers to the use of Superconducting Coils Magnets (SCM) and to the study of advanced modes in plasma operation. The SCM system includes Toroidal and Poloidal Field Coils (TFC and PFC respectively). In addition the machine features a number of normal conducting coils: Fast Plasma Control Coils (FPCC), a Resistive Wall Mode Control Coils and the Error Field Correction Coils. The paper describes the main features of the JT-60SA SCM Power Supply System (SCMPS) with special regard to coil current regulation mode and SCM protection.
Novello, L.*; Gaio, E.*; Piovan, R.*; 武智 学; 井手 俊介; 松川 誠
Fusion Engineering and Design, 86(1), p.33 - 40, 2011/01
The identification of the maximum amplitude of the currents circulating in the circuits is a useful indication for the design both of magnet and power supply components in fusion experiments. This paper evaluates the maximum level of coil overcurrents in the poloidal superconducting magnets of JT-60SA. To derive these information, a complete model capable to take into account all the mutually coupled elements was worked out, including the poloidal superconducting coils, the plasma position control in-vessel coils, the vacuum vessel, the stabilizing plates and the plasma. The model was utilized to analyze plasma disruption and quench protection circuit intervention in a large variety of different conditions to identify the possible overcurrent levels. The paper describes the model and the analyses performed, and presents and discusses the results.
松川 誠; 寺門 恒久; 山内 邦仁; 島田 勝弘; Cara, P.*; Gaio, E.*; Novello, L.*; Ferro, A.*; Coletti, R.*; Santinelli, M.*; et al.
Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.9, p.264 - 269, 2010/08
Reliable plasma initiation is very important in the nuclear fusion devices especially in superconducting tokamaks. Applicable breakdown electric field would be limited up to level of 0.5 V/m to suppress large AC losses in the superconducting magnet. Furthermore, induced current in the passive structure such as vacuum vessel and stabilizing plate would increased easily to the comparable level of plasma current with several hundred kA even in the case of ECH assist breakdown. Therefore, optimization of the applied voltage to the poloidal field coil is necessary for stable plasma initiation. In this paper, the rationalized plasma initiation scenario using cost effectively designed power supply system will be provided.
Gaio, E.*; Novello, L.*; Piovan, R.*; 島田 勝弘; 寺門 恒久; 栗原 研一; 松川 誠
Fusion Engineering and Design, 84(2-6), p.804 - 809, 2009/06
コイルクエンチ時に超電導コイルの蓄積エネルギーを高速に取り除かなければならないJT-60SAのクエンチ保護回路の概念設計について発表を行う。クエンチ保護回路の主要部は、高速にコイル消磁を行うためにコイル電流を抵抗に転流させる直流電流スイッチで構成される。本発表では、機械スイッチと半導体スイッチの一つであるIGCT(Integrated Gate Commutated Thyristor)の並列接続で構成されたハイブリッド型電流スイッチを提案し、検討した結果について述べる。また、クエンチ保護回路の主要部のほかに、電流スイッチで電流遮断失敗した場合のバックアップ回路として直列にパイロブレーカーを接続する。提案するハイブリッド型クエンチ保護回路は、半導体スイッチの特徴である高速遮断性能とメンテナンスフリーの利点と機械スイッチの特徴である低損失の利点の両方を併せ持つ回路構成となる。
松川 誠; 菊池 満; 藤井 常幸; 藤田 隆明; 林 孝夫; 東島 智; 細金 延幸; 池田 佳隆; 井手 俊介; 石田 真一; et al.
Fusion Engineering and Design, 83(7-9), p.795 - 803, 2008/12
松永 剛; 武智 学; 櫻井 真治; 井手 俊介; 松川 誠; 大山 直幸; 相羽 信行; 栗田 源一; Ferro, A.*; Gaio, E.*; et al.
no journal, ,
JT-60SA is designed and under construction as fully superconducting tokamak under a combined project of the ITER satellite tokamak program of EU-JA (Broader Approach Activities) and the Japanese national program. One of the main purposes of JT-60SA is the steady-state high-beta operation above the ideal no-wall beta-limit with suppressing resistive wall modes (RWMs). In order to control the RWMs, the RWM control coils and error field correction coils (EFCCs) are to be installed. The current design of these coils composes of 18 sector coils (6 coils in toroidally and 3 coils in poloidally) so as to suppress n=1-3 RWMs and to compensate various error fields. The EFCCs can also be utilized to apply the resonant magnetic perturbation to ergodize the peripheral magnetic field structure to mitigate and avoid the large edge localized modes. The design and analysis of these in-vessel tools for high-beta plasmas on JT-60SA will be presented.