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Journal Articles

Experimental evaluation of wall shear stress in a double contraction nozzle using a water mock-up of a liquid Li target for an intense fusion neutron source

Kondo, Hiroo*; Kanemura, Takuji*; Park, C. H.*; Oyaizu, Makoto*; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Furukawa, Tomohiro

Fusion Engineering and Design, 146(Part A), p.285 - 288, 2019/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Herein, the wall shear stress in a double contraction nozzle has been evaluated experimentally to produce a liquid lithium (Li) target as a beam target for intense fusion neutron sources such as the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), the Advanced Fusion Neutron Source (A-FNS), and the DEMO Oriented Neutron Source (DONES). The boundary layer thickness and wall shear stress are essential physical parameters to understand erosion-corrosion by the high-speed liquid Li flow in the nozzle, which is the key component in producing a stable Li target. Therefore, these parameters were experimentally evaluated using an acrylic mock-up of the target assembly. The velocity distribution in the nozzle was measured by a laser-doppler velocimeter and the momentum thickness along the nozzle wall was calculated using an empirical prediction method. The resulting momentum thickness was used to estimate the variation of the wall shear stress along the nozzle wall. Consequently, the wall shear stress was at the maximum in the second convergent section in front of the nozzle exit.

Journal Articles

Direct measurement of nanoscale lithium diffusion in solid battery materials using radioactive tracer of $$^{8}$$Li

Ishiyama, Hironobu*; Jeong, S.-C.*; Watanabe, Yutaka*; Hirayama, Yoshikazu*; Imai, Nobuaki*; Jung, H. S.*; Miyatake, Hiroari*; Oyaizu, Mitsuhiro*; Osa, Akihiko; Otokawa, Yoshinori; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 376, p.379 - 381, 2016/06

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:61.4(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Journal Articles

Deuterium permeation behavior for damaged tungsten by ion implantation

Oya, Yasuhisa*; Li, X.*; Sato, Misaki*; Yuyama, Kenta*; Oyaizu, Makoto; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Okuno, Kenji*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(3), p.402 - 405, 2016/03

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:78.98(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The deuterium (D) permeation behaviors for ion damaged tungsten (W) by 3 keV D$$_{2}$$$$^{+}$$ and 10 keV C$$^{+}$$ were studied. The D permeability was obtained for un-damaged W at various temperatures. For both D$$_{2}$$$$^{+}$$ and C$$^{+}$$ implanted W, the permeability was clearly reduced. But, for the D$$_{2}$$$$^{+}$$ implanted W, the permeability was recovered by heating at 1173 K and it was almost consistent with that for un-damaged W. In the case of C$$^{+}$$ implanted W, the permeability was not recovered even if the sample was heated at 1173 K, indicating that the existence of carbon would prevent the recovery of permeation path in W. In addition, TEM observation showed the voids were grown by heating at 1173 K and not removed, showing the existence of damages would not largely influence on the hydrogen permeation behavior in W in the present study.

Journal Articles

R&D activities of tritium technologies on Broader Approach in Phase 2-2

Isobe, Kanetsugu; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yasunori; Oyaizu, Makoto; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Takumi; Yamada, Masayuki; Edao, Yuki; Kurata, Rie; Hayashi, Takumi; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.1792 - 1795, 2015/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Activities on Broader Approach (BA) were started in 2007 on the basis of the Agreement between the Government of Japan and the EURATOM. The period of BA activities consist of Phase1 and Phase2 dividing into Phase 2-1 (2010-2011), Phase 2-2 (2012-2013) and Phase 2-3 (2014-2016). Tritium technology was chosen as one of important R&D issues to develop DEMO plant. R&D activities of tritium technology on BA consist of four tasks. Task-1 is to prepare and maintain the tritium handling facility in Rokkasho BA site in Japan. Task 2, 3 and 4 are main R&D activities for tritium and these are focused on: Task-2) Development of tritium accountancy technology, Task-3) Development of basic tritium safety research, Task-4) Tritium durability test. R&D activities of tritium technology in Phase 2-2 were underway successfully and closed in 2013.

Journal Articles

Effect of tritium on corrosion behavior of chromium in 0.01N sulfuric acid solution

Oyaizu, Makoto; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Hayashi, Takumi

Fusion Science and Technology, 67(3), p.519 - 522, 2015/04

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:22.25(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The effects of tritiated water on the corrosion behavior of chromium were electrochemically studied by anodic polarization measurements with changing tritium concentration and dissolved oxygen concentration as parameters in the electrolyte of 0.01N sulfuric acid solution, self-passivation due to dissolved oxygen could be observed in pure water without tritium. As a result, it was found that the self-passivation was inhibited in tritiated electrolyte as shown in the previous studies for SUS304 stainless steel. It is indicated from the result that the passivation inhibitory effect for SUS304 stainless steel could be induced by dissolution of chromium in passivation film on SUS304 stainless steel.

Journal Articles

Recent progress on tritium technology research and development for a fusion reactor in Japan Atomic Energy Agency

Hayashi, Takumi; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yasunori; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Yamada, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takumi; Kurata, Rie; Oyaizu, Makoto; Edao, Yuki; et al.

Fusion Science and Technology, 67(2), p.365 - 370, 2015/03

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Nanoscale diffusion tracing by radioactive $$^{8}$$Li tracer

Ishiyama, Hironobu*; Jeong, S.-C.*; Watanabe, Yutaka*; Hirayama, Yoshikazu*; Imai, Nobuaki*; Miyatake, Hiroari*; Oyaizu, Mitsuhiro*; Katayama, Ichiro*; Osa, Akihiko; Otokawa, Yoshinori; et al.

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 53(11), p.110303_1 - 110303_4, 2014/11

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:21.42(Physics, Applied)

Journal Articles

Hydrogen isotope behavior on a water-metal boundary with simultaneous transfer from and to the metal surface

Hayashi, Takumi; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Oya, Yasuhisa*; Okuno, Kenji*; Oyaizu, Makoto; Edao, Yuki; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1520 - 1523, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Tritium confinement is the most important safety issue in the fusion reactor. Tritium behavior on the water metal boundary is very important to design tritium plant with breading blanket system using cooling water. A series of tritium permeation experiment into pressurized water or water vapor jacket with He or Ar have been performed through pure iron piping with/without 7 micro-meter gold plating, which contained about 1 kPa of pure tritium gas at 423 K, with monitoring the chemical forms of tritium. Also, deuterium permeation experiments from heavy water vessel through various metal piping, such as pure iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), stainless steel (SS304), and pure iron with 10 micro-meter gold plating, were performed at 573 K and at 15 MPa. Recently, using the above heavy water system, we have succeeded to detect simultaneous hydrogen isotopes transfer from and to the metal surface by introducing H$$_{2}$$ gas to the metal piping after stabilized deuterium permeation was detected.

Journal Articles

Effects of tritiated water on passivation behavior of SUS304 stainless steel

Oyaizu, Makoto; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

ECS Transactions, 50(50), p.63 - 69, 2013/00

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:85.38

The effects of tritiated water on the passivation behavior of SUS304 stainless steel were electrochemically studied by anodic polarization measurements and diachronic measurements of open circuit potential with changing tritium concentration and dissolved oxygen concentration as parameters in the electrolyte of 1N sulfuric acid solution, where the passivation inhibitory effects by tritiated water could be clearly observed. As a result, it was found that the passivation would be proceed with two steps. The effects of tritiated water could be observed in both of two steps; delay in the first step and deceleration in the second step. From these results, it was suggested that the passivation inhibitory effect might be promoted by further oxidation and sequential dissolution of Cr$$^{3+}$$ by radiolysis products.

Journal Articles

Overview of R&D activities on tritium processing and handling technology in JAEA

Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yasunori; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Oyaizu, Makoto; Yamada, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takumi; Hayashi, Takumi

Fusion Engineering and Design, 87(5-6), p.890 - 895, 2012/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:11.68(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In JAEA, the tritium processing and handling technologies have been studied at TPL. The main basic R&D activities in this field are: the tritium processing technology for the blanket recovery system; the tritium behavior in a confinement; and detritiation and decontamination. The R&D for tritium processing and handling technologies to a demonstration reactor (DEMO) are also planned to be carried out in the Broader Approach (BA) program in Japan by JAEA with Japanese universities. The ceramic electrolysis cell has been studied as a tritium processing method for the blanket system. The permeation behavior of tritium through pure iron into the gas containing water vapor has been studied. As for the behavior of high concentration tritium water, it was observed that the formation of the oxidized layer was prevented by the presence of tritium in water. Tritium durability tests were also carried out for the electrolysis cell of the chemical exchange column.

Journal Articles

Hydrogen isotope permeation from cooling water through various metal piping

Hayashi, Takumi; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Oyaizu, Makoto; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Oya, Yasuhisa*; Okuno, Kenji*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 87(7-8), p.1333 - 1337, 2012/08

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:53.66(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In order to investigate the behavior of hydrogen isotope on the water-metal boundary, deuterium permeation experiments from heavy water vessel through various metal piping, such as pure iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), stainless steel (SS304), and pure iron with 10 $$mu$$m gold plating, were performed at 573 K and at 15 MPa. During the experiment, surfaces of metal piping except gold plating one were oxidized at the heavy water boundary and then deuterium would generate by the oxidation reactions. This deuterium could be detected by mass spectrometer, which monitored the inside gases of the piping under vacuum. The result showed clearly that the deuterium permeated through Fe, Ni, and SS304 piping was detected as deuterium gas (D$$_{2}$$) under vacuum, though that through gold plating one could not be detected effectively. The D$$_{2}$$ permeation rate through Fe, Ni, and SS304 piping reached some stabilized value. This paper summarizes the above experimental results and discusses the mechanism of deuterium behavior on the water metal boundary.

Journal Articles

Effects of tritiated water on corrosion behavior of SUS304

Oyaizu, Makoto; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

Fusion Science and Technology, 60(4), p.1515 - 1518, 2011/11

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:28.8(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The effects of tritiated water on the corrosion behavior of SUS304 stainless steel was studied using Tafel extrapolation method, one of electrochemical techniques with changing tritium concentration, dissolved oxygen concentration and pH in electrolyte as parameters. It was indicated that there would be two or more effects of tritium that enhance the corrosion of SUS304 stainless steel under several experimental conditions. One is passivation inhibitory effect, which could be observed only in highly corrosive circumstance of 1N H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{4}$$ electrolyte. The other effects of tritium on corrosion behavior could be observed not only in 1N H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{4}$$ but also in corrosive circumstance of 1N Na$$_{2}$$SO$$_{4}$$ electrolyte, which would be affected by dissolved oxygen concentration as well as tritium concentration.

Journal Articles

Permeation behavior of tritium through F82H steel

Oyaizu, Makoto; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 417(1-3), p.1143 - 1146, 2011/10

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:42.62(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The tritium permeation behavior through F82H steel from carrier-free tritiated water vapor was investigated and the difference between as-received sample surface and that after the permeation experiments were analyzed by means of SEM, EDX and XRD. As the results, the permeability of tritium through F82H steel from tritiated water vapor is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that from gaseous hydrogen. A thick and porous iron oxide layer composed of hematite and magnetite was formed in the permeation experiments. These results indicate that the oxide layer would hardly work as tritium permeation barrier, and that gaseous hydrogen could be generated by the redox reaction of water on the sample surface. Therefore, it could be considered that the tritium permeation through F82H steel from tritiated water vapor could result from the partial pressure of T$$_{2}$$.

Journal Articles

Hydrogen isotope behavior transferring through water metal boundary

Hayashi, Takumi; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Oyaizu, Makoto; Oya, Yasuhisa*; Okuno, Kenji*; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

Fusion Science and Technology, 60(1), p.369 - 372, 2011/07

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:20.43(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Effect of tritium and dissolved oxygen on anodic polarization of SUS304 stainless steel in sulfuric acid solution

Oyaizu, Makoto; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 48(6), p.880 - 884, 2011/06

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:42.62(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Preliminary study of electrochemical corrosion behavior of F82H steel

Oyaizu, Makoto; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

Toyama Daigaku Suiso Doitai Kagaku Kenkyu Senta Kenkyu Hokoku, 29-30, p.45 - 49, 2010/12

The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the effects of tritium on corrosion behavior of F82H steel by means of electrochemistry, and the cold experiments were performed under highly corrosive circumstance of 5w% H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{4}$$/H$$_{2}$$O as a preliminary study. For the experiments, Tafel sweep and anodic polarization measurements were performed. As the results, the corrosion rate of F82H steel in the present circumstance could be estimated as 10 cm/year, which is 3 orders of magnitude larger than that of SUS304. In the anodic polarization curve, the regions of passivation, passive layer sustention, and over-passivation could be observed as well as SUS304. However, the ratio of the quantum of electricity for passivation of F82H/SUS304 was approximately 1000. Therefore, it was indicated that the corrosion rate of F82H would be much higher than that of SUS304, while further cold experiments especially under less corrosive circumstance should be performed.

Journal Articles

Function of water molecule for tritium behavior on the water-metal boundary

Hayashi, Takumi; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Oyaizu, Makoto; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Ishikawa, Hirotada*; Oya, Yasuhisa*; Okuno, Kenji*

Fusion Science and Technology, 56(2), p.836 - 840, 2009/08

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:63.13(Nuclear Science & Technology)

JAEA Reports

Permeation behavior of tritium through F82H stainless steel; Permeation from tritiated water vapor in purge gas for breeder to coolant

Oyaizu, Makoto; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

JAEA-Research 2008-123, 25 Pages, 2009/03

JAEA-Research-2008-123.pdf:2.12MB

For the safety issue of fusion reactors, several studies have been performed to reveal the tritium permeation behavior in F82H, one of low-activation ferritic steels, as a potential structural material of blanket. These studies were performed with the use of pure hydrogen isotope gas for inlet side and vacuum for outlet side, although these in the blanket system are different. Therefore in the present study, it is subjected to reveal the tritium permeation from feed gas composed from tritiated water vapor diluted by helium to purge gas composed from helium, as a simulation of HCSB blanket. The temperature dependence and tritiated water vapor partial pressure dependence experiments were performed. As the results, tritium permeation looked limited by diffusion, it is implied that one or some of the surface reactions could be different, and suggested that the existence of water could result in the formation of oxide layer which have a possibility to work as tritium permeation barrier.

Journal Articles

Dynamics of deuterium implanted in boron coating film for wall conditioning

Nakahata, Toshihiko*; Yoshikawa, Akira*; Oyaizu, Makoto*; Oya, Yasuhisa*; Ishimoto, Yuki*; Kizu, Kaname; Yagyu, Junichi; Ashikawa, Naoko*; Nishimura, Kiyohiko*; Miya, Naoyuki; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 367-370(2), p.1170 - 1174, 2007/08

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:19.85(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Retention and desorption behavior of deuterium implanted into pure boron films has been studied by means of the secondary ion mass spectroscopy. It was found that the factor dominating deuterium desorption was the sample temperature. At stage 1, below 573 K, the desorption of deuterium from B-D-B bond dominated and diffusion was the rate-determining process in this stage. Above 573 K, deuterium was mainly desorbed from B-D bonds, and recombination was the rate-determining process in this stage. The effective molecular recombination rate constant of deuterium trapped as B-D bond was determined by an isothermal annealing experiment.

Journal Articles

Hydrogen isotope retention of JT-60U W-shaped divertor tiles exposed to DD discharges

Shibahara, Takahiro*; Tanabe, Tetsuo*; Hirohata, Yuko*; Oya, Yasuhisa*; Oyaizu, Makoto*; Yoshikawa, Akira*; Onishi, Yoshihiro*; Arai, Takashi; Masaki, Kei; Okuno, Kenji*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 357(1-3), p.115 - 125, 2006/10

 Times Cited Count:20 Percentile:81.23(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

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