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Journal Articles

Design for detecting recycling muon after muon-catalyzed fusion reaction in solid hydrogen isotope target

Okutsu, Kenichi*; Yamashita, Takuma*; Kino, Yasushi*; Nakashima, Ryota*; Miyashita, Konan*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Okada, Shinji*; Sato, Motoyasu*; Oka, Toshitaka; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 170, p.112712_1 - 112712_4, 2021/09

A muonic molecule which consists of two hydrogen isotope nuclei (deuteron (d) or tritium (t)) and a muon decays immediately via nuclear fusion and the muon will be released as a recycling muon, and start to find another hydrogen isotope nucleus. The reaction cycle continues until the muon ends up its lifetime of 2.2 $$mu$$s. Since the muon does not participate in the nuclear reaction, the reaction is so called a muon catalyzed fusion ($$mu$$CF). The recycling muon has a particular kinetic energy (KE) of the muon molecular orbital when the nuclear reaction occurs. Since the KE is based on the unified atom limit where distance between two nuclei is zero. A precise few-body calculation estimating KE distribution (KED) is also in progress, which could be compared with the experimental results. In the present work, we observed recycling muons after $$mu$$CF reaction.

Journal Articles

Time evolution calculation of muon catalysed fusion; Emission of recycling muons from a two-layer hydrogen film

Yamashita, Takuma*; Okutsu, Kenichi*; Kino, Yasushi*; Nakashima, Ryota*; Miyashita, Konan*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Okada, Shinji*; Sato, Motoyasu*; Oka, Toshitaka; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 169, p.112580_1 - 112580_5, 2021/08

A muon ($$mu$$) having 207 times larger mass of electron and the same charge as the electron has been known to catalyze a nuclear fusion between deuteron (d) and triton (t). These two nuclei are bound by $$mu$$ and form a muonic hydrogen molecular ion, dt$$mu$$. Due to the short inter-nuclear distance of dt$$mu$$, the nuclear fusion, d +t$$rightarrow alpha$$ + n + 17.6 MeV, occurs inside the molecule. This reaction is called muon catalyzed fusion ($$mu$$CF). Recently, the interest on $$mu$$CF is renewed from the viewpoint of applications, such as a source of high-resolution muon beam and mono-energetic neutron beam. In this work, we report a time evolution calculation of $$mu$$CF in a two-layered hydrogen isotope target.

Oral presentation

Incorporation record of radionuclides in teeth and otoliths

Koarai, Kazuma; Matsueda, Makoto; Fujiwara, Kenso; Ono, Takumi*; Kino, Yasushi*; Oka, Toshitaka; Okutsu, Kenichi*; Takahashi, Atsushi*; Suzuki, Toshihiko*; Shimizu, Yoshinaka*; et al.

no journal, , 

We have investigated incorporation of $$^{90}$$Sr and $$^{137}$$Cs in teeth of cattle and otoliths of fish. Specific activity of $$^{90}$$Sr in the dentin tissue was higher than that in the enamel tissue. The result shows change of $$^{90}$$Sr incorporation in cattle even within a tooth. Concentrations of stable Sr and Cs were 94 ppm and 3 ppb. Distributions of stable Sr and Cs were uniform in the otolith of fish. If distribution of $$^{90}$$Sr and $$^{137}$$Cs in the otolith was measured, change of $$^{90}$$Sr and $$^{137}$$Cs incorporation into the fish would be found. These findings suggest that distribution patterns of $$^{90}$$Sr and $$^{137}$$Cs in the environment could be estimated from distribution of the radionuclides in the tooth and otolith.

Oral presentation

Strontium-90 measurement in trace amount of hard tissues for distribution analysis

Koarai, Kazuma; Matsueda, Makoto; Aoki, Jo; Yanagisawa, Kayo*; Fujiwara, Kenso; Terashima, Motoki; Kino, Yasushi*; Oka, Toshitaka; Okutsu, Kenichi*; Yamashita, Takuma*; et al.

no journal, , 

We demonstrated a method of $$^{90}$$Sr measurement in small pieces of hard tissues with radioactivity measurement or ICP-MS measurement. Interference elements of the measurements were removed by chemical separation. We could determine $$^{90}$$Sr in 0.1 g of hard tissues by radioactivity measurement method and ICP-MS method. Limit of detection of the ICP-MS method was lower than that of the radioactivity measurement. The ICP-MS method is adequate method for distribution analysis of $$^{90}$$Sr in the hard tissues.

Oral presentation

Sample preparation procedure for ESR dosimetry using teeth of wild animal

Oka, Toshitaka; Mitsuyasu, Yusuke*; Takahashi, Atsushi*; Koarai, Kazuma; Kino, Yasushi*; Sekine, Tsutomu*; Okutsu, Kenichi*; Yamashita, Takuma*; Shimizu, Yoshinaka*; Chiba, Mirei*; et al.

no journal, , 

Releases of the radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident result in a low dose exposure to wild animals. The external dose of wild animals is commonly estimated by the external dose rate of the captured point, but the estimated exposure dose has huge uncertainties because the size of the habitat and/or the movement of the wild animals are not included in the estimation. To estimate the external dose precisely, we utilize electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry. In this work, we investigated the sample preparation procedure of wild animals. The ESR spectrum of enamel of racoon captured in Namie-town, Fukushima has a broad ESR signal due to metal components. The linear relationship between the Co$$_{2}$$ intensity and the absorbed dose that we can apply ESR dosimetry for racoon teeth. Using this relationship, the external exposure dose was estimated.

Oral presentation

Change in gel fraction of polyethylene after irradiation; Evaluation by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

Kitada, Naoya*; Oka, Toshitaka; Okutsu, Kenichi*; Yamashita, Takuma*; Kino, Yasushi*; Sekine, Tsutomu*

no journal, , 

Polyethylene (PE) is widely used for insulators in nuclear power plants and accelerators. During long-term usage, since PE is subjected to radiation environments, and is degraded by oxidation. To evaluate the degradation of PE, destructive measurement such as gel fraction measurement and tensite test, are usually utilized. In this work, we attempted to evaluate the degradation undestructively by using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. We found out the relationship between the ratio of the positrons annihilation in the free volume hole and the gel fraction (corresponds with the cross-linking of the polymer matrix).

Oral presentation

Time evolution calculation of muon catalyzed fusion by the Runge-Kutta method

Yamashita, Takuma*; Okutsu, Kenichi*; Kino, Yasushi*; Nakashima, Ryota*; Miyashita, Konan*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Okada, Shinji*; Sato, Motoyasu*; Oka, Toshitaka; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; et al.

no journal, , 

A muon ($$mu$$) having 207 times larger mass of electron and the same charge as the electron has been known to catalyze a nuclear fusion ($$mu$$CF) between deuteron (d) and triton (t). In this work, we have solved simultaneous reaction rate equations by the 4th-order Runge-Kutta method for the jointed $$mu$$CF cycles in the two layers (H$$_{2}$$/D$$_{2}$$ and D$$_{2}$$/T$$_{2}$$). The T$$_{2}$$ concentration to maximize the intensities of fusion neutrons and muons emitted to the vacuum will be discussed.

Oral presentation

Detection of neutron detection of dd-$$mu$$CF experiment at J-PARC MLF

Natori, Hiroaki*; Doiuchi, Shogo*; Ishida, Katsuhiko*; Kino, Yasushi*; Miyake, Yasuhiro*; Miyashita, Konan*; Nakashima, Ryota*; Nagatani, Yukinori*; Nishimura, Shoichiro*; Oka, Toshitaka; et al.

no journal, , 

A muonic molecule which consists of muon and two hydrogen isotope nuclei (deuteron (d) or tritium (t)) decays immediately via nuclear fusion ($$mu$$CF) and the muon will be released as a recycling muon. We attempted to use these muons to develop the scanning muon microscope. In this work, we will report the detection of neutron which emits during the $$mu$$CF reaction.

Oral presentation

Observation of released muon after intramolecular nuclear reaction, 1; Development of detection method using muonic X-ray

Okutsu, Kenichi*; Kino, Yasushi*; Nakashima, Ryota*; Miyashita, Konan*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Yamashita, Takuma*; Okada, Shinji*; Sato, Motoyasu*; Oka, Toshitaka; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; et al.

no journal, , 

Muon catalized fusion ($$mu$$CF) is expected to be a high-quality muon beam source for undestructive measurement and a monoenergetic neutron source. In this work, we attemped to observe a released muon after intermolecular nuclear reaction using muonic X-ray.

Oral presentation

Observation of released muon using muonic X-ray in dd-$$mu$$CF experiment at J-PARC MLF

Okutsu, Kenichi*; Kino, Yasushi*; Nakashima, Ryota*; Miyashita, Konan*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Yamashita, Takuma*; Okada, Shinji*; Sato, Motoyasu*; Oka, Toshitaka; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; et al.

no journal, , 

Muon catalized fusion ($$mu$$CF) is expected to be a high-quality muon beam source for undestructive measurement and a monoenergetic neutron source. In this work, we discussed how to observe a kinetic energy distribution of a recycling muon emitted after $$mu$$CF reaction.

Oral presentation

Observation of released muon after intermolecular nuclear reaction, 2; Transport simulation of particles

Miyashita, Konan*; Okutsu, Kenichi*; Kino, Yasushi*; Nakashima, Ryota*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Yamashita, Takuma*; Okada, Shinji*; Sato, Motoyasu*; Oka, Toshitaka; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; et al.

no journal, , 

To observe a kinetic energy distribution of a recycling muon emitted after $$mu$$CF reaction, it is necessary to guide the recycling muons to a detector. In this work, we simulated the muon transportation using PHITS code and designed an experimental system.

Oral presentation

Observation of released muon after intramolecular nuclear reaction, 3; Electric field design

Nakashima, Ryota*; Okutsu, Kenichi*; Kino, Yasushi*; Miyashita, Konan*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Yamashita, Takuma*; Okada, Shinji*; Sato, Motoyasu*; Oka, Toshitaka; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; et al.

no journal, , 

The recycling muon emitted after the muon catalized fusion ($$mu$$CF) has a kinetic energy between a few keV to 10 keV. To observed the kinetic energy distribution of the recycling muon, we have to guide and inject muons to Ti foil, and measure the muonic X-ray. In this work, we utilized SIMION code to calculate the electric field and the trajectory of muons from deuteron target to Ti foil.

Oral presentation

Numerical simulation and design for momentum distribution measurement of muon released from muon-catalyzed fusion

Miyashita, Konan*; Okutsu, Kenichi*; Kino, Yasushi*; Nakashima, Ryota*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Yamashita, Takuma*; Okada, Shinji*; Sato, Motoyasu*; Oka, Toshitaka; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; et al.

no journal, , 

To measure the kinetic energy of a recycling muon, we discussed how to reduce the background radiation and the trajectory of the transported recycling muons by simulation code.

Oral presentation

Particle transport simulation of kinetic energy selection and detection of muon after muon catalyzed fusion reaction

Nakashima, Ryota*; Okutsu, Kenichi*; Kino, Yasushi*; Miyashita, Konan*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Yamashita, Takuma*; Okada, Shinji*; Sato, Motoyasu*; Oka, Toshitaka; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; et al.

no journal, , 

To detect a recycling muon emitted after muon catalyzed fusion reaction, it is necessary to guide the recycling muons from the target to a detector in a low background area. In this work, we simulated the muon transportation using SIMONS and PHITS codes and designed an experimental system.

Oral presentation

Development of muon detecting system for revealing muon catalyzed fusion elementary processes

Okutsu, Kenichi*; Kino, Yasushi*; Nakashima, Ryota*; Miyashita, Konan*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Yamashita, Takuma*; Okada, Shinji*; Sato, Motoyasu*; Oka, Toshitaka; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; et al.

no journal, , 

A muon is one of elementary particles which is known to weight 207 times more than an electron. A nuclear fusion reaction occurs in a muonic molecule which consists of two hydrogen isotope nuclei and a muon because the muon binds more tightly than electron. Since the muon does not directly participate in the fusion reaction, the reaction is called muon catalyzed fusion ($$mu$$CF). The muon released after the reaction is called a "recycling muon", and maintains the molecular orbital information when the muonic molecule formed. Therefore, information of the muon wavefunction can be investigated by observing the energy distribution of the recycling muon. We will report the experimental setup for measuring the energy distribution of the recycling muons after the nuclear reaction.

Oral presentation

Dose estimation for animals exposed low dose using their teeth

Mitsuyasu, Yusuke*; Oka, Toshitaka; Takahashi, Atsushi*; Koarai, Kazuma; Kino, Yasushi*; Okutsu, Kenichi*; Sekine, Tsutomu*; Yamashita, Takuma*; Shimizu, Yoshinaka*; Chiba, Mirei*; et al.

no journal, , 

The improvement of the ESR dosimetry is required to apply that for the low-dose exposure of wild animals. We will report our progress of the improvement, and compare the external exposure dose estimated by the ESR dosimetry technique and the calculated result based on the external exposure dose rate of the captured point.

Oral presentation

Solid hydrogen target for muon catalyzed fusion elementary process measurement

Okutsu, Kenichi*; Kino, Yasushi*; Nakashima, Ryota*; Miyashita, Konan*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Yamashita, Takuma*; Okada, Shinji*; Sato, Motoyasu*; Oka, Toshitaka; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; et al.

no journal, , 

Muon catalyzed fusion ($$mu$$CF) is a cyclic reaction where a negatively charged muon itself acts like a catalyst of nuclear fusion between hydrogen isotopes, such as $$mathrm{dd}mu rightarrow {}^{3}mathrm{He} + mathrm{n} + mu + 3.27~mathrm{MeV}$$ or $$mathrm{t} + mathrm{p} + mu + 4.03~mathrm{MeV}$$. In this work, we have investigated the shape and characteristic of solid hydrogen isotope target.

Oral presentation

External exposure dose estimation using ESR dosimetry technique

Oka, Toshitaka; Takahashi, Atsushi*; Mitsuyasu, Yusuke*; Koarai, Kazuma; Kino, Yasushi*; Okutsu, Kenichi*; Yamashita, Takuma*; Sekine, Tsutomu*; Shimizu, Yoshinaka*; Chiba, Mirei*; et al.

no journal, , 

Electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry technique is a powerful tool that has been used in the study of external exposure dose assessment of human by measuring CO$$_{2}$$ radicals of teeth. In this work, we applied this technique for wild monkey and wild racoon captured in Fukushima prefecture, and estimated the external exposure dose.

Oral presentation

Background reduction for detection of regenerated muons after muon-catalyzed fusion; Instrument design by numerical simulation

Miyashita, Konan*; Okutsu, Kenichi*; Kino, Yasushi*; Nakashima, Ryota*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Yamashita, Takuma*; Okada, Shinji*; Sato, Motoyasu*; Oka, Toshitaka; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; et al.

no journal, , 

Muon catalyzed fusion ($$mu$$CF) is a cyclic reaction where a negatively charged muon itself acts like a catalyst of nuclear fusion between hydrogen isotopes. In this work, we have designed the shape of the thermal shield to reduce the background noise.

Oral presentation

The Transport efficiency of charged particles by the electrostatic field created by the core electrodes in the transport tube

Nakashima, Ryota*; Okutsu, Kenichi*; Kino, Yasushi*; Miyashita, Konan*; Yasuda, Kazuhiro*; Yamashita, Takuma*; Okada, Shinji*; Sato, Motoyasu*; Oka, Toshitaka; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; et al.

no journal, , 

We are developing an experimental system to measure the kinetic energy distribution of regenerated muons emitted after muon catalytic nuclear reactions. The trajectory of the regenerated muon emitted from a solid hydrogen target, and the transport efficiency of the regenerated muon and its dependence on the emitted position are calculated/discussed using SIMION code.

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