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Journal Articles

Effect of inner wall cracking on the cavitation bubble formation in the mercury spallation target at J-PARC

Ariyoshi, Gen; Saruta, Koichi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Maeno, Koki*; Li, Y.*; Tsutsui, Kihei*

Proceedings of 20th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-20) (Internet), p.1407 - 1420, 2023/08

Cavitation damage on a target vessel due to proton beam-induced pressure waves is one of the crucial issues for the pulsed neutron source using a mercury spallation target. As a mitigation technique for the damage, the helium microbubble injection into the mercury has been carried out by using a swirl bubbler in order to utilize compressibility of bubbles. Moreover, double-walled structure, which consists of an outer wall and an inner wall, has been applied as the target head structure. In this study, we aim to develop an abnormality diagnostic technology to detect the inner wall cracking, which is caused by such cavitation damage, from the outside of the target vessel. The mercury flow fields in the case with the cracking are evaluated by computational fluid dynamics analysis based on finite element method. And then, effect of the cracking on the flow field is discussed from the point of view of the flow-induced vibration and the acoustic vibration.

Journal Articles

Present status of the JAEA-AMS-TONO (2021)

Matsubara, Akihiro*; Fujita, Natsuko; Miyake, Masayasu; Ishii, Masahiro*; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kokubu, Yoko; Nishio, Tomohiro*; Ogawa, Yumi; Jinno, Satoshi; Kimura, Kenji; et al.

JAEA-Conf 2022-002, p.55 - 62, 2023/03

We report the present status of the JAEA-AMS-TONO. Particularly, the destructions of varistors used in the beamline equipment will be presented. The cause of the destruction as well as implementation of the safety measures are mentioned.

Journal Articles

Present status of the JAEA-AMS-TONO (2022FY)

Fujita, Natsuko; Miyake, Masayasu; Matsubara, Akihiro*; Ishii, Masahiro*; Watanabe, Takahiro; Jinno, Satoshi; Nishio, Tomohiro*; Ogawa, Yumi; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Kimura, Kenji; et al.

Dai-23-Kai AMS Shimpojiumu Hokokushu, p.1 - 4, 2022/12

The JAEA-AMS-TONO facility at the Tono Geoscience Center, JAEA has three accelerator mass spectrometers. We report the present status of the JAEA-AMS-TONO.

JAEA Reports

Optimization of mercury flow with microbubbles in the target-vessel design by means of machine learning

Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Tsuzuki, Takayuki*; Murai, Tetsuro*

JAEA-Technology 2022-023, 128 Pages, 2022/11


In a mercury target of the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex), pulsed proton beams repeatedly bombard the flowing mercury which is confined in a stainless-steel vessel (target vessel). Cavitation damage caused by the propagation of the pressure waves is a factor of the life of the target vessel. As a measure to reduce damages, we developed a bubbler to inject the gas microbubbles into the flowing mercury, which can reduce the pressure waves. To operate the mercury target vessel stably with the 1 MW high-intensity proton beams, further reduction of the damage is required. The bubbler setting position should be closer to the beam window to increase the bubble population, which could enhance the reduction effect on the pressure waves and damage. However, the space at the beam window of the target vessel is restricted. The bubbler design and setting position as well as the vane design for the mercury flowing pattern are optimized by means of a machine learning technique to get more suitable bubble distribution, increasing in bubble population and optimizing bubble size nearby the beam window of the target vessel. The results of CFD analyses performed with 1000 cases were used for machine learning. Since the flow rate of mercury affects the temperature of the target vessel, this was used for the constraint condition. As a result, we found a design of mercury target vessel that can increase the bubble population by ca. 20% higher than the current design.

Journal Articles

Mesospheric ionization during substorm growth phase

Murase, Kiyoka*; Kataoka, Ryuho*; Nishiyama, Takanori*; Nishimura, Koji*; Hashimoto, Taishi*; Tanaka, Yoshimasa*; Kadokura, Akira*; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro*; Tsutsumi, Masaki*; Ogawa, Yasunobu*; et al.

Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate (Internet), 12, p.18_1 - 18_16, 2022/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

We identified two energetic electron precipitation (EEP) events during the growth phase of moderate substorms and estimated the mesospheric ionization rate for an EEP event for which the most comprehensive dataset from ground-based and space-born instruments was available. The mesospheric ionization signature reached below 70 km altitude and continued for ~15 min until the substorm onset, as observed by the PANSY radar and imaging riometer at Syowa Station in the Antarctic region. We also used energetic electron flux observed by the Arase and POES 15 satellites as the input for the air-shower simulation code PHITS to quantitatively estimate the mesospheric ionization rate. Combining the cutting-edge observations and simulations, we shed new light on the space weather impact of the EEP events during geomagnetically quiet times, which is important to understand the possible link between the space environment and climate.

Journal Articles

Development of the high-power spallation neutron target of J-PARC

Haga, Katsuhiro; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Proceedings of 19th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-19) (Internet), 13 Pages, 2022/03

The cross-flow type target was developed as the basic design of mercury target in J-PARC, and the design has been improved to realize the MW-class pulsed spallation neutron source. When the high-power and short-pulsed proton beam is injected into the mercury target, pressure waves are generated in mercury by rapid heat generation. The pressure waves induce the cavitation damages on the target vessel. Two countermeasures were adopted, namely, the injection of microbubbles into mercury and the double walled structure at the beam window. The bubble generator was installed in the target vessel to absorb the volume inflation of mercury and mitigate the pressure waves. Also, the double walled target vessel was designed to suppress the cavitation damage by the large velocity gradient of rapid mercury flow in the narrow channel of double wall. Finally, we could attain 1 MW beam operation with the duration time of 36.5 hours in 2020, and achieved the long term stable operation with 740 kW from April in 2021. This report shows the technical development of the high-power mercury target vessel in view of thermal hydraulics to attain 1 MW operation.

Journal Articles

Thermally altered subsurface material of asteroid (162173) Ryugu

Kitazato, Kohei*; Milliken, R. E.*; Iwata, Takahiro*; Abe, Masanao*; Otake, Makiko*; Matsuura, Shuji*; Takagi, Yasuhiko*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; Hiroi, Takahiro*; Matsuoka, Moe*; et al.

Nature Astronomy (Internet), 5(3), p.246 - 250, 2021/03

 Times Cited Count:30 Percentile:97.01(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

Here we report observations of Ryugu's subsurface material by the Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3) on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. Reflectance spectra of excavated material exhibit a hydroxyl (OH) absorption feature that is slightly stronger and peak-shifted compared with that observed for the surface, indicating that space weathering and/or radiative heating have caused subtle spectral changes in the uppermost surface. However, the strength and shape of the OH feature still suggests that the subsurface material experienced heating above 300 $$^{circ}$$C, similar to the surface. In contrast, thermophysical modeling indicates that radiative heating does not increase the temperature above 200 $$^{circ}$$C at the estimated excavation depth of 1 m, even if the semimajor axis is reduced to 0.344 au. This supports the hypothesis that primary thermal alteration occurred due to radiogenic and/or impact heating on Ryugu's parent body.

Journal Articles

Pressure wave induced sound measurement for diagnosing the operation status of the J-PARC pulsed spallation neutron source

Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Teshigawara, Makoto; Haga, Katsuhiro; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 982, p.164566_1 - 164566_6, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:26.83(Instruments & Instrumentation)

A liquid mercury target for the spallation neutron source is installed in the J-PARC. The liquid mercury is enclosed with the multi-walled stainless steel vessel. At the time of highly intense proton beams hits the target at a repetition rate of 25 Hz, pressure waves, that causes cavitation erosion, are generated owing the rapidly thermal expansion of mercury. We have installed the target diagnostic system consisting of a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) and a dynamic microphone to remotely investigate the structural integrity of the target under high-radiation environment. In this study, aiming to understand correlation between the acoustic vibration and the operation conditions such as the proton beam power and beam profile, proton beam induced acoustic vibration was measured by parametrically changing the target operation conditions. The result showed that the sound is well correlated with the operation conditions.

Journal Articles

A New critical assembly: STACY

Araki, Shohei; Gunji, Satoshi; Tonoike, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Fuyumi; Izawa, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

Proceedings of European Research Reactor Conference 2020 (RRFM 2020) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2020/10

Critical experiments of thermal neutron system are still expected to be playing an important role for wide technical issues. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is renovating the Static Experimental Critical Facility (STACY) to maintain the experimental capability. The new STACY is designed as a general-purpose criticality facility. Its core mainly consists of low enriched UO$$_{2}$$ fuel rods, grid plates, and light water moderator. The first experiment campaign in the new STACY aims to obtain criticality characteristics of fuel debris, which will be used in validation of criticality analysis methods. The designs of the experimental core configurations are in progress.

Journal Articles

Water leakage due to the welding defect and improvement to reach 1-MW beam operation in the mercury target of J-PARC

Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Naoe, Takashi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(5), p.487 - 494, 2020/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:12.83(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Neutron flux per pulse reached world record at neutron source in the J-PARC. In the J-PARC, mercury target system is used as a spallation neutron source. A target vessel has the multi-walled protection system that comprises a mercury vessel enclosed with a double-walled water shroud. This is to prevent the leakage of the mercury outside the mercury vessel. The multi-walled structure needed to be complicated with a lot of welding lines. However, during the operation, we faced an unscheduled shutdown due to water leakage to the intermediate layer between the mercury vessel and water shroud. An investigation on the cause of the leakage was carried out. It is deduced that the leakage path was formed due to the crack propagation from welding defects that is caused by the complicated multi-walled structure. The crack propagation is attributed to the repeated stress by pressure waves generated in the mercury target. Based on the investigation results, the design was improved to remove the welding line on the complicated structure and to realize the stable operation with 1 MW proton beam.

Journal Articles

Progress of criticality control study on fuel debris by Japan Atomic Energy Agency to support Secretariat of Nuclear Regulation Authority

Tonoike, Kotaro; Watanabe, Tomoaki; Gunji, Satoshi; Yamane, Yuichi; Nagaya, Yasunobu; Umeda, Miki; Izawa, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety (ICNC 2019) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2019/09

Criticality control of the fuel debris in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station would be a risk-informed control to mitigate consequences of criticality events, instead of a deterministic control to prevent such events. The Nuclear Regulation Authority of Japan has administrated a research and development program to tackle this challenge since 2014. The Nuclear Safety Research Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, commissioned by the authority, is conducting activities such as computations of criticality characteristics of the fuel debris, development of a criticality analysis code, preparation of criticality experiments, and development of a criticality risk analysis method.

Journal Articles

Pulsed pressure induced cavitation erosion in mercury narrow channel under flowing conditions

Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Nobuatsu*; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Advanced Experimental Mechanics, 4, p.17 - 21, 2019/08

We have introduced the following two techniques to mitigate the pressure wave-induced cavitation damage in the mercury target. One is the gas microbubble injection into the flowing mercury, and the other is the double-walled structure with a narrow gap channel at the proton beam entrance portion of the mercury vessel. The latter is expected to mitigate the cavitation damage due to the high-speed liquid flow ($$sim$$ 4 m/s) and the narrow gap boundary (2 mm). To quantitatively investigate the effect of double-walled structure on cavitation damage, cavitation damage tests were conducted by parametrically changing mercury flow velocity and gap width of the channel wall. The results showed that the damage evaluated as a surface roughness was reduced by increasing the flow velocity. By contrast, the effect of gap width on cavitation damage was hardly observed under flowing conditions.

Journal Articles

Optimum temperature for HIP bonding invar alloy and stainless steel

Wakui, Takashi; Ishii, Hideaki*; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Wakai, Eiichi; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Materials Transactions, 60(6), p.1026 - 1033, 2019/06

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:18.73(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The mercury target has large size as 1.3$$times$$1.3$$times$$2.5 m$$^{3}$$. In view of reducing the amount of wastes, we studied the structure so that the fore part could be separated. The flange is required to have high seal performance less than 1$$times$$10$$^{-6}$$ Pa m$$^{3}$$/s. Invar with low thermal expansion is a candidate. Due to its low stiffness, however, the flange may deform when it is fastened by bolts. Practically invar is reinforced with stainless steel where all interface between them has to be bonded completely with the HIP bonding. In this study, we made specimens at four temperatures and conducted tensile tests. The specimen bonded at 973 K had little diffusion layer, and so fractured at the interface. The tensile strength reduced with increasing the temperature, and the reduced amount was about 10% at 1473 K. The analyzed residual stresses near the interface increased by 50% at maximum. Then, we concluded that the optimum temperature was 1173 K.

Journal Articles

The Surface composition of asteroid 162173 Ryugu from Hayabusa2 near-infrared spectroscopy

Kitazato, Kohei*; Milliken, R. E.*; Iwata, Takahiro*; Abe, Masanao*; Otake, Makiko*; Matsuura, Shuji*; Arai, Takehiko*; Nakauchi, Yusuke*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; Matsuoka, Moe*; et al.

Science, 364(6437), p.272 - 275, 2019/04

 Times Cited Count:233 Percentile:99.74(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

The near-Earth asteroid 162173 Ryugu, the target of Hayabusa2 sample return mission, is believed to be a primitive carbonaceous object. The Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3) on Hayabusa2 acquired reflectance spectra of Ryugu's surface to provide direct measurements of the surface composition and geological context for the returned samples. A weak, narrow absorption feature centered at 2.72 micron was detected across the entire observed surface, indicating that hydroxyl (OH)-bearing minerals are ubiquitous there. The intensity of the OH feature and low albedo are similar to thermally- and/or shock-metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. There are few variations in the OH-band position, consistent with Ryugu being a compositionally homogeneous rubble-pile object generated from impact fragments of an undifferentiated aqueously altered parent body.

Journal Articles

Numerical study on the potential of cavitation damage in a lead-bismuth eutectic spallation target

Wan, T.; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu

Materials, 12(4), p.681_1 - 681_15, 2019/02

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:18.73(Chemistry, Physical)

Journal Articles

Establishment of a novel detection system for measuring primary knock-on atoms

Tsai, P.-E.; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hagiwara, Masayuki*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Satoh, Daiki; Abe, Shinichiro; Ito, Masatoshi*; Watabe, Hiroshi*

Proceedings of 2017 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC 2017) (Internet), 3 Pages, 2018/11

The energy spectra of primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) are essential for radiation damage assessment in design of accelerator facilities. However up to date the experimental data are still limited, due to the poor mass resolution and the high measurement threshold energies in the conventional setup of nuclear physics experiments using solid state detectors, which are typically above a few MeV/nucleon. In this study, a novel detection system consisting of two time detectors and one dE-E energy detector is proposed and being constructed to measure the PKA spectra. The system and detector design was based on Monte Carlo simulations by using the PHITS code. The PHITS simulations show that the system is able to distinguish the PKA isotopes above $$sim$$0.2-0.3 MeV/nucleon for A=20$$sim$$30 amu; the PKA mass identification thresholds decrease to $$<$$0.1 MeV/nucleon for PKAs lighter than 20 amu. The detection system will be tested in the summer of 2017, and the test results will be presented at the conference.

Journal Articles

Enhancement of Fe-N-C carbon catalyst activity for the oxygen reduction reaction; Effective increment of active sites by a short and repeated heating process

Yasuda, Satoshi; Uchibori, Yosuke*; Wakeshima, Makoto*; Hinatsu, Yukio*; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Yano, Masahiro; Asaoka, Hidehito

RSC Advances (Internet), 8(66), p.37600 - 37605, 2018/11

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:37.92(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

We present a quantitative study on the effect of a newly obtained thermal history on the formation of Fe-N-C catalytic sites. A short and repeated heating process is employed as the new thermal history, where short heating (1 min) followed by quenching is applied to a sample with arbitrary repetition. Through electrochemical quantitative analysis, it is found that the new process effectively increases the Fe-N-C mass-based site density (MSD) to almost twice that achieved using a conventional continuous heating process, while the turn-over frequency (TOF) is independent of the process. Elemental analysis shows that the new process effectively suppresses the thermal desorption of Fe and N atoms during the initial formation stage and consequently contributes to an increase in the Fe-N-C site density. The resultant catalytic activity (gravimetric kinetic current density (0.8 V vs. RHE)) is 1.8 times higher than that achieved with the continuous heating process.

Journal Articles

Cavitation damage in double-walled mercury target vessel

Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Harada, Masahide; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 506, p.35 - 42, 2018/08


 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:53.84(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

A mercury target vessel made of 316L SS is damaged due to the cavitation caused by the pressure waves in mercury. Cavitation damage reduces the structural integrity of the target front, called "beam window", being major factor to determine the lifetime of target vessel. Aiming at mitigating the cavitation damage by faster mercury flow in narrow channel, we employed a target vessel with a double-walled structure at the beam window along with a gas microbubbles injection. After operating the double-walled target vessel with a beam power of 300 to 500 kW, we cut out the beam window using an annular cutter to examine the damage inside it, and found that damages with maximum pit depth of approximately 25 $$mu$$m distributed in a belt on the specimen facing narrow channel. Furthermore, numerical simulation result showed that the distribution of negative pressure period from beam injection to 1 ms was correlated with the damage distribution in the narrow channel. It was suggested that the cavitation induced by relatively short negative pressure period contributed to the damage formation.

Journal Articles

Recent studies for structural integrity evaluation and defect inspection of J-PARC spallation neutron source target vessel

Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Naoe, Takashi; Shintaku, Yohei*; Li, T.*; Murakami, Kazuya*; Kanomata, Kenichi*; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 506, p.3 - 11, 2018/08

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:30.9(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The mercury target vessel is designed as multi-walled structure with thin wall (min. 3 mm), and assembled by welding. In order to estimate the structural integrity of the vessel, it is important to measure the defects in welding accurately. For nondestructive tests of the welding, radiographic testing is applicable but it is difficult to detect for some defect shapes. Therefore it is effective to do ultrasonic testing together with it. Because ultrasonic methods prescribed in JIS inspect on the plate with more than 6 mm in thickness, these methods couldn't be applied as the inspection on the vessel with thin walls. In order to develop effective method, we carried out measurements using some testing method on samples with small defect whose size is specified. In the case of the latest phased array method, measured value agreed with actual size. It was found that this method was applicable to detect defects in the thin-walled structure for which accurate inspection was difficult so far.

Journal Articles

Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, 1; Pulsed spallation neutron source

Takada, Hiroshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Teshigawara, Makoto; Aso, Tomokazu; Meigo, Shinichiro; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Oi, Motoki; Harada, Masahide; et al.

Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 1(2), p.8_1 - 8_26, 2017/09

At the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), a pulsed spallation neutron source provides neutrons with high intensity and narrow pulse width to promote researches on a variety of science in the Materials and life science experimental facility. It was designed to be driven by the proton beam with an energy of 3 GeV, a power of 1 MW at a repetition rate of 25 Hz, that is world's highest power level. A mercury target and three types of liquid para-hydrogen moderators are core components of the spallation neutron source. It is still on the way towards the goal to accomplish the operation with a 1 MW proton beam. In this paper, distinctive features of the target-moderator-reflector system of the pulsed spallation neutron source are reviewed.

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