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Journal Articles

How to build a system to automate labor-intensive experiments

Osawa, Takahito

Kenkyu Kaihatsu Reda, 20(8), p.7 - 11, 2023/11

This review outlines technical methodologies for automating labor-intensive experiments, especially wet separation experiments.

Journal Articles

Non-destructive elemental analysis of lunar meteorites using a negative muon beam

Chiu, I.-H. ; Terada, Kentaro*; Osawa, Takahito; Park, C.*; Takeshita, Soshi*; Miyake, Yasuhiro*; Ninomiya, Kazuhiko*

Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 58(9), p.1333 - 1344, 2023/09

Journal Articles

Automated decompression filtration system

Osawa, Takahito

Keisoku Gijutsu, 51(6), p.21 - 26, 2023/05

Decompression filtration is a common operation in wet chemistry, and the method using a filtration bell is often used. The author has been developing a fully automated system for wet separation operations, and has developed an automatic decompression filtration device exclusively for robots. In addition, the specifications of this device were changed so that it can be operated by human operators, and it was commercialized.

Journal Articles

Development of nondestructive elemental analysis system for Hayabusa2 samples using muonic X-rays

Osawa, Takahito; Nagasawa, Shunsaku*; Ninomiya, Kazuhiko*; Takahashi, Tadayuki*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; Wada, Taiga*; Taniguchi, Akihiro*; Umegaki, Izumi*; Kubo, Kenya*; Terada, Kentaro*; et al.

ACS Earth and Space Chemistry (Internet), 7(4), p.699 - 711, 2023/04

The concentrations of carbon and other major elements in asteroid samples provide very important information on the birth of life on the Earth and the solar-system evolution. Elemental analysis using muonic X-rays is one of the best analytical methods to determine the elemental composition of solid materials, and notably, is the only method to determine the concentration of light elements in bulk samples in a non-destructive manner. We developed a new analysis system using muonic X-rays to measure the concentrations of carbon and other major elements in precious and expectedly tiny samples recovered from the asteroid Ryugu by spacecraft Hayabusa2. Here we report the development process of the system in 4 stages and their system configurations, The analysis system is composed of a stainless-steel analysis chamber, an acrylic glove box for manipulating asteroid samples in a clean environment, and Ge semiconductor detectors arranged to surround the analysis chamber. The performance of the analysis system, including the background level, which is crucial for the measurement, was greatly improved from the first stage to the later ones. Our feasibility study showed that the latest model of our muonic X-ray analysis system is capable of determining the carbon concentration in Hayabusa2's sample model with an uncertainty of less than 10 percent in a 6-day measurement.

Journal Articles

What is neutron-induced prompt gamma-ray analysis?

Osawa, Takahito

Hoshaka Bunseki, (34), p.34 - 50, 2023/04

This paper describes the nomenclature, principles, advantages and disadvantages of prompt gamma-ray analysis, the configuration of the PGA installed in JRR-3, what kind of analysis can be performed with the PGA, and how to use the PGA, respectively.

Journal Articles

Non-destructive elemental analysis of lunar materials with negative muon beam at J-PARC

Chiu, I.-H. ; Terada, Kentaro*; Osawa, Takahito; Park, C.*; Takeshita, Soshi*; Miyake, Yasuhiro*; Ninomiya, Kazuhiko*

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 2462, p.012004_1 - 012004_6, 2023/03

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.2

In the last decade, non-destructive elemental analysis using negative muon beams advanced significantly. This method can be used to determine the elemental composition of bulk materials without causing damage. In this study, we performed a negative muon irradiation experiment for a Northwest Africa 482 lunar meteorite (NWA482), which was installed in a stainless steel analysis chamber. The analysis chamber was filled with helium gas to suppress the background signals caused by air-scattering muons. The muonic X-rays from Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Si, and O in the samples were detected using six high-purity germanium semiconductor detectors arranged around the analysis chamber. To correct the X-ray self-absorption effect of the samples, a Monte-Carlo simulation using Geant4 toolkit was used. Based on the quantitative analysis for muonic X-ray measurement with the correction application from the simulation, we successfully investigated the analytical sensitivity of each element in meteorites based on the NWA482 data.

Journal Articles

Formation and evolution of carbonaceous asteroid Ryugu; Direct evidence from returned samples

Nakamura, Tomoki*; Osawa, Takahito; 219 of others*

Science, 379(6634), p.eabn8671_1 - eabn8671_14, 2023/02

 Times Cited Count:44 Percentile:99.99(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Mineralogical, petrological, and physical properties of sixteen Ryugu particles measuring 1-8 mm indicate that they are most similar to CI chondrites. The presence of CO$$_{2}$$-bearing water in pyrrhotite indicates that the original parent asteroid formed beyond the H$$_{2}$$O and CO$$_{2}$$ snow lines in the solar nebula, where, based on Ryugu mineralogy, very limited amounts of high-temperature objects including small chondrules and Ca, Al-rich inclusions were present. Fluid-rock reactions occurred at low-temperature, high pH, and reducing conditions at water/rock mass ratios smaller than 1 and changed an olivine-pyroxene rich lithology, remaining as the least-altered fragments in Ryugu samples, into phyllosilicate-carbonate rich lithologies, the predominant material of Ryugu samples. The solar nebula might have been still present when magnetite crystallized from the fluid in Ryugu's parent body.

Journal Articles

In-operando lithium-ion transport tracking in an all-solid-state battery

Kobayashi, Takane*; Onishi, Tsuyoshi*; Osawa, Takahito; Pratt, A.*; Tear, S.*; Shimoda, Susumu*; Baba, Hidetada*; Laitinen, M.*; Sajavaara, T.*

Small, 18(46), p.2204455_1 - 2204455_9, 2022/11

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:20.89(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

An all-solid-state battery is a secondary battery that is charged and discharged by the transport of lithium ions between positive and negative electrodes. To fully realize the significant benefits of this battery technology, for example, higher energy densities, faster charging times, safer operation, it will be essential to understand how lithium ions are transported and distributed in the battery during operation. However, as the third lightest element, methods for quantitatively analyzing lithium during operation of an all-solid-state device are limited such that real time tracking of lithium transport has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we report that the transport of lithium ions in an all-solid-state half-cell was quantitatively tracked in near real time by utilizing a thermal neutron-induced nuclear reaction, utilizing lithium-6 as a tracer, and utilizing a high-intensity thermal neutron source. Furthermore, it is also mentioned that the migration mechanism and migration region of lithium ions in the solid electrolyte used could be determined by tracking the transport of lithium ions. From these results, it can be said that the development of all-solid-state batteries has entered a phase where further advances could be carried out while understanding the transport of lithium ions in the batteries. As a result, the research and development of all-solid-state batteries would be further accelerated.

Journal Articles

MIRS: an imaging spectrometer for the MMX mission

Barucci, M. A.*; Reess, J.-M.*; Bernardi, P.*; Doressoundiram, A.*; Fornasier, S.*; Le Du, M.*; Iwata, Takahiro*; Nakagawa, Hiromu*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; Andr$'e$, Y.*; et al.

Earth, Planets and Space (Internet), 73(1), p.211_1 - 211_28, 2021/12

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:74.79(Geosciences, Multidisciplinary)

The MMX InfraRed Spectrometer (MIRS) is an imaging spectrometer on board of MMX JAXA mission. MIRS is built at LESIA-Paris Observatory in collaboration with four other French laboratories, collaboration and financial support of CNES and close collaboration with JAXA and MELCO. The instrument is designed to fully accomplish MMX's scientific and measurement objectives. MIRS will remotely provide near-infrared spectral maps of Phobos and Deimos containing compositional diagnostic spectral features that will be used to analyze the surface composition and to support the sampling site selection. MIRS will also study Mars atmosphere, in particular to spatial and temporal changes such as clouds, dust and water vapor.

Journal Articles

Elemental analysis for asteroid Ryugu samples using muonic X-ray analysis

Osawa, Takahito

Hamon, 31(3), p.117 - 120, 2021/08

Muonic X-ray analysis is an elemental analysis method by detecting characteristic X-rays emitted from muonic atoms and has various advantages, for example, it can detect light elements such as carbon non-destructively. Our research group has been studying to apply this new analytical method to the sample of the asteroid Ryugu brought back by the asteroid explorer Hayabusa2. This paper outlines the research conducted at J-PARC muon facility so far and the preparation status of the experiment on Ryugu samples scheduled to be conducted from June to July 2021. To make this experiment successful, a device with a glove box has been developed that can analyze microsamples in a helium atmosphere, achieving very low background levels.

Journal Articles

Dynamical response of transition-edge sensor microcalorimeters to a pulsed charged-particle beam

Okumura, Takuma*; Azuma, Toshiyuki*; Bennet, D. A.*; Caradonna, P.*; Chiu, I.-H.*; Doriese, W. B.*; Durkin, M. S.*; Fowler, J. W.*; Gard, J. D.*; Hashimoto, Tadashi; et al.

IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 31(5), p.2101704_1 - 2101704_4, 2021/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:12.26(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

A superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter is an ideal X-ray detector for experiments at accelerator facilities because of good energy resolution and high efficiency. To study the performance of the TES detector with a high-intensity pulsed charged-particle beam, we measured X-ray spectra with a pulsed muon beam at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) in Japan. We found substantial temporal shifts of the X-ray energy correlated with the arrival time of the pulsed muon beam, which was reasonably explained by pulse pileup due to the incidence of energetic particles from the initial pulsed beam.

Journal Articles

Deexcitation dynamics of muonic atoms revealed by high-precision spectroscopy of electronic $$K$$ X rays

Okumura, Takuma*; Azuma, Toshiyuki*; Bennet, D. A.*; Caradonna, P.*; Chiu, I. H.*; Doriese, W. B.*; Durkin, M. S.*; Fowler, J. W.*; Gard, J. D.*; Hashimoto, Tadashi; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 127(5), p.053001_1 - 053001_7, 2021/07

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:77.29(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

We observed electronic $$K$$X rays emitted from muonic iron atoms using a superconducting transition-edge-type sensor microcalorimeter. The energy resolution of 5.2 eV in FWHM allowed us to observe the asymmetric broad profile of the electronic characteristic $$K$$$$alpha$$ and $$K$$$$beta$$ X rays together with the hypersatellite $$K$$$$alpha$$ X rays around 6 keV. This signature reflects the time-dependent screening of the nuclear charge by the negative muon and the $$L$$-shell electrons, accompanied by electron side-feeding. Assisted by a simulation, this data clearly reveals the electronic $$K$$- and $$L$$-shell hole production and their temporal evolution during the muon cascade process.

Journal Articles

Thermally altered subsurface material of asteroid (162173) Ryugu

Kitazato, Kohei*; Milliken, R. E.*; Iwata, Takahiro*; Abe, Masanao*; Otake, Makiko*; Matsuura, Shuji*; Takagi, Yasuhiko*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; Hiroi, Takahiro*; Matsuoka, Moe*; et al.

Nature Astronomy (Internet), 5(3), p.246 - 250, 2021/03

 Times Cited Count:30 Percentile:97.01(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

Here we report observations of Ryugu's subsurface material by the Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3) on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. Reflectance spectra of excavated material exhibit a hydroxyl (OH) absorption feature that is slightly stronger and peak-shifted compared with that observed for the surface, indicating that space weathering and/or radiative heating have caused subtle spectral changes in the uppermost surface. However, the strength and shape of the OH feature still suggests that the subsurface material experienced heating above 300 $$^{circ}$$C, similar to the surface. In contrast, thermophysical modeling indicates that radiative heating does not increase the temperature above 200 $$^{circ}$$C at the estimated excavation depth of 1 m, even if the semimajor axis is reduced to 0.344 au. This supports the hypothesis that primary thermal alteration occurred due to radiogenic and/or impact heating on Ryugu's parent body.

Journal Articles

Introduction of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis system

Osawa, Takahito

Hamon, 31(1), p.7 - 8, 2021/02

Prompt Gamma-ray activation Analysis system (PGA) installed in JRR-3 is explained.

Journal Articles

Enrichment of chalcophile elements in seawater accompanying the end-Cretaceous impact event

Maruoka, Teruyuki*; Nishio, Yoshiro*; Kogiso, Tetsu*; Suzuki, Katsuhiko*; Osawa, Takahito; Hatsukawa, Yuichi*; Terada, Yasuko*

GSA Bulletin, 132(9-10), p.2055 - 2066, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:14(Geosciences, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Relationship between measurement and humans revealed by the development of the latest automatic analysis system

Osawa, Takahito

Kodomo To Hatsuiku Hattatsu, 17(4), p.245 - 251, 2020/01

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

The Surface composition of asteroid 162173 Ryugu from Hayabusa2 near-infrared spectroscopy

Kitazato, Kohei*; Milliken, R. E.*; Iwata, Takahiro*; Abe, Masanao*; Otake, Makiko*; Matsuura, Shuji*; Arai, Takehiko*; Nakauchi, Yusuke*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; Matsuoka, Moe*; et al.

Science, 364(6437), p.272 - 275, 2019/04

 Times Cited Count:233 Percentile:99.74(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

The near-Earth asteroid 162173 Ryugu, the target of Hayabusa2 sample return mission, is believed to be a primitive carbonaceous object. The Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3) on Hayabusa2 acquired reflectance spectra of Ryugu's surface to provide direct measurements of the surface composition and geological context for the returned samples. A weak, narrow absorption feature centered at 2.72 micron was detected across the entire observed surface, indicating that hydroxyl (OH)-bearing minerals are ubiquitous there. The intensity of the OH feature and low albedo are similar to thermally- and/or shock-metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. There are few variations in the OH-band position, consistent with Ryugu being a compositionally homogeneous rubble-pile object generated from impact fragments of an undifferentiated aqueously altered parent body.

Journal Articles

Prompt $$gamma$$-ray analysis for volcanic rocks by JRR-3 reactor

Osawa, Takahito; Fukuoka, Takaaki*

Gekkan Chikyu, 40(5), p.302 - 309, 2018/05

Contents of boron, chlorine, hydrogen, and water in volcanic rocks provide important information of magma origin. Here we describe the measurement for boron in volcanic rocks using the automatic prompt $$gamma$$-ray analysis system installed in Japan research reactor-3 (JRR-3) at Japan atomic Energy Agency.

Journal Articles

An Evaluation method of reflectance spectra to be obtained by Hayabusa2 Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3) based on laboratory measurements of carbonaceous chondrites

Matsuoka, Moe*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; Osawa, Takahito; Iwata, Takahiro*; Kitazato, Kohei*; Abe, Masanao*; Nakauchi, Yusuke*; Arai, Takehiko*; Komatsu, Mutsumi*; Hiroi, Takahiro*; et al.

Earth, Planets and Space (Internet), 69(1), p.120_1 - 120_12, 2017/12


 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:22.45(Geosciences, Multidisciplinary)

We have conducted ground-based performance evaluation tests of the Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3) onboard Hayabusa2 spacecraft and established a method for evaluating its measured reflectance spectra. Reflectance spectra of nine powdered carbonaceous chondrite samples were measured by both NIRS3 and a FT-IR spectrometer. Since raw data obtained by NIRS3 had considerable spectral distortion caused by systematic offsets in sensitivity of individual pixels, we have established two methods for correcting the NIRS3 data by comparing them with the corresponding FT-IR data. In order to characterize the absorption bands in NIRS3 spectra, the depth of each band component D$$lambda$$ is defined for each wavelength $$lambda$$ ($$mu$$m). Reflectance spectra of asteroid Ryugu, the target asteroid of Hayabusa2, to be recorded by the NIRS3 are expected to reveal the characteristics of the surface materials by using the evaluation technique.

Journal Articles

Non-destructive elemental analysis of a carbonaceous chondrite with direct current Muon beam at MuSIC

Terada, Kentaro*; Sato, Akira*; Ninomiya, Kazuhiko*; Kawashima, Yoshitaka*; Shimomura, Koichiro*; Yoshida, Go*; Kawai, Yosuke*; Osawa, Takahito; Tachibana, Shogo*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 7(1), p.15478_1 - 15478_6, 2017/11


 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:64.25(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Electron- or X-ray-induced characteristic X-ray analysis has been widely used to determine chemical compositions of materials in vast research fields. In recent years, analysis of characteristic X-rays from muonic atoms, in which a muon is captured, has attracted attention because both a muon beam and a muon-induced characteristic X-ray have high transmission abilities. Here we report the first non-destructive elemental analysis of a carbonaceous chondrite using one of the world-leading intense direct current muon beam source (MuSIC; MUon Science Innovative Channel). We successfully detected characteristic muonic X-rays of Mg, Si, Fe, O, S and C from Jbilet Winselwan CM chondrite, of which carbon content is about 2 wt percent, and the obtained elemental abundance pattern was consistent with that of CM chondrites.

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