Hiraoka, Hirokazu; Komatsuzaki, Joji*; Hanaka, Norihiko*; Okamoto, Akiko; Saito, Yoshihiko*; Munakata, Masahiro; Togawa, Orihiko
JAEA-Technology 2022-003, 70 Pages, 2022/07
In contamination inspections for public in nuclear emergency, it is assumed that a large number of motor vehicles and evacuees will be inspected. At present, first measurement points of vehicles are tires and around a wiper, and they are basically inspected by persons using portable radiation surface contamination meters such as GM survey meters. However, in order to efficiently inspect contamination of vehicles, utilization of portable radiation portal monitors is being considered for the inspection. In this study, examination of performance of the portal monitor was conducted in order to obtain basic data. In this examinations, sealed radiation sources, Ba, were substituted for the contamination of Operational Intervention Level 4 (OIL4), the evaluation criteria to conduct simple decontamination in the contamination inspection. The radiation source was attached practically to a tire and around the wipers of a vehicle, and the counting rate of -rays from the radiation sources was measured using the portal monitor. Three examinations were conducted: static examination with a vehicle stationary, moving examination to mock the actual inspection, and high back ground examination to investigate performance of the equipment in high back ground environment. The vehicle mainly used in the experiments was a sedan, which is generally used as standard vehicles. And, a van whose front body is like that of a bus was used at this experiment. In addition, the "Gamma Pole" manufactured by the Chiyoda Technol Corporation was used as the portal monitor. As the result, it was estimated that the case of contamination equivalent to 40,000 cpm, the default value of the OIL4, deposited on the tread on a vehicle tire, when the vehicle passes through the portal monitor at 10 km/h or less, the contamination would be detected with a probability of 99% or more. Similarly, when the contamination deposited on around the wipers and the vehicle speed is 5 km/h or less,
Nemoto, Miho*; Ebine, Noriya; Okamoto, Akiko; Hosaka, Yasuhisa*; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Terada, Hiroaki; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Togawa, Orihiko
JAEA-Technology 2021-013, 41 Pages, 2021/08
When North Korea has carried out nuclear tests, Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) predicts atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides by using the WSPEEDI-II upon requests from Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) and submits the predicted results to NRA in cooperation with Nuclear Science and Engineering Center (NSEC). This is a part of the activity of NEAT supporting the Japanese Government in emergency responses. The WSPEEDI-II automatic calculation system specialized for responses to nuclear tests by North Korea was developed by NSEC and was used for responses to three nuclear tests from February 2013 to September 2017. This report describes the transfer and installation of the calculation system to NEAT, and the subsequent maintenance and operation. Future issues for responses to nuclear tests are also described in this report.
Hashimoto, Makoto; Kinase, Sakae; Munakata, Masahiro; Murayama, Takashi; Takahashi, Masa; Takada, Chie; Okamoto, Akiko; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Sukegawa, Masato; Kume, Nobuhide*; et al.
JAEA-Review 2020-071, 53 Pages, 2021/03
In the case of a nuclear accident or a radiological emergency, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), as a designated public corporation assigned in the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act and the Armed Attack Situation Response Law, undertakes technical supports to the national government and local governments. The JAEA is requested to support to evaluate radiation doses to residents in a nuclear emergency, which is specified in the Basic Disaster Management Plan and the Nuclear Emergency Response Manual. For the dose evaluation, however, its strategy, target, method, structure and so on have not been determined either specifically or in detail. This report describes the results of investigation and consideration discussed in the "Working Group for Radiation Dose Evaluation at a Nuclear Emergency" established within the Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center to discuss technical supports for radiation dose evaluation to residents in the case of a nuclear emergency, and aims at contributing to specific and detailed discussion and activities in the future for the national government and local governments, also within the JAEA.
Kitazato, Kohei*; Milliken, R. E.*; Iwata, Takahiro*; Abe, Masanao*; Otake, Makiko*; Matsuura, Shuji*; Takagi, Yasuhiko*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; Hiroi, Takahiro*; Matsuoka, Moe*; et al.
Nature Astronomy (Internet), 5(3), p.246 - 250, 2021/03
Here we report observations of Ryugu's subsurface material by the Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3) on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. Reflectance spectra of excavated material exhibit a hydroxyl (OH) absorption feature that is slightly stronger and peak-shifted compared with that observed for the surface, indicating that space weathering and/or radiative heating have caused subtle spectral changes in the uppermost surface. However, the strength and shape of the OH feature still suggests that the subsurface material experienced heating above 300 C, similar to the surface. In contrast, thermophysical modeling indicates that radiative heating does not increase the temperature above 200 C at the estimated excavation depth of 1 m, even if the semimajor axis is reduced to 0.344 au. This supports the hypothesis that primary thermal alteration occurred due to radiogenic and/or impact heating on Ryugu's parent body.
Okuno, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Akiko; Ebine, Noriya; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tadao
Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 15 Pages, 2019/05
In the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as a designated public corporation assigned in the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act of Japan undertakes a role to support the national government and local governments. This paper (1) illuminates the roles of the JAEA as a designated public corporation for preparedness and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency of nuclear facilities; (2) summarizes emergency response activities of the JAEA in accordance with its Disaster Management Operation Plan against the off-site radiological emergencies attributed to a loss of control of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)'s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station that occurred in 2011; and (3) reports its activities in normal times especially participation in the drills organized by the national government and local governments in the light of the Basic Disaster Management Plan of Japan and Local Disaster Management Plans of prefectural governments, respectively.
Sato, Takeshi; Muto, Shigeo; Akiyama, Kiyomitsu; Aoki, Kazufumi; Okamoto, Akiko; Kawakami, Takeshi; Kume, Nobuhide; Nakanishi, Chika; Koie, Masahiro; Kawamata, Hiroyuki; et al.
JAEA-Review 2014-048, 69 Pages, 2015/02
JAEA was assigned as a designated public institution under the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act and under the Armed Attack Situations Response Act. Based on these Acts, the JAEA has the responsibility of providing technical support to the national government and/or local governments in case of disaster responses or response in the event of a military attack, etc. In order to fulfill the tasks, the JAEA has established the Emergency Action Plan and the Civil Protection Action Plan. In case of a nuclear emergency, NEAT dispatches specialists of JAEA, supplies the national government and local governments with emergency equipment and materials, and gives technical advice and information. In normal time, NEAT provides various exercises and training courses concerning nuclear disaster prevention to those personnel taking an active part in emergency response institutions of the national and local governments, police, fire fighters, self-defense forces, etc. in addition to the JAEA itself. The NEAT also researches nuclear disaster preparedness and response, and cooperates with international organizations. In the FY2013, the NEAT accomplished the following tasks: (1) Technical support activities as a designated public institution in cooperation with the national and local governments, etc. (2) Human resource development, exercise and training of nuclear emergency response personnel for the national and local governments, etc. (3) Researches on nuclear disaster preparedness and response, and sending useful information (4) International contributions to Asian countries on nuclear disaster preparedness and response in collaboration with the international organizations
Sato, Takeshi; Muto, Shigeo; Okuno, Hiroshi; Katagiri, Hiromi; Akiyama, Kiyomitsu; Okamoto, Akiko; Koie, Masahiro; Ikeda, Takeshi; Nemotochi, Toshimasa; Saito, Toru; et al.
JAEA-Review 2013-046, 65 Pages, 2014/02
When a nuclear emergency occurs in Japan, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has the responsibility of providing technical support to the National government, local governments, police, fire stations and nuclear operators etc., because the JAEA has been designated as the Designated Public Institution under the Basic Act on Disaster Control Measures and the Act on Response to Armed Attack Situations, etc.. The Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) of JAEA provides a comprehensive range of technical support activities to an Off-Site Center in case of a nuclear emergency. Specifically, NEAT gives technical advice and information, dispatches specialists as required, and supplies the National Government and local governments with emergency equipments and materials. NEAT provides various exercise and training courses concerning nuclear disaster prevention to those personnel taking an active part in emergency response organizations at normal times. The tasks of NEAT, with its past experiences as a designated public institution including the responses to TEPCO's Fukushima Accident, have been shifted to technical supports to the national government for strengthening its abilities to emergency responses; the NEAT therefore focused on maintenance and operation of its functions, and strengthening its response abilities in cooperation with the national government. This annual report summarized these activities of JAEA/NEAT in the fiscal year 2012.
Nakanishi, Chika; Sato, Takeshi; Sato, Sohei; Nagai, Haruyasu; Kakefuda, Toyokazu; Katata, Genki; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Ikeda, Takeshi; Okuno, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kazuya; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2013-030, 105 Pages, 2013/10
North Korea carried out the third nuclear test in February 2013. Due to the request of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) and Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate (NSED) of JAEA predicted the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclide by WSPEEDI-II for the purpose of contributing to the environmental monitoring plan. From February 12 to 22, they provided daily reports on the prediction to the MEXT and the Ministry of Defense. MEXT has published these reports on the website. Since April 2012, NEAT and NSED had prepared to predict by the framework for the prediction around the clock during 10months until February 2013. This report described this experience and pointed issues out on this system.
Katagiri, Hiromi; Okuno, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Akiko; Ikeda, Takeshi; Tamura, Kenichi; Nagakura, Tomohiro; Nakanishi, Chika; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Abe, Minako; Sato, Sohei; et al.
JAEA-Review 2012-033, 70 Pages, 2012/08
When a nuclear emergency occurs in Japan, JAEA has the responsibility of providing technical support to the National government, local governments, etc., by the Basic Law on Emergency Preparedness and the Basic Plan for Disaster Countermeasures. NEAT of JAEA gives technical advice and information, dispatch specialists as required, supplies with the National Government and local governments emergency equipment and materials. NEAT provides various lectures and training courses concerning nuclear disaster prevention for emergency response organizations at normal time. Concerning the assistance to the Accident of Fukushima No.1 Nuclear Power Station caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March, 2011, JAEA assisted activities including environmental radiation monitoring, environmental radioactivity analyses, resident public consulting etc., with its the utmost effort. This annual report summarized these activities of NEAT in the fiscal year 2011.
Okamoto, Akiko; Kitami, Yasuo*; Ando, Yoshiaki*; Nakamura, Hisashi; Saito, Kimiaki; Nakashima, Mikio
JAERI-Tech 2002-051, 40 Pages, 2002/06
In order to contribute to safety assessment of recycling products made from dismantling metal wastes, metal ingots containing Co were produced and spatial dose rates from the ingots were evaluated by gamma-ray measurement and calculation. Stripping operations were made using detector response functions calculated by Monte Carlo program to derive spatial dose rates from measured gamma-ray spectra. In the computer simulation, Monte Carlo and point kernel calculation codes were used. Agreement between measured and calculated values was satisfactory in spite of an extremely low concentration of Co in the ingots and a complicated geometric condition between detector and samples.