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Journal Articles

Coulomb spike modelling of ion sputtering of amorphous water ice

Constantini, J.-M.*; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko

Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 7(1), P. 7_16, 2023/03

Sputtering, emission of constituent atoms or molecules of materials induced by irradiation, is regarded as one of standard engineering techniques. According to some experimental data, emission of atoms whose direction is anti-parallel to incident radiation momentum was found among the sputtered atoms. Based on the standard approach, the thermal-spike model, atoms are evaporated by equillibrated thermal canonical ensemble resulted in by heat propagation therefore emission must be isotropic. Inspired by the fact that ionizations induced by ion irradiation are arranged linearly along the ion path, and the electric repulsion force between the ionizations tend to be parallel to irradiation axis, we developed an alternative approach in this study to explain the anisotropic emission. Using the spatial configuration of the irradiation-induced positive ions calculated by track-structure calculation code RITRACKS, the momentum of ions driven by the electric force was calculated. The calculated result explains the inverse jet of ions in case of 1 MeV proton and 1 MeV/u carbon ion irradiation to water. Moreover, the calculated sputtering yield also agrees with earlier experimental data.

Journal Articles

Benchmark shielding calculations for fusion and accelerator-driven sub-critical systems

Iwamoto, Yosuke; Tsuda, Shuichi; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko

Frontiers in Energy Research (Internet), 11, p.1085264_1 - 1085264_11, 2023/01

This review describes experimental data useful for validation of radiation shielding design in advanced reactor systems such as nuclear fusion and accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADS) and calculations using the PHITS code and JENDL-4.0/HE. The relevant experiments have been conducted mainly in Japan and include (1) neutron spectra in iron shields using 14 MeV neutron sources, (2) leakage neutron spectra from spherical piles of various materials using 14 MeV neutron sources, (3) neutron spectra after penetration through shields using several tens of MeV neutron sources, (4) neutron spectra produced from the target by high-energy heavy-ion bombardment, and (5) induced radioactivity in concrete using heavy-ion nuclear reaction product particles as a source. Throughout, the experimental and calculated values were agreed well. These experimental data are also useful for the validation of all radiation transport calculation codes used in the design of advanced reactor systems.

Journal Articles

New feature of PHITS dedicated to calculate the atomic-size transport of radiation

Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Hirata, Yuho; Matsuya, Yusuke; Kai, Takeshi

Isotope News, (784), p.13 - 16, 2022/12

Track-structure calculation, a method to simulate every secondary electron production reaction explicitly, has been extensively used as an important techniques in various fields such as radiation biology, material irradiation effect, and radiation detection. However, it requires the dielectric function of the target materials, which is not well known except for liquid water. Therefore we developed a model to perform track-structure calculation based on a systematic formula of secondary electron production cross section and that of stopping power. The model can therefore perform track-structure calculation regardless of the availability of dielectric function measurement data. Stopping range, and energy deposition radial distribution calculated by this model agreed well with the earlier experimental data and calculation by precedent codes. The lineal energy in tissue-equivalent gas calculated by this model agreed with measurement data taken from literature, showing distinct difference from that in liquid water. This model was implemented to PHITS Ver3.25, the general-purpose radiation transport simulation code of JAEA, being distributed to users as the first track-structure calculation model applicable to arbitrary materials available in general-purpose transport code.

Journal Articles

Implementation of the electron track-structure mode for silicon into PHITS for investigating the radiation effects in semiconductor devices

Hirata, Yuho; Kai, Takeshi; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Matsuya, Yusuke; Sato, Tatsuhiko

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 61(10), p.106004_1 - 106004_6, 2022/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Physics, Applied)

Some radiation effects such as pulse-height defects and soft errors can cause problems in silicon (Si) devices. Local energy deposition in microscopic scales is essential information to elucidate the mechanism of these radiation effects. We, therefore, developed an electron track-structure model, which can simulate local energy deposition down to nano-scales, dedicated to Si and implemented it into PHITS. Then, we verified the accuracy of our developed model by comparing the ranges and depth-dose distributions of electrons obtained from this study with the corresponding experimental values and other simulated results. As an application of the model, we calculated the mean energies required to create an electron-hole pair, the so-called epsilon value. We found that the threshold energy for generating secondary electrons reproducing the epsilon value is 2.75 eV, consistent with the corresponding data deduced from past theoretical and computational studies. Since the magnitudes of the radiation effects on Si devices largely depend on the epsilon value, the developed code is expected to contribute to precisely understanding the mechanisms of pulse-height defects and semiconductor soft errors.

Journal Articles

Post fission time evolution calculation by FIFRELIN coupled with PHITS and DCHAIN

Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Litaize, O.*; Mancusi, D.*; Chebboubi, A.*; Serot, O.*

European Physical Journal A, 58(8), p.153_1 - 153_9, 2022/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Physics, Nuclear)

The Monte-Carlo code FIFRELIN was originally developed for the simulation of first chance fission of fissile nuclei. It can predict fission observables such as fragment yields and neutron yields accurately by using experimental data and databases. However, FIFRELIN cannot calculate remnant dose and decay heat considering delayed decay of fission fragments. Moreover, FIFRELIN can predict the energy spectra of neutrons and gammas but further transport calculation required generation of heavy external files. In this study, FIFRELIN was interfaced to radiation transport code PHITS to perform burn up calculation and particle transport calculation. Owing to the burn up calculation, decay heat and remnant dose were calculated for given irradiation condition and cooling period. Interface of particle transport calculation by PHITS and FIFRELIN can perform particle transport simulation based on the source term calculated by FIFRELIN.

Journal Articles

Theoretical and experimental estimation of the relative optically stimulated luminescence efficiency of an optical-fiber-based BaFBr:Eu detector for swift ions

Hirata, Yuho; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Watanabe, Kenichi*; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Parisi, A.*; Uritani, Akira*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(7), p.915 - 924, 2022/07

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:94.4(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The reliability of dose assessment with radiation detectors is an important feature in various fields, such as radiotherapy, radiation protection, and high-energy physics. However, many detectors irradiated by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations exhibit decreased efficiency called the quenching effect. This quenching effect depends not only on the particle LET but strongly on the ion species and its microscopic pattern of energy deposition. Recently, a computational method for estimating the relative efficiency of luminescence detectors was proposed following analysis of microdosimetric specific energy distributions simulated using the particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS). This study applied the model to estimate the relative optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) efficiency of BaFBr:Eu detectors. Additionally, we measured the luminescence intensity of BaFBr:Eu detectors exposed to $$^{4}$$He, $$^{12}$$C and $$^{20}$$Ne ions to verify the calculated data. The model reproduced the experimental data in the cases of adopting a microdosimetric target diameter of approximately 30-50 nm. The calculated relative efficiency exhibit ion-species dependence in addition to LET. This result shows that the microdosimetric calculation from specific energy is a successful method for accurately understanding the results of OSL measurements with BaFBr:Eu detectors irradiated by various particles.

Journal Articles

Transport model comparison studies of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions

Walter, H.*; Colonna, M.*; Cozma, D.*; Danielewicz, P.*; Ko, C. M.*; Kumar, R.*; Ono, Akira*; Tsang, M. Y. B*; Xu, J.*; Zhang, Y.-X.*; et al.

Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, 125, p.103962_1 - 103962_90, 2022/07

 Times Cited Count:17 Percentile:97.47(Physics, Nuclear)

Transport models are the main method to obtain physics information on the nuclear equation of state and in-medium properties of particles from low to relativistic-energy heavy-ion collisions. The Transport Model Evaluation Project (TMEP) has been pursued to test the robustness of transport model predictions to reach consistent conclusions from the same type of physical model. To this end, calculations under controlled conditions of physical input and set-up were performed by the various participating codes. These included both calculations of nuclear matter in a periodic box, which test individual ingredients of a transport code, and calculations of complete collisions of heavy ions. Over the years, five studies were performed within this project. They show, on one hand, that in box calculations the differences between the codes can be well understood and a convergence of the results can be reached. These studies also highlight the systematic differences between the two families of transport codes, known under the names of Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) and Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) type codes. On the other hand, there still exist substantial differences when these codes are applied to real heavy-ion collisions. The results of transport simulations of heavy-ion collisions will have more significance if codes demonstrate that they can verify benchmark calculations such as the ones studied in these evaluations.

Journal Articles

Mesospheric ionization during substorm growth phase

Murase, Kiyoka*; Kataoka, Ryuho*; Nishiyama, Takanori*; Nishimura, Koji*; Hashimoto, Taishi*; Tanaka, Yoshimasa*; Kadokura, Akira*; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro*; Tsutsumi, Masaki*; Ogawa, Yasunobu*; et al.

Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate (Internet), 12, p.18_1 - 18_16, 2022/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

We identified two energetic electron precipitation (EEP) events during the growth phase of moderate substorms and estimated the mesospheric ionization rate for an EEP event for which the most comprehensive dataset from ground-based and space-born instruments was available. The mesospheric ionization signature reached below 70 km altitude and continued for ~15 min until the substorm onset, as observed by the PANSY radar and imaging riometer at Syowa Station in the Antarctic region. We also used energetic electron flux observed by the Arase and POES 15 satellites as the input for the air-shower simulation code PHITS to quantitatively estimate the mesospheric ionization rate. Combining the cutting-edge observations and simulations, we shed new light on the space weather impact of the EEP events during geomagnetically quiet times, which is important to understand the possible link between the space environment and climate.

Journal Articles

Track-structure modes in Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS); Application to radiobiological research

Matsuya, Yusuke; Kai, Takeshi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Hirata, Yuho; Yoshii, Yuji*; Parisi, A.*; Liamsuwan, T.*

International Journal of Radiation Biology, 98(2), p.148 - 157, 2022/02

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:74.47(Biology)

When investigating radiation-induced biological effects, it is essential to perform detailed track-structure simulations explicitly by considering each atomic interaction in liquid water (which is equivalent to human tissues) at sub-cellular and DNA scales. The Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) is a Monte Carlo code which can be used for track structure calculations by employing an original electron track-structure mode (etsmode) and the world-famous KURBUC algorithms (PHITS-KURBUC mode) for protons and carbon ions. In this study, the physical features (i.e., range, radial dose and microdosimetry) of these modes have been verified by comparing to the available experimental data and Monte Carlo simulation results reported in literature. In addition, applying the etsmode to radiobiological study, we estimated the yields of single-strand breaks (SSBs), double-strand breaks (DSBs) and complex DSBs, and evaluated the dependencies of DNA damage yields on incident electron energy. As a result, the simulations suggested that DNA damage types are intrinsically related with the spatial patterns of ionization and electronic excitations and that approximately 500 eV electron can cause much complex DSBs. In this paper, we show the development status of the PHITS track-structure modes and its application to radiobiological research, which would be expected to identify the underlying mechanisms of radiation effects based on physics.

Journal Articles

Development and validation of proton track-structure model applicable to arbitrary materials

Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Hirata, Yuho; Matsuya, Yusuke; Kai, Takeshi

Scientific Reports (Internet), 11(1), p.24401_1 - 24401_10, 2021/12

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:69.76(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Track-structure calculation, a method to simulate every secondary electron production reaction explicitly, has been extensively used as an important techniques in various fields such as radiation biology, material irradiation effect, and radiation detection. However, it requires the dielectric function of the target materials, which is not well known except for liquid water. Therefore we developed a model to perform track-structure calculation based on a systematic formula of secondary electron production cross section and that of stopping power. The model can therefore perform track-structure calculation regardless of the availability of dielectric function measurement data. Stopping range, and energy deposition radial distribution calculated by this model agreed well with the earlier experimental data and calculation by precedent codes. The lineal energy in tissue-equivalent gas calculated by this model agreed with measurement data taken from literature, showing distinct difference from that in liquid water. This model was implemented to PHITS Ver3.25, the general-purpose radiation transport simulation code of JAEA, being distributed to users as the first track-structure calculation model applicable to arbitrary materials available in general-purpose transport code.

Journal Articles

Track-structure mode for electrons, protons and carbon ions in the PHITS code

Matsuya, Yusuke; Kai, Takeshi; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Hirata, Yuho; Sato, Tatsuhiko

Hoshasen Kagaku (Internet), (112), p.15 - 20, 2021/11

Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) is a general-purpose Monte Carlo code enabling radiation kinetics, which is often used in diverse research fields, such as atomic energy, engineering, medicine and science. After released in 2010, the PHITS code has been developed to expand its functions and to improve its convenience. In the few years, track-structure mode has been introduced in PHITS that can simulate each atomic interaction by electrons, positions, protons and carbon ions in liquid water. Thanks to the development of track-structure mode, the latest PHITS code enables microscopic dose calculations by decomposing it to the scale of DNA. Aiming at realizing the track-structure mode with high precision, the further developments of electron and ion track-structure mode for arbitrary materials are recently ongoing. This review shows the development history and future prospect of PHITS track-structure mode, which can expect to be further applied to the research fields of atomic physics, radiation chemistry, and quantum life science.

Journal Articles

Optimization of a 9 MeV electron accelerator bremsstrahlung flux for photofission-based assay techniques using PHITS and MCNP6 Monte Carlo codes

Meleshenkovskii, I.*; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Sari, A.*; Carrel, F.*; Boudergui, K.*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 483, p.5 - 14, 2020/11

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:18.5(Instruments & Instrumentation)

For the purpose of fissile material detection, the technique to observe neutrons ejected from photo-fission induced by bremsstrahlung X-rays is being developed. This technique is advantageous in the sense that the machine can be compact compared to conventional neutron generators. However, photo-fission reaction cross sections are generally smaller than those of neutron-induced fission cross sections therefore optimization of the beam line is of high importance. In this study, we investigated the factors necessary to be optimized by using Monte-Carlo transport codes MCNP and PHITS. It was found that high-Z materials are advantageous to effectively produce bremsstrahlung X-rays but photons produce neutrons by secondary ($$gamma$$,n) reactions resulting in mixing of prompt and delayed fission reactions. Moreover, secondary neutrons are produced not only inside the target but also in the materials surrounding the target. Therefore it is necessary to select elements whose neutron separation energy is high to suppress parasitic secondary neutrons.

Journal Articles

Cathodoluminescence of cerium dioxide; Combined effects of the electron beam energy and sample temperature

Constantini, J.-M.*; Seo, P.*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Bhuian, AKM S. I.*; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Gourier, D.*

Journal of Luminescence, 226, p.117379_1 - 117379_10, 2020/10

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:45.67(Optics)

Cathodo-luminescence is used for detection of lattice defects, in particular oxygen vacancies in ceramics induced by electrons. However, how oxygen vacancy production efficiency depends on sample temperature, incoming electron flux, and electron energy was not clear. In this study, oxygen vacancies were made in the specimens of CeO$$_{2}$$ by irradiation of 400-1250 keV electrons and the cathodoluminescence from thus induced vacancies were observed by photo-fiber probe combined with CCD. As the result, the dependence of luminescence intensity on specimen temperature depends on the carrier trapping frequency and luminescence efficiency while luminescence center production/annihilation speed determines the dependency on the incoming electron flux. Moreover, radiation transport calculation conducted by the particle transport simulation code PHITS indicates that the number of electrons above the defect production threshold energy is vital to explain incoming electron energy dependence.

Journal Articles

Estimation of observables

Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwamoto, Yosuke

Hoshasen Shahei Handobukku; Oyohen, p.68 - 74, 2020/03

Atomic Energy Society of Japan is going to compile a book entitled "The handbook of radiation shielding -Advanced Edition-" as the guideline for researchers and engineers working on radiation shielding in Japan. The authors are responsible for a chapter dedicated to "Evaluation of observables". Conventionally, in radiation shielding calculation, the quantities averaged over a lot of radiation particles are assessed; however, fluctuation around the average matters for detector response calculation, and radiation-induced damage. Therefore, algorithms to recover the details on fluctuations, such as the event generator mode of PHITS, are needed. This publication is intended to explain the significance of fluctuation evaluation in radiation transport, the principle to calculate the fluctuation, and the effect of the fluctuation on observables.

Journal Articles

A Novel asymmetrical peak broadening feature for a CdZnTe detector response function modeling using PHITS particle and heavy ion transport simulation code

Meleshenkovskii, I.*; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Pauly, N.*; Labeau, P.-E.*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 467, p.108 - 113, 2020/03

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:0.02(Instruments & Instrumentation)

CdZnTe (CZT) semiconductor detectors are featured by the fact that it can be operated in room-temperature. In CZT, however, the hole collection efficiency is substantially less than 100% owing to its low hole-mobility. Therefore the detector signal is suppressed depending on the distance of ionization from the anode. In particular, gamma-rays interact with the detector at random, which result in asymmetric pulse-height distribution. Among the radiation transport codes available up to now, other than PHITS which can consider symmetric gaussian distribution, any codes did not have functions to consider arbitrary response functions. On the other hand, Melechankovski et al proposed a function form that can reproduce the pulse-height spectrum of CZT detectors. In this study, the pulse-height spectra of a 500 mm$$^3$$ CZT detector exposed to gamma rays from 59 keV ($$^{241}$$Am) to 1332 keV ($$^{60}$$Co) was measured and compared with the energy deposition spectrum calculated PHITS with incorporating the Melechankovski's CZT detector response formula. The comparison showed satisfactory agreement between the calculated and measured pulse-height distribution featured by the gaussian peak shape and exponential decline in the lower energy side. This new function enables experimental design considering realistic detector performance as well as detector system design considering detector response. The arbitrary detector response function was incorporated to PHITS Ver.3.10 and later.

Journal Articles

Depth profiles of energy deposition near incident surface irradiated with swift heavy ions

Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Ishikawa, Norito; Kai, Takeshi

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 461, p.272 - 275, 2019/12

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:58.93(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Heavy ion irradiation, which deposits energy locally in materials, is widely used to study new material modification and radiation-induced damage. So far, radial distribution of energy deposition by heavy ions were well studied. By contrast, depth profile of energy deposition was usually assumed to be uniform but the energy deposition near the incident surface is likely suppressed because the delta-rays are pushed by the incident heavy ions. In this study, spatial distribution of energy deposition in the materials exposed to heavy ions is calculated by using a track structure simulation code RITRACKS. The result showed that energy deposition is suppressed in the first 2 nm of water and that beyond 2 nm is uniform. This result can be applied to the materials other than water by scaling with electron density. It is indicated that reactor fuel pins damaged by fission products and the materials modified by heavy ions receive less energy deposition and less radiation effect in the first 2 nm.

Journal Articles

Prediction of scintillation light yield based on track-structure simulation

Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Yamaki, Tetsuya*

Hoshasen Kagaku (Internet), (108), p.11 - 17, 2019/11

Scintillators are generally used to detect various kinds of particles such as electrons, gammas, protons and heavy ions. Scintillators emit photons according to the energy deposited to the crystal. It is also known that light yield is suppressed for particles depositing energy densely owing to quenching. Moreover, it is suggested that quenching is attributed to transfer of energy from excited fluorescent molecules to damaged molecules (F$"{o}$rster mechanism or Dexter mechanism). In this study, energy deposition in a scintillator crystal by radiation was calculated using radiation transport codes to finally obtain excitation and damage of fluorescent molecules. Based on the calculation, spatial configuration of exited and damaged molecules. Then the probability that F$"{o}$rster mechanism takes place in excited molecules were estimated to obtain the number of fluorescent molecules that emit photons. As a result, light yield is proportionally increased with increase in the incident energy in case of electron incidence. On the other hand, light yield is increased non-linearly in case of proton incidence. This trend is in a good agreement with the experimental results.

Journal Articles

Comparison of heavy-ion transport simulations; Collision integral with pions and $$Delta$$ resonances in a box

Ono, Akira*; Xu, J.*; Colonna, M.*; Danielewicz, P.*; Ko, C. M.*; Tsang, M. B.*; Wang, Y,-J.*; Wolter, H.*; Zhang, Y.-X.*; Chen, L.-W.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 100(4), p.044617_1 - 044617_35, 2019/10


 Times Cited Count:47 Percentile:98.59(Physics, Nuclear)

International comparison of heavy-ion induced reaction models were discussed in the international conference "Transport2017" held in April 2017. Owing to their importance for safety assessment of heavy-ion accelerators and dosimetry of astronauts, various models to simulate heavy-ion induced reaction models are developed. This study is intended to clarify the difference among them to pinpoint their problems. In the comparison study, 320 protons and neutrons were packed in a 20-fm-large cube to calculate the number and energies of collisions during the time evolution. The author contributed to this study by running calculation using JQMD (JAERI Quantum Molecular Dynamics). This study showed that time step in the calculation is one of the biggest causes of the discrepancies. For example, the calculation by JQMD comprises 1-fm/c time steps, each of which is composed of transport, scattering and decay phases. Therefore a sequence of scattering, and decay followed by another scattering in 1 fm/c cannot be considered. Moreover, in JQMD particles are labeled by sequential numbers and scattering reactions are simulated by the order. Therefore scattering between low ID numbers, that between high ID numbers and that between the first (low ID) pair is overlooked in JQMD. Above indications obtained in this study must be kept in our mind for future JQMD upgrades.

Journal Articles

Effects of the nuclear structure of fission fragments on the high-energy prompt fission $$gamma$$-ray spectrum in $$^{235}$$U($$n_{rm th},f$$)

Makii, Hiroyuki; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Hirose, Kentaro; Orlandi, R.; L$'e$guillon, R.; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Soldner, T.*; K$"o$ster, U.*; Pollitt, A.*; Hambsch, F.-J.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 100(4), p.044610_1 - 044610_7, 2019/10

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:78.79(Physics, Nuclear)

Journal Articles

Measurement of neutron-production double-differential cross sections in most-forward direction by proton incidences

Satoh, Daiki; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko

2017-Nendo Ryoshi Kagaku Gijutsu Kenkyu Kaihatsu Kiko Shisetu Kyoyo Jisshi Hokokusho (Internet), 1 Pages, 2019/08

Many neutrons are produced in forward directions by intermediate-energy proton-induced reactions. While it is known that collective motion in a target nucleus plays important role in this neutron production, validity of theoretical model and nuclear-data library has not been examined well due to a lack of experimental data. Hence, we obtained systematic data of neutron-production double-differential cross section in the most-forward direction. The experiment was performed at TIARA of Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, QST. 34-MeV proton beams were bombarded upon thin carbon, aluminum, iron, and lead target, and the neutrons produced in the most-forward direction were led to experimental room passing through a collimator. Scintillation detectors were used to the neutron detection. In comparison with the calculation results of PHITS, it was found that the theoretical model INCL always overestimate the cross sections, and the evaluated nuclear-data library JENDL-4.0/HE reproduce the measure spectra better than the INCL does.

131 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)