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Journal Articles

Chemical state information of bulk specimens obtained by SEM-based soft-X-ray emission spectrometry

Terauchi, Masami*; Koshiya, Shogo*; Sato, Futami*; Takahashi, Hideyuki*; Handa, Nobuo*; Murano, Takanori*; Koike, Masato; Imazono, Takashi; Koeda, Masaru*; Nagano, Tetsuya*; et al.

Microscopy and Microanalysis, 20(3), p.692 - 697, 2014/06

 Times Cited Count:22 Percentile:86.04(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Electron beam induced soft-X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) by using a grating spectrometer has been introduced to a conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) for characterizing desired specimen areas of bulk materials. The spectrometer was designed as a grazing-incidence flat-field optics by using aberration corrected (varied-line-spacing) gratings and a multi-channel-plate detector combined with a charge-coupled-device camera, which has already applied for a transmission electron microscope. The best resolution was confirmed as 0.13 eV at Mg L-emission (50 eV), which value is comparable to that of recent dedicated electron energy-loss spectroscopy instruments. This SXES-SEM instrument presents density of states of simple metals of bulk Mg and Li. Apparent band structure effects have been observed in Si L-emission of Si-wafer, P L-emission of GaP-wafer, and Al L-emissions of intermetallic compounds of AlCo, AlPd, Al$$_{2}$$Pt, and Al$$_{2}$$Au.

Journal Articles

Construction of a SXES spectrometer for a conventional SEM

Terauchi, Masami*; Koshiya, Shogo*; Sato, Futami*; Takahashi, Hideyuki*; Handa, Nobuo*; Murano, Takanori*; Koike, Masato; Imazono, Takashi; Koeda, Masaru*; Nagano, Tetsuya*; et al.

Microscopy and Microanalysis, 19(Suppl.2), p.1278 - 1279, 2013/08

We have been developed and tested soft-X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) instruments by attaching to TEM and EPMA. The spectrometer has an energy range form 50-4000 eV by using four varied-line-spacing (aberration corrected) gratings. This SXES spectrometer inform us energy states of valence electrons (bonding electrons) form an identified specimen area by electron microscopy, which cannot be obtained by EELS and EDS. This provides not only the probing method for the energy states of valence electrons but also a sensitive tool for elemental and chemical identification. The spectrometer has applied also to a SEM (JEOL JSM-6480LV). As SEM can use a larger probe current and excitation volume of specimen than those of TEM, the detection time is about one order shorter than that of TEM. The energy resolution evaluated at AL-L$$_{3}$$edge is 0.16 eV. The spectrum of LaB$$_{6}$$ shows apparent intensity corresponds to B-K Fermi edge, showing chemical state of boron.

Journal Articles

Evaluations of optical properties of Co based soft X-ray multilayer gratings

Ishino, Masahiko; Koike, Masato; Sato, Futami*; Terauchi, Masami*; Sano, Kazuo*; Sasai, Hiroyuki*

Journal of Applied Physics, 104(7), p.073520_1 - 073520_5, 2008/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Physics, Applied)

The multilayer gratings were fabricated by depositing the Co/Si and Co/SiO$$_{2}$$ multilayers onto the surface of laminar-type holographic gratings having shallow grooves. The structures of multilayer gratings observed by a transmission electron microscope showed the well defined structures without serious defects. The structural property evaluated by comparing the measured and calculated diffraction conditions i.e., incidence and diffraction angles, resulted that the diffraction conditions of multilayer gratings were affected by the refractive indices of multilayer coatings even at the photon energy of 8.05 keV. The measured low diffraction efficiencies for the Co/Si multilayer grating in the photon energy range of 1-2 keV would be attributed to the large inter-diffusion in the Co/Si multilayer coating.

Journal Articles

Thermal stability of Co/SiO$$_{2}$$ multilayers for use in the soft X-ray region

Ishino, Masahiko; Koike, Masato; Kanehira, Mika*; Sato, Futami*; Terauchi, Masami*; Sano, Kazuo*

Journal of Applied Physics, 102(2), p.023513_1 - 023513_5, 2007/07

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:28.01(Physics, Applied)

The heat stability of Co/SiO$$_{2}$$ multilayers was evaluated. Multilayer samples were deposited on Si substrates by means of the ion beam sputtering method and annealed at temperatures from 100-600 $$^{circ}$$C in a vacuum furnace. For the structural and optical evaluations, small angle X-ray diffraction measurements, soft X-ray reflectivity measurement in the 1 keV energy region, and transmission electron microscopy observations were carried out. As the results, the Co/SiO$$_{2}$$ multilayers annealed up to 400 $$^{circ}$$C maintained the initial multilayer structure and kept almost the same X-ray reflectivity as the as-deposited sample. A deterioration of the multilayer structure caused by the growth of Co grains was found on the samples annealed over 500 $$^{circ}$$C, and the soft X-ray reflectivity dropped in accordance with the deterioration of the multilayer structure.

Oral presentation

Developments of Co/SiO$$_{2}$$ multilayer optics

Ishino, Masahiko; Koike, Masato; Kanehira, Mika*; Sato, Futami*; Terauchi, Masami*; Sano, Kazuo*; Heimann, P. A.*; Gullikson, E. M.*

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Development of a SEM-SXES instrument

Terauchi, Masami*; Koshiya, Shogo*; Sato, Futami*; Takahashi, Hideyuki*; Handa, Nobuo*; Murano, Takanori*; Koike, Masato; Imazono, Takashi; Koeda, Masaru*; Nagano, Tetsuya*; et al.

no journal, , 

For the purpose of applying a soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) instrument that was developed for TEM to more variety of materials we had extended the technique compliant with EPMAs, the energy region of 2000-4000 eV, and spectral mapping software. From the point of view of the evolution of analytical techniques to the SXES close to the scene of material development and evaluation, we began testing the device attached to a commercial SEM. A newly developed spectrometer was installed to the WDS port of a SEM (JEOL JSM-6480LV). Detector was used a multi-channel plate (MCP). Compared with TEM probe current and volume of irradiation become larger in SEM. The resultant invites a significant increase of signal and short measuring period. On the other hand, by contamination and bremsstrahlung background has been a problem on the measurement. Performance of the spectrometer is about 0.2 eV energy resolution at the L-edge of aluminum and it is equivalent performance with TEM and EPMA.

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