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論文

Globular pattern formation of hierarchical ceria nanoarchitectures

青柳 登; 元川 竜平; 奥村 雅彦; 上田 祐生; 斉藤 拓巳*; 西辻 祥太郎*; 田口 富嗣*; 蓬田 匠; 佐崎 元*; 池田 篤史

Communications Chemistry (Internet), 7, p.128_1 - 128_13, 2024/06

Dissipative structures often appear as an unstable counterpart of ordered structures owing to fluctuations that do not form a homogeneous phase. Even a multiphase mixture may simultaneously undergo one chemical reaction near equilibrium and another one that is far from equilibrium. Here, we observed in real-time crystal seed formation and simultaneous nanocrystal aggregation proceeding from tetravalent cerium complexes to ceria nanoparticles in an acidic aqueous solution and investigated the resultant hierarchical nanoarchitecture. The formed particles exhibited two very different size ranges. The hierarchically assembled structures in solutions were ceria colloids, viz. primary core clusters of crystalline ceria and secondary clusters assembled through surface ions. Such self-assembly is widespread in multi-component complex fluids, paradoxically moderating hierarchical reactions. Stability and instability are not only critical but also complementary for co-optimization around the nearby free energy landscape prior to bifurcation.

論文

"Invisible" radioactive cesium atoms revealed; Pollucite inclusion in cesium-rich microparticles (CsMPs) from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

宮崎 加奈子*; 武原 政人*; 蓑毛 健太*; 堀江 憲路*; 竹原 真美*; 山崎 信哉*; 斉藤 拓巳*; 大貫 敏彦*; 高野 公秀; 塩津 弘之; et al.

Journal of Hazardous Materials, 470(15), p.134104_1 - 134104_11, 2024/05

Radioactive Cs contamination has been one of the central issues in Fukushima and other legacy sites; however, atomic-scale characterization of radioactive Cs has never been successful. Here we report, for the first time, the direct imaging of radioactive Cs atoms using high-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy. As inclusions in Cs-rich microparticles, 27-36 wt.% of Cs (as Cs$$_{2}$$O) occurs in a type of zeolite called pollucite. The normalized formula for pollucite are expressed as (Cs,K,Ba)$$_{2.2}$$(Fe$$_{0.84}$$,Zn$$_{0.84}$$,X$$_{0.5}$$)$$_{2.2}$$Si$$_{4.1}$$O$$_{12}$$, (Cs,K,Ba)$$_{1.5}$$(Fe$$_{0.66}$$Zn$$_{0.32}$$X$$_{0.6}$$)$$_{1.6}$$Si$$_{4.6}$$O$$_{12}$$, and (Cs,K,Ba)$$_{1.7}$$(Fe$$_{0.60}$$Zn$$_{0.32}$$X$$_{1.0}$$)$$_{1.9}$$Si$$_{4.4}$$O$$_{12}$$ after normalization with 12 oxygen atoms (X includes other trace cations; Ti, Mn, Rb, Zr, Mo, and Sn). Atomic-resolution image of radioactive Cs atoms are obtained when viewing along the [111] zone axis, a view supported by image simulations using the multi-slice method. The occurrence of pollucite indicates that locally enriched Cs reacted with siliceous substances during meltdowns, presumably through hydrothermal reactions. In case of predominant occurrence of pollucite in debris, incorporation in pollucite structure retards leaching of radioactive Cs. Still, the atomic-resolution imaging of radioactive Cs is an important advance for better understanding the fate of radioactive Cs inside and outside of damaged reactors during severe accidents like Fukushima Daiichi.

論文

Sorption of Cs$$^{+}$$ and Eu$$^{3+}$$ onto coherent and melange-type pre-neogene sedimentary rocks

Hou, L.*; 戸田 賀奈子*; Mei, H.; 青柳 登; 斉藤 拓巳*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 11 Pages, 2024/00

Widely present in Japan's deep subterranean formations, pre-Neogene sedimentary rocks offer an option for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) deep geological disposal due to their favorable properties. However, their barrier properties necessitate further investigation. This research examines the characteristics of pre-Neogene sedimentary rocks, focusing on two rock types: the melange type with a distinct block-in-matrix structure and the sandstone-dominant coherent type. Their ability and mechanism to sorb Cs$$^{+}$$ and Eu$$^{3+}$$ are assessed, and the differences between the two types are compared. The influence of inorganic carbon in groundwater and the role of clay minerals, such as illite, in the sorption of these metal ions, are highlighted. This investigation lays the groundwork for future studies on migration behaviors of radionuclides, essential for ensuring the long-term safety of HLW geological disposal.

論文

Origin of dissolved organic matter in deep groundwater of marine deposits and its implication for metal binding

斉藤 拓巳*; 西 柊作*; 天野 由記; 別部 光里*; 宮川 和也

ACS ES&T Water (Internet), 3(12), p.4103 - 4112, 2023/12

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays important roles for the fate of contaminants and nutrients in the nature. Nevertheless, our understanding on DOM in deep groundwater is limited. This study tackled this issue by intensive groundwater sampling at various depths of an underground research laboratory. The origin and the binding properties of different fluorescent DOM components against Eu(III) were studied by fluorescence emission-excitation-matrices (EEMs) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Four components with distinctive fluorescent properties were obtained by PARAFAC: one marine humic-like component, two terrestrial humic-like components, and one protein-like component. It was revealed that Eu(III) strongly bound to the terrestrial humic-like components but less so to the marine humic-like component. The partial least squares (PLS) regression further revealed the origin and distributions of the components. It was suggested that microbial decomposition of the DOM components, the input of marine humic-like component from sedimentary rocks and mixing of fossil meteoric and sea waters determined their spatial distributions and affinities to Eu(III). These results indicated the dynamic nature of DOM in deep groundwater of marine deposits and provided an important insight to discuss their impacts on the migration of contaminants and nutrient in deep underground environments.

論文

Heterogeneous aggregation of humic acids studied by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering

斉藤 拓巳*; 元川 竜平; 大窪 貴洋*; 三浦 大輔*; 熊田 高之

Environmental Science & Technology, 57(26), p.9802 - 9810, 2023/07

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.00(Engineering, Environmental)

Aggregation of humic acids (HAs) were studied by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering techniques. The combination of these techniques enables us to examine aggregation structures of heterogeneous HA particles. Two HAs with distinctive compositions were examined; a commercial HA (PAHA) and a HA extracted from deep sedimentary groundwater (HHA). While macroscopic coagulation tests showed that these HAs were stable in solutions except for HHA at pH $$<$$ 6, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that they formed aggregates with the sizes exceeding sub-micrometer length scale. The SAXS curves of PAHA remarkably varied with pD, whereas the SANS curves did not. With the help of theoretical fittings, it was revealed that PAHA aggregates consisted of two domains: poorly hydrated cores and well-hydrated proton-rich shells. The cores are (dis)aggregated with pD inside the aggregates of the shell. The SANS and SAXS curves of HHA resemble each other, and their intensities at low q increased with a decrease of pD, indicating the formation of homogeneous aggregates. This study revealed that distinctive aggregation behaviors exist in humic substances with heterogeneous structures like PAHA, which is invaluable for their roles in the fate of contaminants or nutrients in aqueous environments.

論文

Hydration states of europium(III) adsorbed on silicas with nano-sized pores

室田 健人*; 青柳 登; Mei, H.; 斉藤 拓巳*

Applied Geochemistry, 152, p.105620_1 - 105620_11, 2023/05

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:51.18(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

The confinement in small spaces influences the complicated reaction involving water molecules under electrostatic potentials at the solid-liquid interface. It is unclear, in particular, how the hydration state of metal ions adsorbed on the surface changes as a function of the pore size. This study analyzed the adsorption states of europium aqua ions on mesoporous silicas with different pore distributions in comparison with nonporous silica using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The parallel factor analysis was used to differentiate the contribution of different chemical species of Eu(III) to the fluorescence signal and determine the influence of the pore size on each chemical species. The results show that Eu(III) mainly form outer-sphere complexes with silica below pH 6, where Eu(III) adsorption is low. Within nano-sized pores, distortion of the hydration structure and a decrease in the hydration number were suggested in this pH range. As the concentration of the silicate ions derived from the dissolution of silica increases with increasing pH, Eu(III) form the silica/Eu(III) /silicate ternary surface complexes. Within nano-sized pores, the concentration of silicate ions decreases due to the overlap of the electric double layer, which inhibits the formation of the ternary surface complex. Furthermore, at high pH, Eu(III) multinuclear complexes formed only on the mesoporous silica surface. This adsorption behavior specific to nano-sized pores could not be concluded by macroscopic adsorption experiments alone because the amount of Eu$$^{3+}$$ adsorbed per unit surface area did not differ between the mesoporous and nonporous silicas. Consideration of the silicate complexes should be indispensable in future studies on the adsorption of lanthanide ions using mesoporous silica.

論文

Lanthanide and actinide ion complexes containing organic ligands investigated by surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy

平田 早紀子*; 日下 良二; 明地 省吾*; 為国 誠太*; 奥寺 洸介*; 浜田 昇賢*; 坂本 知優*; 本田 匠*; 松下 高輔*; 村松 悟*; et al.

Inorganic Chemistry, 62(1), p.474 - 486, 2023/01

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

A new technique, surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy, was used for the structural investigation of lanthanide (Ln) and actinide (An) complexes containing organic ligands. We synthesized thiol derivatives of organic ligands with coordination sites similar to those of diglycolamide (DGA), Cyanex-272, and $$N,N,N',N'$$-tetrakis(2-pyridinylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine (TPEN), which have been used for separating Ln and An through solvent extraction. These ligands were attached on a gold surface deposited on an Si prism through S-Au covalent bonds; the gold surface enhanced the IR absorption intensity of the ligands. Aqueous solutions of Ln (Eu$$^{3+}$$, Gd$$^{3+}$$, Tb$$^{3+}$$) and An (Am$$^{3+}$$) ions were loaded onto the gold surface to form ion complexes. The IR spectra of the ion complexes were obtained using FT-IR spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflection mode. In this study, we developed a new sample preparation method for SEIRA spectroscopy that enabled us to obtain the IR spectra of the complexes with a small amount of ion solution (5 $$mu$$L). This is a significant advantage for the IR measurement of radiotoxic Am$$^{3+}$$ complexes. In the IR spectra of DGA, the band attributed to C=O stretching vibrations at $$sim$$1630 cm$$^{-1}$$ shifted to a lower wavenumber by $$sim$$20 cm$$^{-1}$$ upon complexation with Ln and An ions. Moreover, the amount of the red-shift was inversely proportional to the extraction equilibrium constant reported in previous studies on solvent extraction. The coordination ability of DGA toward Ln and An ions could be assessed using the band position of the C=O band. The Cyanex-272- and TPEN-like ligands synthesized in this report also showed noticeable SEIRA signals for Ln and An complexes. This study indicates that SEIRA spectroscopy can be used for the structural investigation of ion complexes and provides a microscopic understanding of selective extraction of Ln and An.

論文

High-temperature gaseous reaction of cesium with siliceous thermal insulation; The Potential implication to the provenance of enigmatic Fukushima cesium-bearing material

Rizaal, M.; 中島 邦久; 斉藤 拓巳*; 逢坂 正彦; 岡本 孝司*

ACS Omega (Internet), 7(33), p.29326 - 29336, 2022/08

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:38.23(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Here we report an investigation of the gas-solid reaction between cesium hydroxide (CsOH) and siliceous (calcium silicate) thermal insulation at high temperature, which was postulated as the origin for the formation mechanism of cesium-bearing material emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A developed reaction furnace consisting of two heating compartments was used to study the reaction at temperatures of 873, 973, and 1073 K. Under the influence of hydrogen-steam atmospheric conditions (H$$_{2}$$/H$$_{2}$$O = 0.2), the reaction between cesium hydroxide vapor and solid thermal insulation was confirmed to occur at temperatures of 973 and 1073 K with the formation of dicalcium silicate (Ca$$_{2}$$SiO$$_{4}$$) and cesium aluminum silicate (CsAlSiO$$_{4}$$). Water-dissolution analyses of the reaction products have demonstrated their stability, in particular, the CsAlSiO$$_{4}$$. Constituents similarity of the field-observed cesium-bearing materials near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants with CsAlSiO$$_{4}$$ suggests for the first time that gaseous reaction between CsOH with calcium silicate thermal insulation could be one of the original formation mechanisms of the cesium-bearing materials.

論文

オールジャパンでとりくむ地層処分のいま,6; 処分場閉鎖後の安全評価(その2)

舘 幸男; 斉藤 拓巳*; 桐島 陽*

日本原子力学会誌ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 64(5), p.290 - 295, 2022/05

本稿は、日本原子力学会誌の連載講座「オールジャパンでとりくむ地層処分のいま」の第6回であり、処分場閉鎖後の安全評価(その2)として、実際の地質環境の特徴や処分システムの長期変遷等を考慮した核種移行解析モデル・パラメータ設定に関する研究開発の現状について紹介する。

論文

Volatilization of B$$_{4}$$C control rods in Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors during meltdown; B-Li isotopic signatures in cesium-rich microparticles

笛田 和希*; 高見 龍*; 蓑毛 健太*; 諸岡 和也*; 堀江 憲路*; 竹原 真美*; 山崎 信哉*; 斉藤 拓巳*; 塩津 弘之; 大貫 敏彦*; et al.

Journal of Hazardous Materials, 428, p.128214_1 - 128214_10, 2022/04

 被引用回数:7 パーセンタイル:69.58(Engineering, Environmental)

Boron carbide control rods remain in the fuel debris of the damaged reactors in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, potentially preventing re-criticality; however, the state and stability of the control rods remain unknown. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe analyses have revealed B-Li isotopic signatures in radioactive Cs-rich microparticles (CsMPs) that formed by volatilization and condensation of Si-oxides during the meltdowns. The CsMPs contain 1518-6733 mg kg$$^{-1}$$ of $$^{10+11}$$B and 11.99-1213 mg kg$$^{-1}$$ of Li. The $$^{11}$$B/$$^{10}$$B (4.15-4.21) and $$^{7}$$Li/$$^{6}$$Li (213-406) isotopic ratios are greater than natural abundances ($$sim$$4.05 and $$sim$$12.5, respectively), indicating that $$^{10}$$B(n,$$alpha$$)$$^{7}$$Li reactions occurred in B$$_{4}$$C prior to the meltdowns. The total amount of B released with CsMPs was estimated to be 0.024-62 g, suggesting that essentially all B remains in reactor Units 2 and/or 3 and is enough to prevent re-criticality; however, the heterogeneous distribution of B needs to be considered during decommissioning.

論文

Dispersive XAFS Study on the Laser-Induced Reduction of a Rh$$^{3+}$$ ion complex; Presence of a Rh$$^{+}$$ Intermediate in Direct Photoreduction

佐伯 盛久*; 松村 大樹; 中西 隆造*; 蓬田 匠; 辻 卓也; 齋藤 寛之*; 大場 弘則*

Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 126(12), p.5607 - 5616, 2022/03

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:12.40(Chemistry, Physical)

パルス紫外線レーザー照射によって引き起こされるRh$$^{3+}$$イオン錯体のRh$$^{0}$$種への直接光還元反応機構を、分散型X線吸収微細構造(DXAFS)分光法によって調べた。時間分解X線吸収端近傍構造(XANES)には等吸収点がなく、Rh$$^{3+}$$の直接光還元に2種類以上のRh$$^{n+}$$が寄与することを示した。時間分解XANESデータの特異値解析から、直接光還元には3つのRh$$^{n+}$$種が関与することが示唆された。時間分解XANESデータを、交互最小二乗法による多変量解析(MCR-ALS)により解析したところ、3つのRh$$^{n+}$$種の純粋なスペクトルと濃度プロファイルが得られた。Rh$$^{n+}$$種は、3つのXANESスペクトルの特徴から、Rh$$^{3+}$$, Rh$$^{+}$$, Rh$$^{0}$$種に分類できた。得られた濃度プロファイルから、Rhの直接光還元はRh$$^{3+}$$ $$rightarrow$$ Rh$$^{+}$$ $$rightarrow$$ Rh$$^{0}$$の順で進行することが示唆され、Rh$$^{3+}$$とRh$$^{+}$$の光還元、Rh$$^{3+}$$とRh$$^{+}$$の光による自己触媒的還元、Rh$$^{+}$$の光酸化による反応機構により、3種のRh$$^{n+}$$の濃度プロファイルがよく再現できることが示された。

論文

Uranium (VI) sorption on illite under varying carbonate concentrations; Batch experiments, modeling, and cryogenic time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy study

Mei, H.; 青柳 登; 斉藤 拓巳*; 香西 直文; 杉浦 佑樹; 舘 幸男

Applied Geochemistry, 136, p.105178_1 - 105178_8, 2022/01

 被引用回数:11 パーセンタイル:89.52(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Dissolved inorganic carbonate ions (DIC) present in groundwaters may affect both the aqueous and surface species of U(VI) due to its strong complexation ability with U(VI). However, it is still not clear how DIC affects U(VI) sorption on illite, which is one of the critical components in argillaceous rocks. In this study, the sorption of U(VI) on conditioned illite du Puy in presence of varying DIC concentrations (up to 250 mM DIC) as a function of pH was investigated by combining batch sorption experiments, surface complexation modeling, and the cryogenic time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The distribution coefficients of U(VI) were sensitive to the DIC concentration, which decreased with an increase of DIC. There is no sorption of U(VI) under relatively high DIC concentrations (100 mM DIC). The U(VI) sorption behavior on illite was modeled by using the 2 Site Protolysis Non-Electrostatic Surface Complexation and Cation Exchange model. Two ternary surface complexation reactions with carbonate were needed to depict the experimental sorption data in addition to binary and ternary hydroxo surface complexation reactions employed for the description of U sorption to illite without carbonate. The cryogenic TRLFS revealed that U(VI) did sorb to illite in presence of high DIC concentration (up to 10 mM DIC). The spectra were unchanged with DIC at pH 8.5, suggesting the surface speciation of U(VI) remained the same. The decay curves were biexponential, which further indicated that at least two species were responsible for the sorption. Our finding will help to predict the transport and retention behaviors of U(VI) near radioactive waste repositories.

論文

Stoichiometry between humate unit molecules and metal ions in supramolecular assembly induced by Cu$$^{2+}$$ and Tb$$^{3+}$$ measured by gel electrophoresis techniques

中野 純佳*; 丸茂 和樹*; 風見 綸太郎*; 斉藤 拓巳*; 原賀 智子; 半田 友衣子*; 齋藤 伸吾*

Environmental Science & Technology, 55(22), p.15172 - 15180, 2021/11

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:32.67(Engineering, Environmental)

環境中に存在する不定形有機高分子であるフミン酸(HA)は、環境中の有害重金属イオンや放射性金属イオンと強く錯形成し、超分子集合体を形成することによって、金属イオンの移行挙動に影響を与えている。そのため、土壌や河川の環境評価や放射性廃棄物処分の安全評価において、HAと金属イオンとの超分子化挙動を解明することが重要である。本研究では、環境中に広く存在する金属イオンとしてCu$$^{2+}$$、3価のアクチノイドイオンのモデルとしてTb$$^{3+}$$を対象として、ポリアクリルアミドゲル電気泳動法(PAGE)を基盤とする独自に開発した分析法を用いて、深層地下水由来および泥炭由来のHAと強く錯形成したCu$$^{2+}$$およびTb$$^{3+}$$がHAのどの分子量帯に多く分布しているかを調査した。超分子化したHAをPAGEで分離後、HAと結合していた金属イオンを検出し、さらにUV-Vis測定および励起蛍光マトリクス-平行因子分析を組み合わせることにより、超分子が形成されたHAの分子量帯およびHAと金属イオンとの化学量論比を算出することに成功した。その結果、金属イオンやHAの由来によってそれぞれ異なる超分子化挙動を示すとともに、その原因がHA中の硫黄原子の存在量に関係していることを明らかにした。

論文

Microparticles with diverse sizes and morphologies from mechanical and laser cutting of fuel debris simulants and geopolymer as a covering material

Zhou, Q.*; 斉藤 拓巳*; 鈴木 誠矢; 矢野 公彦; 鈴木 俊一*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(4), p.461 - 472, 2021/04

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:69.63(Nuclear Science & Technology)

During the decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the dismantling of massive fuel debris is important for the defueling process. The production and dispersion of radioactive microparticles highly depends on the cutting technique implemented. Previous studies have been conducted on the development of cutting techniques and the treatment of radioactive particles generation during the cutting process. Besides, adequate understanding of the microparticle products during the cuttings of fuel debris is of vital necessity. Nowadays, geopolymer application is proposed as a covering material during the fuel debris retrieval in order to keep the structural integrity of damaged components. In this study, the microparticle products during mechanical and laser cutting of fuel debris simulants (Hafnium oxide and Tungsten(IV) oxide pellets) and geopolymer material were investigated. The cuttings have been carried out for samples of the simulants, geopolymer, and simulants with geopolymer covering. The generated particles were collected and investigated by laser diffraction particle size analyzer and Scanning Electron Microscope with X-ray spectrometry. Particles with diverse sizes and morphologies were observed from the products of each sample. It also appears that particles with unique sizes and morphologies can generate from the laser cuttings due to the thermal effect of laser cutting.

論文

Application of an augmentation method to MCR-ALS analysis for XAFS and Raman data matrices in the structural change of isopolymolybdates

佐伯 盛久*; 蓬田 匠; 松村 大樹; 斉藤 拓巳*; 中西 隆造*; 辻 卓也; 大場 弘則*

Analytical Sciences, 36(11), p.1371 - 1378, 2020/11

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:9.45(Chemistry, Analytical)

モリブデンイオンMoO$$_{4}$$$$^{2-}$$水溶液に酸を加えると、複数のモリブデン原子が酸素を介して結合したポリモリブデン酸が形成され、さらに酸濃度に応じてポリモリブデン酸の化学形態は大きく変化する。我々は、これまで研究例の少なかった高酸性水溶液中(0.15-4.0M)でのポリモリブデン酸の化学形態を、ラマン分光法およびX線吸収微細構造(XAFS)分光法により調べ、測定したスペクトルを多変量スペクトル分解法(MCR-ALS)により解析した。MCR-ALS解析では実験データ解析により得られるスペクトルの任意性が問題になり、XAFSデータのみの解析ではこれが顕著になるが、XAFSデータとラマンデータを同時にMCR-ALS解析することで、信頼性の高い3成分のXAFSスペクトルを得ることに成功した。構造解析の結果から、硝酸濃度が高くなるにつれポリモリブデン酸の化学種が[Mo$$_{36}$$O$$_{112}$$(H$$_{2}$$O)$$_{16}$$]$$^{2+}$$$$rightarrow $$[Mo$$_{2}$$O$$_{5}$$(H$$_{2}$$O)$$_{6}$$]$$^{2+}$$$$rightarrow $$[HMoO$$_{3}$$(H$$_{2}$$O)$$_{3}$$]$$^{+}$$へと変化する様子を明らかにした。

論文

Investigation of high-temperature chemical interaction of calcium silicate insulation and cesium hydroxide

Rizaal, M.; 中島 邦久; 斉藤 拓巳*; 逢坂 正彦; 岡本 孝司*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(9), p.1062 - 1073, 2020/09

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:69.90(Nuclear Science & Technology)

福島第一原子力発電所2号機においてペデスタル内よりもペデスタル外で線量が高くなっている現象が見つかっている。この線量の上昇については、原子炉格納容器内の配管に使用されている保温材(ケイ酸カルシウム)がガス状あるいは粒子状となって沈着したセシウム(Cs)と化学反応を起こして固着するとともに破損してペデスタル外に堆積することで線量が上昇した可能性があると考えている。そこで、本研究では、化学反応の有無を調べるため、反応温度等を調べることのできる熱重量示差熱分析装置(TG-DTA)を用いて、水素-水蒸気含有雰囲気下、最高1100$$^{circ}$$Cまで温度を上昇させて、主なセシウム化合物の一つである水酸化セシウムと保温材との混合物に対して分析を行った。その結果、575-730$$^{circ}$$Cの範囲で反応が起こり、試験後試料のX線回折パターンや元素分析機能付き走査型電子顕微鏡(SEM/EDS)による試料表面の元素分布の結果から、保温材の構成物質であるケイ素(Si)に加え、不純物として含まれるアルミニウム(Al)と安定な化合物(CsAlSiO$$_{4}$$)を形成することが分かった。したがって、ペデスタル外で見つかった高線量の原因として、保温材が関係する可能性があることが分かった。

論文

Modulation of Dirac electrons in epitaxial Bi$$_2$$Se$$_3$$ ultrathin films on van der Waals ferromagnet Cr$$_2$$Si$$_2$$Te$$_6$$

加藤 剛臣*; 菅原 克明*; 伊東 直洋*; 山内 邦彦*; 佐藤 匠*; 小口 多美夫*; 高橋 隆*; 塩見 雄毅*; 齊藤 英治; 佐藤 宇史*

Physical Review Materials (Internet), 4(8), p.084202_1 - 084202_6, 2020/08

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:19.71(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

We investigated the Dirac-cone state and its modulation when an ultrathin film of topological insulator Bi$$_2$$Se$$_3$$ was epitaxially grown on a van der Waals ferromagnet Cr$$_2$$Si$$_2$$Te$$_6$$ (CST) by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We observed a gapless Dirac-cone surface state in six quintuple-layer (6QL) Bi$$_2$$Se$$_3$$ on CST, whereas the Dirac cone exhibits a gap of 0.37 eV in its 2QL counterpart. Intriguingly, this gap is much larger than those for Bi$$_2$$Se$$_3$$ films on Si(111). We also revealed no discernible change in the gap magnitude across the ferromagnetic transition of CST, suggesting the very small characteristic length and energy scale of the magnetic proximity effect. The present results suggest a crucial role of interfacial coupling for modulating Dirac electrons in topological-insulator hybrids.

論文

Room-temperature adsorption behavior of cesium onto calcium silicate insulation

Rizaal, M.; 斉藤 拓巳*; 岡本 孝司*; Erkan, N.*; 中島 邦久; 逢坂 正彦

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00563_1 - 19-00563_10, 2020/06

福島第一原子力発電所2号機において、一次冷却系の断熱材に使用されているケイ酸カルシウムへのセシウム(Cs)の吸着がペデスタル領域の高線量に影響している可能性が指摘されている。本研究では、高温でのCs吸着挙動評価の前段階として、室温でCsをケイ酸カルシウムに吸着させる試験を行った。吸着速度の解析の結果、基本的な吸着機構は化学吸着であることが示唆された。また、等温における吸着量のCs濃度依存性の評価により、単分子層の形成の後に多分子層が形成することが示唆された。

論文

Advanced gel electrophoresis techniques reveal heterogeneity of humic acids based on molecular weight distributions of kinetically inert Cu$$^{2+}$$-humate complexes

丸茂 和樹*; 松本 篤正*; 中野 純佳*; 渋川 雅美*; 斉藤 拓巳*; 原賀 智子; 齋藤 伸吾*

Environmental Science & Technology, 53(24), p.14507 - 14515, 2019/12

 被引用回数:7 パーセンタイル:28.09(Engineering, Environmental)

フミン酸(HA)は環境中に存在する不定形有機高分子であり、環境中の有害重金属や放射性金属イオンと錯形成し、それらの動態を制御している。そのため、土壌や河川の環境評価や放射性廃棄物処分の安全評価において、HAによる金属イオンの保持挙動を解明することが重要である。本研究では、HAに保持された銅イオンの分子量分布を評価するため、ポリアクリルアミドゲル電気泳動法(PAGE)を基盤とした新規分析法を開発した。本法により、HAに対して高い分離能を有し、かつ泳動場の汚染金属イオンを抑制することが可能となり、HAの分子量に対する精確な金属イオン分布を得ることに成功した。また、PAGE, UV-Vis測定および励起蛍光マトリクス-平行因子分析を組み合わせることにより、HAの分子量,金属イオン分布およびHA蛍光成分分布の相関を評価することにも成功した。本研究により、HA中の金属イオン配位サイトやHA蛍光成分はHAの分子量に対して不均一に分布しており、HAによる金属イオンの保持挙動は金属イオンの電荷や立体配位座によって大きく異なることを明らかにした。

論文

Reduction behaviors of permanganate by microbial cells and concomitant accumulation of divalent cations of Mg$$^{2+}$$, Zn$$^{2}$$+, and Co$$^{2+}$$

加藤 友彰*; Yu, Q.*; 田中 万也; 香西 直文; 斉藤 拓巳*; 大貫 敏彦

Journal of Environmental Sciences, 86, p.78 - 86, 2019/12

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:8.12(Environmental Sciences)

本論文では、水溶液中の過マンガン酸カリウム(Mn(VII))とバクテリア細胞が接触したときのマンガンと共存金属イオンの挙動を検討した。細胞とMn(VII)が背食すると、細胞が破砕されるとともに細胞によりMn(VII)が還元されMn酸化物(バイオマスMn酸化物)として沈殿した。Co$$^{2+}$$イオンが共存した場合、CoはCo$$^{3+}$$に酸化されてMn酸化物中に取り込まれることがわかった。この結果は、過マンガン酸カリウムを廃水等に投入すると微生物の殺菌と金属イオンの除去が同時に起こることを示す。

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