Matsuya, Yusuke; Kai, Takeshi; Yoshii, Yuji*; Yachi, Yoshie*; Naijo, Shingo*; Date, Hiroyuki*; Sato, Tatsuhiko
Journal of Applied Physics, 126(12), p.124701_1 - 124701_8, 2019/09
Biological effects after ionizing radiation exposure arise from initial DNA strand breaks. DNA damage can be estimated from the simulation with both track structure analysis and diffusion of free radicals; however, the simulation is a time-consuming process. In this study, we present a simple model for estimating yields of strand breaks based only on spatial patterns of inelastic interactions (i.e., ionization and electronic excitation) generated by electrons, which are evaluated by PHITS code without considering the production and diffusion of free radicals. In this model, the number of events per track and that of the two events pair within 3.4 nm (corresponding to 10 base pair) were stochastically sampled for calculating SSB and DSB yields, respectively. The calculated results agreed well with other simulations and experimental data on DSB yield and yield ratio of DSB/SSB for the exposure to mono-energetic electrons. The present model also can demonstrate the relative biological effectiveness at the DSB endpoint for various photon exposures. This study indicated that the spatial pattern of inelastic events composed of ionization and electronic excitation is sufficient to obtain the impact of electrons on initial induction to DNA strand break.
Sato, Yuki; Terasaka, Yuta; Utsugi, Wataru*; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki*; Kiyooka, Hideo*; Torii, Tatsuo
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(9-10), p.801 - 808, 2019/09
Yamashiki, Yosuke*; Maehara, Hiroyuki*; Airapetian, V.*; Notsu, Yuta*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Notsu, Shota*; Kuroki, Ryusuke*; Murashima, Keiya*; Sato, Hiroaki*; Namekata, Kosuke*; et al.
Astrophysical Journal, 881(2), p.114_1 - 114_24, 2019/08
The impact of Stellar flares on extrasolar planetary systems has been discussed and argued, especially whether there is a potential impact on their life systems. Here, we propose a comprehensive evaluation system for stellar flares, focusing on Stellar Proton Events (SPE) on selected extrasolar planets with hypothetical atmospheres and oceans. This is done by cross-linking KIC flare-observed and flare-estimated stars by their start pots that are directly linked with the Monte Carlo simulation system PHITS through the exoplanetary database system ExoKyoto. The estimated dose at ground level for each planetary surface did not exceed the critical dose for complex animals.
Machida, Akihiko*; Saito, Hiroyuki*; Hattori, Takanori; Sano, Asami; Funakoshi, Kenichi*; Sato, Toyoto*; Orimo, Shinichi*; Aoki, Katsutoshi*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 9(1), p.12290_1 - 12290_9, 2019/08
Hexagonal close-packed iron hydride, hcp FeHx, is absent from the conventional phase diagram of the Fe-H system, although hcp metallic Fe exists stably over extensive temperature () and pressure () conditions, including those corresponding to the Earth's inner core. X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements at temperatures ranging from 298 to 1073 K and H pressures ranging from 4 to 7 GPa revealed that the hcp hydride was formed for FeH compositions when . Hydrogen atoms occupied the octahedral interstitial sites of the host metal lattice both partially and randomly. The hcp hydride exhibited a H-induced volume expansion of 2.48(5) /H-atom, which was larger than that of the face-centered cubic (fcc) hydride. The hcp hydride showed an increase in with , whereas the fcc hydride showed a corresponding decrease. The present study provides guidance for further investigations of the Fe-H system over an extensive -- region.
Matsuya, Yusuke; McMahon, S. J.*; Ghita, M.*; Yoshii, Yuji*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Date, Hiroyuki*; Prise, K. M.*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 9(1), p.9483_1 - 9483_12, 2019/07
In radiotherapy, intensity modulated radiation fields and complex dose-delivery are used to prescribe doses to tumors. Here, we analyzed the impact of modulated field on radio-sensitivity and cell recovery during irradiation time. The dose was delivered to either 50% of the area of the flask containing cells (half-field) or 100% of the flask (uniform-field). We also modelled cell-killing considering dose-rate effects and intercellular signals. It is found that (i) in-field cell survival under half-field exposure is higher than uniform-field exposure even with the same dose; (ii) the importance of sub-lethal damage repair in normal human skin fibroblast cells under the half-field is reduced; (iii) the increase of cell survival under half-field is predominantly attributed to not rescue effects (increased repair) but protective effects (reduced initial DNA lesion yield). These findings provide new understanding of radio-sensitivity for hit and non-hit cells under non-uniform exposure.
Matsuya, Yusuke; Satou, Yukihiko; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Date, Hiroyuki*; Ishikawa, Masayori*; Sato, Tatsuhiko
Scientific Reports (Internet), 9(1), p.10365_1 - 10365_9, 2019/07
Insoluble radioactive microparticles (so called Cs-bearing particles) have been assumed to adhere in the long term to trachea after aspirated into respiratory system, leading to heterogeneous dose distribution within healthy tissue around the particles. The biological effects posed by such a particle remain unclear. Here, we show cumulative DNA damage in cultured cells proximal and distal to the particle under localized chronic exposure in comparison with uniform exposure. We placed the particle-contained microcapillary onto a glass-base dish containing normal human lung cells in vitro, and observed a significant change in nuclear -H2AX foci after 24 h or 48 h exposure to the particle. The dose calculation by a Monte Carlo simulation and the comparison with nuclear foci under uniform exposure suggested that the localized exposure to a Cs-bearing particle leads to not only signal-induced DNA damage to distal cells but also the reduction of DNA damage induction yield to proximal cells (protective effects). Considering the small organ dose, the conventional radiation risk assessment is adequate. This study is the first to quantify the spatial distribution of cumulative DNA lesions under heterogeneous exposure by insoluble Cs-bearing particles.
Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi
Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2019/05
To establish a probabilistic approach for assessment of toxic gas leakage accidents in a H plant, the present study focusses on development of an uncertainty analysis method for toxic gas concentration in a control room. The method consists of 6 steps; (1) Identification of uncertainty factors, (2) derivation of variable parameters, (3) identification of uncertainties in variable parameters, (4) identification of important factors considering the sensitivity analysis results and expert opinions, (5) uncertainty propagation analysis, (6) assessment of uncertainty analysis results. The method is then applied to representative toxic gas leakage accidents in a H plant by IS process coupled to the HTTR. The results obtained in the study leads us to the conclusion that the suggested method can successfully characterize and quantify uncertainties in the toxic gas concentration in control room.
Sato, Hiroyuki; Yan, X.
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 343, p.178 - 186, 2019/03
A hybrid system combining HTGR and renewable energy is investigated to compensate intermittent renewable energy power generation. A new proposal of using the inventory and bypass control devices already built in the gas turbine, is found to be effective to compensate hourly to daily variation of renewable energy. The reactor thermal power remains at constant full power while the heat output is increased or decreased subject to the need of reactor power generation. On the other hand, the massive heat capacity in the graphite core is shown to be sufficient to compensate renewable energy on a time scale of seconds to minutes and up to about 20% of the rated power output of the nuclear plant. Similarly, no additional control devices are required to perform this control operation. These findings demonstrate the technical and economic potential of the HTGR system to maintain the stability of a grid being incorporated with significant portfolios of renewable energy power generation.
Ekawa, Hiroyuki; Ashikaga, Sakiko; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Hashimoto, Tadashi; Hayakawa, Shuhei; Hosomi, Kenji; Ichikawa, Yudai; Imai, Kenichi; Kinbara, Shinji*; Nanamura, Takuya; et al.
Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Internet), 2019(2), p.021D02_1 - 021D02_11, 2019/02
Hatsukawa, Yuichi*; Hayakawa, Takehito*; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki*; Sato, Tetsuya; Asai, Masato; Toyoshima, Atsushi; Tanimori, Toru*; Sonoda, Shinya*; Kabuki, Shigeto*; et al.
PLOS ONE (Internet), 13(12), p.e0208909_1 - e0208909_12, 2018/12
Imaging of Tc radioisotope was conducted using an electron tracking-Compton camera (ETCC). Tc emits 204, 582, and 835 keV rays, and was produced in the Mo(p,n)Tc reaction with a Mo-enriched target. The recycling of the Mo-enriched molybdenum trioxide was investigated, and the recycled yield of Mo was achieved to be 70% - 90%. The images were obtained with each of the three rays. Results showed that the spatial resolution increases with increasing -ray energy, and suggested that the ETCC with high-energy -ray emitters such as Tc is useful for the medical imaging of deep tissue and organs in the human body.
Sato, Tetsuya; Asai, Masato; Borschevsky, A.*; Beerwerth, R.*; Kaneya, Yusuke*; Makii, Hiroyuki; Mitsukai, Akina*; Nagame, Yuichiro; Osa, Akihiko; Toyoshima, Atsushi; et al.
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 140(44), p.14609 - 14613, 2018/11
The first ionization potential (IP) yields information on valence electronic structure of an atom. IP values of heavy actinides beyond einsteinium (Es, Z = 99), however, have not been determined experimentally so far due to the difficulty in obtaining these elements on scales of more than one atom at a time. Recently, we successfully measured IP of lawrencium (Lr, Z = 103) using a surface ionization method. The result suggests that Lr has a loosely-bound electron in the outermost orbital. In contrast to Lr, nobelium (No, Z = 102) is expected to have the highest IP among the actinide elements owing to its full-filled 5f and the 7s orbitals. In the present study, we have successfully determined IP values of No as well as fermium (Fm, Z = 100) and mendelevium (Md, Z = 101) using the surface ionization method. The obtained results indicate that the IP value of heavy actinoids would increase monotonically with filling electrons up in the 5f orbital like heavy lanthanoids.
Adare, A.*; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Imai, Kenichi; Nagamiya, Shoji; Sako, Hiroyuki; Sato, Susumu; Tanida, Kiyoshi; PHENIX Collaboration*; 448 of others*
Physical Review C, 98(5), p.054902_1 - 054902_11, 2018/11
Aidala, C.*; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Imai, Kenichi; Nagamiya, Shoji*; Sako, Hiroyuki; Sato, Susumu; Tanida, Kiyoshi; PHENIX Collaboration*; 397 of others*
Physical Review C, 98(5), p.054903_1 - 054903_11, 2018/11
Adare, A.*; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Imai, Kenichi; Nagamiya, Shoji*; Sako, Hiroyuki; Sato, Susumu; Tanida, Kiyoshi; PHENIX Collaboration*; 351 of others*
Physical Review D, 98(9), p.092006_1 - 092006_13, 2018/11
Adare, A.*; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Imai, Kenichi; Sako, Hiroyuki; Sato, Susumu; Tanida, Kiyoshi; PHENIX Collaboration*; 362 of others*
Physical Review Letters, 121(22), p.222301_1 - 222301_8, 2018/11
Kaburagi, Masaaki; Sato, Yuki; Yoshihara, Yuri*; Shimazoe, Kenji*; Takahashi, Hiroyuki*; Torii, Tatsuo
Reactor Dosimetry; 16th International Symposium on Reactor Dosimetry (ISRD-16) (ASTM STP 1608), p.405 - 414, 2018/11
Aidala, C.*; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Imai, Kenichi; Sako, Hiroyuki; Sato, Susumu; Tanida, Kiyoshi; PHENIX Collaboration*; 287 of others*
Physical Review D, 98(7), p.072004_1 - 072004_13, 2018/10
Ohashi, Hirofumi; Goto, Minoru; Ueta, Shohei; Sato, Hiroyuki; Fukaya, Yuji; Kasahara, Seiji; Sasaki, Koei; Mizuta, Naoki; Yan, X.; Aoki, Takeshi*
Proceedings of 9th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2018) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2018/10
Conceptual design study of an experimental HTGR is performed to upgrade the plant system from Japanese High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) to a commercial HTGR. Safety systems of HTTR are upgraded to demonstrate the commercial HTGR concept, such as a passive reactor cavity cooling system, a confinement, etc. An intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is replaced by a steam generator (SG) for a process heat supply to demonstrate the technology for a commercial use. This paper describes the conceptual design study results of the plant system of the experimental HTGR.
Takada, Shoji; Honda, Uki*; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Sekita, Kenji; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tochio, Daisuke; Ishii, Toshiaki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Sawa, Kazuhiro*
Proceedings of 9th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2018) (USB Flash Drive), 7 Pages, 2018/10
Nuclear heat utilization systems connected to HTGRs will be designed on the basis of non-nuclear grade standards for easy entry of chemical plant companies, requiring reactor operations to continue even if abnormal events occur in the systems. The inventory control is considered as one of candidate methods to control reactor power for load following operation for siting close to demand area, in which the primary gas pressure is varied while keeping the reactor inlet and outlet coolant temperatures constant. Numerical investigation was carried out based on the results of nuclear heat supply fluctuation tests using HTTR by non-nuclear heating operation to focus on the temperature transient of the reactor core bottom structure by imposing stepwise fluctuation on the reactor inlet temperature under different primary gas pressures below 120C. As a result, it was emerged that the fluctuation absorption characteristics are not deteriorated by lowering pressure. It was also emerged that the reactor outlet temperature did not reach the scram level by increasing the reactor inlet temperature 10 C stepwise at 80% of the rated power as same with the full power case.
Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Yan, X.
Proceedings of 9th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2018) (USB Flash Drive), 9 Pages, 2018/10
Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting research and development with a central focus on the utilization of HTTR, the first HTGR in Japan, towards the realization of industrial use of nuclear heat. On the basis of licensing experience through the HTTR construction, JAEA initiated an activity to establish an international safety standard for licensing of commercial HTGR cogeneration systems fully taking into account safety features of HTGRs. This paper explains a roadmap towards licensing of commercial HTGR cogeneration systems. A test plan using the HTTR to support the establishment of safety standards and safety analysis methods is also presented.