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Journal Articles

Evaluation of mean time between accidental interruptions for accelerator klystron systems based on the reliability engineering method

Takei, Hayanori; Furukawa, Kazuro*; Yano, Yoshiharu*; Ogawa, Yujiro*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(9), p.996 - 1008, 2018/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Experiences with existing high-power proton accelerators indicate that frequent beam trips are inevitable. One of the reasons for such frequent beam trips is the accidental interruption to protect accelerators against fatal failures. Generally, the failure frequency for the general machinery can be evaluated based on a reliability database for its components. On the other hand, the beam-trip frequency for the accidental interruption was not evaluated based on the reliability database because it has not yet been established. A principal reason for the lack of this reliability database is the inconsistency of data collection and analysis methods among laboratories. For example, there are at least three methods to estimate Mean Time Between accidental Interruptions (MTBI) for klystron systems. In the present study, the MTBI of the klystron systems of an electron/positron injector linac at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) was evaluated based on the reliability engineering method, in order to build the reliability database using the unified data collection and analysis method. As the result, the mean values of the MTBI by the traditional three methods were evaluated as 30.9, 32.0, and 50.4 hours. On the other hand, that by the reliability engineering method was evaluated as 57.3 hours, i.e., more than 1.14 times of the traditional results. Although these results are obviously different from traditional results, it appears that the present estimation based on the reliability engineering method is suitable for the MTBI of accelerator components as typified by the klystron system.

JAEA Reports

Estimation of acceptable beam trip frequencies of accelerators for ADS and comparison with performances of existing accelerators

Takei, Hayanori; Nishihara, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Furukawa, Kazuro*; Yano, Yoshiharu*; Ogawa, Yujiro*; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

JAEA-Research 2009-023, 114 Pages, 2009/09

JAEA-Research-2009-023.pdf:8.86MB

Frequent beam trips as experienced in existing high power proton accelerators may cause thermal fatigue problems in ADS components which may lead to degradation of their structural integrity and reduction of their lifetime. Thermal transient analyses were performed to investigate the effects of beam trips on the reactor components. Our results indicated that the acceptable frequency of beam trips ranged from 50 to $$2times10^{4}$$ times per year depending on the beam trip duration. In order to consider measures to reduce the frequency of beam trips on the high power accelerator for ADS, we compared the acceptable frequency of beam trips with the operation data of existing accelerators. The result of this comparison showed that the beam trip frequency for durations of 10 seconds or less was within the acceptable level, while that exceeding five minutes should be reduced to about 1/30 to satisfy the thermal stress conditions.

Journal Articles

Estimation of acceptable beam trip frequencies of accelerators for ADS and comparison with experimental data of accelerators

Takei, Hayanori; Nishihara, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Furukawa, Kazuro*; Yano, Yoshiharu*; Ogawa, Yujiro*; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

Proceedings of International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Research Applications and Utilization of Accelerators (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2009/05

Frequent beam trips as experienced in existing high power proton accelerators may cause thermal fatigue problems in ADS components which may lead to degradation of their structural integrity and reduction of their lifetime. Thermal transient analyses were performed to investigate the effects of beam trips on the reactor components, with the objective of formulating ADS design that had higher engineering possibilities and determining the requirements for accelerator reliability. These analyses were made on the thermal responses of four parts of the reactor components; the beam window, the cladding tube, the inner barrel and the reactor vessel. Our results indicated that the acceptable frequency of beam trips ranged from 43 to $$2.5times10^4$$ times per year depending on the beam trip duration to keep the plant availability 70%. In order to consider measures to reduce the frequency of beam trips on the high power accelerator for ADS, we compared the acceptable frequency of beam trips with the operation data of existing accelerators. The result of this comparison showed that the beam trip frequency for durations of 10 seconds or less was within the acceptable level, while that exceeding five minutes should be reduced to about 1/35 to satisfy the plant availability conditions.

Journal Articles

Mitigation technologies for damage induced by pressure waves in high-power mercury spallation neutron sources, 2; Bubbling effect to reduce pressure wave

Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Naoe, Takashi; Ida, Masato; Haga, Katsuhiro; Wakui, Takashi; Tanaka, Nobuatsu*; Matsumoto, Yoichiro*; Ikeda, Yujiro

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 45(10), p.1041 - 1048, 2008/10

 Times Cited Count:26 Percentile:86.05(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The life time of mercury target will be reduced by the cavitation damage induced by pressure waves. Micro-bubble injection into mercury is one of prospective technologies to mitigate the pressure waves. We have carried out damage tests using mercury loop with an impact generator to evaluate the bubbling effect on the pressure response and cavitation damage. The impulsive pressure was hardly changed but the damage was reduced remarkably by the micro-bubble injection. Numerical simulation was performed to investigate the bubbling effects. It was understandable that micro bubbles suppressed cavitation inception.

Journal Articles

Cavitation damage prediction for spallation target vessels by assessment of acoustic vibration

Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Riemer, B.*; Wendel, M.*; Haines, J.*; Bauer, G.*; Naoe, Takashi; Okita, Kohei*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 377(1), p.182 - 188, 2008/06

 Times Cited Count:27 Percentile:86.74(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Comparison of beam trip frequencies between estimation from current experimental data of accelerators and requirement from ADS transient analyses

Takei, Hayanori; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Ouchi, Nobuo; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Mizumoto, Motoharu*; Furukawa, Kazuro*; Ogawa, Yujiro*; Yano, Yoshiharu*

Proceedings of 5th International Workshop on the Utilisation and Reliability of High Power Proton Accelerators (HPPA-5), p.181 - 194, 2008/04

Frequent beam trips as experienced in existing high power proton accelerators may cause thermal fatigue problems in ADS components. Thermal transient analyses were performed to investigate the effects of beam trips on the reactor components. Our results indicate that the acceptable frequency of beam trips ranges from 50 to 25,000 times per year, depending on the beam trip duration. In order to measure the effect of reducing beam trips on the high power accelerator for ADS, we compared the difference between the acceptable frequency for beam trips and the operation data of existing accelerators. The result of this comparison shows that for typical conditions the beam trip frequency for durations of 10 seconds or less is within the acceptable level, while that exceeding 10 seconds should be reduced by about 1/30 to satisfy the thermal stress conditions.

Journal Articles

Micro-impact damage caused by mercury bubble collapse

Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi*; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Date, Hidefumi*; Ikeda, Yujiro

JSME International Journal, Series A, 48(4), p.234 - 239, 2005/10

Mercury target will be installed at the material science and life facility in J-PARC, which will promote innovative science. The mercury target will be subjected to the pressure wave caused by proton bombarding in the mercury. The pressure wave propagation induces the cavitation in mercury that imposes localized impact damage on the target vessel. The impact erosion is a critical issue to decide the lifetime of target. An electromagnetic impact testing machine, MIMTM, was developed to reproduce the localized impact erosion damage and evaluate the damage formation. Additionally, droplet impact analyses were carried out to investigate the correlation between isolate pit profile and micro-jet velocity. We confirmed that the value of depth/radius was applicable to estimate micro-jet velocity, and the velocity at 560 W in MIMTM equivalent to 1MW proton beam injection was 300 m/s approximately.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of mechanical properties and microstructure in ion-irradiated surface layer

Naoe, Takashi*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naito, Akira*; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Yujiro; Motohashi, Yoshinobu*

JSME International Journal, Series A, 48(4), p.280 - 285, 2005/10

Target vessel materials used in spallation neutron source will be exposed to proton and neutron irradiation and mercury immersion environments. In order to evaluate the surface degradation of the vessel candidate materials due to such environment, the triple-ion beam irradiation taking the spallation reaction into account and mercury immersion tests were carried out. Mechanical properties of the gradient surface layer ware evaluated by the inverse analysis with multi-layer model that considers distribution of surface characteristic was applied to the load and depth curves measured by using the instrumented indentation machine. Transmission electron microscopic observations ware performed to evaluate the changes of microstructure in irradiated surface layer using focused ion-beam cut micro-specimen. It was confirmed that the ductility loss is enhanced by the irradiation and mercury immersion, and simulated stress and strain curves of the ion-irradiated surface layer ware adequately in good agreement with the curves of experimental equivalent neutron-irradiated material.

Journal Articles

Erosion damage evaluation using acoustic vibration induced by micro-bubble collapse

Naoe, Takashi*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Koyama, Tomofumi*; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Yujiro

Jikken Rikigaku, 5(3), p.280 - 285, 2005/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Cladding technique for development of Ag-In-Cd decoupler

Teshigawara, Makoto; Harada, Masahide; Saito, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Yujiro; Kawai, Masayoshi*; Kurishita, Hiroaki*; Konashi, Kenji*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 343(1-3), p.154 - 162, 2005/08

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:59.05(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

For decoupled and poisoned moderator, a thermal neutron absorber, i.e., decoupler, is located around the moderator to give neutron beam with a short decay time. A B4C decoupler is already utilized, however, it is difficult to use in a MW class source because of He void swelling and local heating by (n,a) reaction. Therefore, a Ag-In-Cd (AIC) alloy which gives energy-dependence of macroscopic neutron cross section like that of B$$_{4}$$C was chosen. However, from heat removal and corrosion protection points of view, AIC is needed to bond between an Al alloy (A6061-T6), which is the structural material of a moderator. An AIC plate is divided into a Ag-In (15wt%) and Ag-Cd (35wt%) plate to extend the life time, shorten by burn up of Cd. We performed bonding tests by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing). We found out that a better HIP condition was holding at 803 K, 100 MPa for 1 h for small test pieces (f20mm). Though a hardened layer is found in the bonding layer, the rupture strength of the bonding layer is more than 20 MPa, which is less than that of the design stress.

Journal Articles

Pitting damage by pressure waves in a mercury target

Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi; Tsai, C.-C.*; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ishikura, Shuichi*; Ikeda, Yujiro; Soyama, Hitoshi*; Date, Hidefumi*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 343(1-3), p.70 - 80, 2005/08

 Times Cited Count:54 Percentile:95.91(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Effect of proton beam profile on stress in JSNS target vessel

Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ishikura, Shuichi*; Sato, Hiroshi; Harada, Masahide; Takatama, Shunichi*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro; Meigo, Shinichiro; Maekawa, Fujio; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 343(1-3), p.178 - 183, 2005/08

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:51.68(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

A cross-flow type (CFT) mercury target with flow guide blades, which has been developed for JSNS, can suppress the generation of stagnant flow region especially near the beam window where the peak heat density is generated due to spallation reaction. Then, a flat type beam window has been applied to the CFT target from the viewpoint of suppressing dynamic stress caused by a pressure wave, which has been estimated with a mercury model of the linear equation of state. The recent experimental results obtained by using a proton beam incidents to mercury led that a cutoff pressure model in the equation of state of mercury caused a suitable dynamic stress with experimental results. Dynamic stress analyses were carried out with the cutoff pressure model, in which the negative pressure less than 0.15 MPa was not generated. The generated dynamic stress in the flat beam window became much larger than that in a semi-cylindrical type window. However, the generated stress in the semi-cylindrical type beam window was over the allowable stress of SS316L under the peak heat density of 668 W/cc. In order to decrease the dynamic stress in the semi-cylindrical beam window, the incident proton beam was defocused to decrease the peak heat density down to 218 W/cm$$^{3}$$. As a result, the dynamic stress could be suppressed less than the allowable stress. On the other hand, due to defocus of the proton beam, high heat density was generated on the end of the flow guide blades, which caused high thermal stress exceeding the allowable stress. To decrease the thermal stress, several shapes of the blade ends were studied analytically, which were selected so as not to affect the mercury flow distribution. A simple thin-end blade showed low thermal stress below the allowable stress.

JAEA Reports

Failure probability analysis on mercury target vessel

Ishikura, Shuichi*; Shiga, Akio*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Ikeda, Yujiro

JAERI-Tech 2005-026, 65 Pages, 2005/03

JAERI-Tech-2005-026.pdf:2.86MB

Failure probability analysis was carried out to estimate the lifetime of the mercury target which will be installed into the JSNS (Japan spallation neutron source) in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). The lifetime was estimated as taking loading condition and materials degradation into account. Considered loads imposed on the target vessel were the static stresses due to thermal expansion and static pre-pressure on He-gas and mercury and the dynamic stresses due to the thermally shocked pressure waves generated repeatedly at 25 Hz. Materials used in target vessel will be degraded by the fatigue, neutron and proton irradiation, mercury immersion and pitting damages, etc. The imposed stresses were evaluated through static and dynamic structural analyses. The material-degradations were deduced based on published experimental data. As results, it was quantitatively confirmed that the failure probability for the lifetime expected in the design is very much lower, 10$$^{-11}$$ in the safety hull, meaning that it will be hardly failed during the design lifetime. On the other hand, the beam window of mercury vessel suffered with high-pressure waves exhibits the failure probability of 12%. It was concluded, therefore, that the leaked mercury from the failed area at the beam window is adequately kept in the space between the safety hull and the mercury vessel to detect mercury-leakage sensors.

Journal Articles

Damage diagnostic of localized impact erosion by measuring acoustic vibration

Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi*; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Yujiro

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 41(11), p.1059 - 1064, 2004/11

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:61.05(Nuclear Science & Technology)

High power spallation targets for neutron sources are developing in the world. Mercury target will be installed at the material and life science facility in J-PARC, which will promote innovative science. The mercury target is subject to the pressure wave caused by the proton bombarding mercury. The pressure wave propagation induces the cavitation in mercury that imposes localized impact damage on the target vessel. The impact erosion is a critical issue to decide the lifetime of the target. The electric Magnetic Impact Testing Machine, MIMTM, was developed to produce the localized impact erosion damage and evaluate the damage formation. Acoustic vibration measurement was carried out to investigate the correlation between damage and acoustic vibration. It was confirmed that the acoustic vibration is useful to predict the damage due to the localized impact erosion and to diagnose the structural integrity.

JAEA Reports

Technical report on the structural integrity and the lifetime evaluation for the mercury target vessel

Ishikura, Shuichi*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Meigo, Shinichiro; Maekawa, Fujio; Harada, Masahide; Sato, Hiroshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Ikeda, Yujiro

JAERI-Tech 2004-028, 123 Pages, 2004/03

JAERI-Tech-2004-028.pdf:9.55MB

This report describes the structural design concept applied to the mercury target vessel used for the spallation neutron source installed in the material and life science experiment facility of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Complex), and the results evaluated on the basis of the concept. The features of the design concept are as follows: (1) The target vessel design is followed to "Law concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radio-Isotopes". That is because (i) there is not the possibility in the target of the RIA (Reactivity Initiated Accident) generally considered in the nuclear power reactors, and (ii) the target vessel is not a permanent structure. (2) Therefore, the Class 1 Vessel of the JIS B-8270 [design code for pressure vessel] that is equivalent to a standard for nuclear power structural design is applicable as a design code for the target to sufficiently keep the safety of target system. The stresses for the design were evaluated using the linear elastic analysis based on the infinitesimal strain theory in order to confirm the safe and rational design.

Journal Articles

Pitting damage formation up to over 10 million cycles; Off-line test by MIMTM

Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Tsai, C.-C.*; Ikeda, Yujiro

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 40(11), p.895 - 904, 2003/11

 Times Cited Count:50 Percentile:94.79(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The pitting damage induced by pressure wave propagation gets to be one of critical issues to estimate the life of the target structure with mercury and to evaluate its structural integrity. The off-line test on the pitting damage at high cycles over 10 millions was carried out using a novel device, the MIMTM which drives electromagnetically to impose pulse pressure into the mercury. It was found that from the pitting damage data obtained by the MIMTM that the pitting damage can be characterized in two steps, an incubation period that can extend to more than 106 cycles in 316SS and 107 cycles in surface hardening treated one and steady state erosion where mass loss scales with the number of cycles to approximately the 1.27 power for mercury. The length of the incubation period is primarily a function of the material and the intensity of the pressure. This observation provides a simple model for estimating lifetime for different materials and beam power.

JAEA Reports

Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Tsai, C.-C.*; Ishikura, Shuichi*; Ikeda, Yujiro

JAERI-Research 2003-005, 70 Pages, 2003/03

JAERI-Research-2003-005.pdf:12.08MB

A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the pitting damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the steady state with mass loss independently of testing machines and the incubation period is very dependent on materials and imposed pressures.

Journal Articles

Review of research and development of accelerator-driven system in Japan for transmutation of long-lived nuclides

Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Takizuka, Takakazu; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Ikeda, Yujiro; Ogawa, Toru; Hasegawa, Akira; Takada, Hiroshi; Takano, Hideki

Progress in Nuclear Energy, 38(1-2), p.107 - 134, 2001/02

 Times Cited Count:58 Percentile:96.38(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Comparison of beam trip frequencies between estimation from current experimental data of accelerators and requirement from ADS

Takei, Hayanori; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Mizumoto, Motoharu*; Ogawa, Yujiro*; Furukawa, Kazuro*; Yano, Yoshiharu*

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Estimation of acceptable beam trip frequencies of accelerators for ADS, 3; Derivation of mean time between trips of klystrons including censored events

Takei, Hayanori; Furukawa, Kazuro*; Yano, Yoshiharu*; Ogawa, Yujiro*

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Estimation of acceptable beam trip frequencies of accelerators for ADS, 4; Consideration of the probability density function for accidental interruptions of klystrons

Takei, Hayanori; Furukawa, Kazuro*; Yano, Yoshiharu*; Ogawa, Yujiro*

no journal, , 

Experiences with existing high-power proton accelerators have shown that frequent beam trips have occurred. The reasons for occurring the beam trips may be classified into two broad categories: one is the failure and/or the repair/replacement of accelerator components, and the other is preventive interruption to protect accelerators against failures. In the former case, the beam-trip frequency can be evaluated based on a reliability database for accelerator components. On the other hand, in the latter case, the beam-trip frequency was not evaluated because the reliability database has not yet been established. A principal reason for the lack of this reliability database is the inconsistency of data collection and analysis methods among laboratories. In the present study, the probability density function that accidental interruptions occurred in the klystron system of an electron/positron injector linac at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) was evaluated based on the reliability engineering method, in order to build the reliability database using the uniform data collection and analysis method. As the result, the probability density function might be not the exponential distribution. As this result is obviously different from the traditional result, it is necessary to re-evaluate the probability density function of the accelerator component at other accelerator facilities by use of the present method.

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