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Journal Articles

Radiation monitoring and evaluation of exposure doses to lift the evacuation orders for the zones designated for reconstruction and recovery

Sanada, Yukihisa; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Funaki, Hironori; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Abe, Tomohisa; Ishida, Mutsushi*; Tanimori, Soichiro*; Sato, Rina

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 20(2), p.62 - 73, 2021/06

Japanese government starts to consider radiation protection in the "specific reconstruction reproduction base area" of which evacuation order will be lifted by 2023. It is essential to grab the present situations of radiation contamination and evaluate exposure dose in the area to realize the plan. Many surveys have evaluated the distributions of air dose rate and exposure dose has been estimated based on the results since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Nevertheless, more detailed information on exposure is needed for the areas because its radiation level is relatively high. That is also to help make prudent evaluation plan. This study aimed to evaluate the detailed contamination situation there and estimate exposure dose with considering areal circumstances. Investigations were carried out for (1) airborne survey of air dose rate using an unmanned helicopter (2) evaluation of airborne radiocesium and (3) estimation of external/internal effective doses for typical activity patterns assumed.

Journal Articles

Development of HCl-free solid phase extraction combined with ICP-MS/MS for rapid assessment of difficult-to-measure radionuclides, 1; Selective measurement of $$^{93}$$Zr and $$^{93}$$Mo in concrete rubble

Do, V. K.; Furuse, Takahiro; Murakami, Erina; Aita, Rena; Ota, Yuki; Sato, Soichi

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 327(1), p.543 - 553, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Chemistry, Analytical)

A new HCl-free chromatographic separation procedure has been developed for sequential separation of Zr and Mo from concrete matrices. Accordingly, $$^{93}$$Zr and $$^{93}$$Mo could be sensitively and selectively measured by ICP-MS/MS using ammonia reaction gas. The recoveries of greater than 90% for Zr and Mo from concretes could be achieved. The measurement condition was optimized for complete suppression of interferences from $$^{93}$$Nb and peak tailing from abundant isotopes of Zr and Mo in concrete matrices. The removal of interferences was verified by measurement of radio-contamination-free concretes used as a sample matrix blank. Method detection limits of 1.7 mBq g$$^{-1}$$ and 0.2 Bq g$$^{-1}$$ were achieved for $$^{93}$$Zr and $$^{93}$$Mo, respectively, in the concrete matrices. The interference removal factor for Nb (equivalent to the decontamination factor in radiochemical separation) was of the order of 10$$^{5}$$, and the abundance sensitivity was of the order of 10$$^{-8}$$, indicating that the developed method is reliable for verifying the presence of ultralow concentrations of $$^{93}$$Zr and $$^{93}$$Mo. The present method is suitable for the rapid assessment of $$^{93}$$Zr and $$^{93}$$Mo for radioactivity inventory of concrete rubble.

Journal Articles

Outline of Japan Atomic Energy Agency's Okuma Analysis and Research Center, 2; Labolatory-1

Sugaya, Yuki; Sakazume, Yoshinori; Akutsu, Hideyuki; Inoue, Toshihiko; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Sato, Soichi; Koyama, Tomozo; Nakayama, Shinichi

Proceedings of 54th Annual Meeting of Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling (HOTLAB 2017) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2017/00

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been developing the research and development facilities, "Okuma Analysis and Research Center", in order to ascertain the properties of radioactive wastes and fuel debris towards the decommissioning of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. This paper outlines the concept of "Laboratory-1" which will analyze low and medium level samples in the Okuma Analysis and Research Center with a focus on the research plan.

Journal Articles

The Outline of Japan Atomic Energy Agency's Okuma Analysis and Research Center, 1; The Total progress of Labolatory-1 and Labolatory-2

Inoue, Toshihiko; Ogawa, Miho; Sakazume, Yoshinori; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Sato, Soichi; Koyama, Shinichi; Koyama, Tomozo; Nakayama, Shinichi

Proceedings of 54th Annual Meeting of Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling (HOTLAB 2017) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2017/00

Decommissioning of TEPCO's 1F is in progress according to the Roadmap. The Roadmap assigned the construction of a hot laboratory and analysis to the JAEA. The hot laboratory, Okuma Analysis and Research Center consists of the three buildings; Administrative building, the Laboratory-1 and Laboratory-2. The Laboratory-1 and Laboratory-2 are hot laboratories. Laboratory-1 is for radiometric analysis of low and medium level radioactive rubble and secondary wastes. The license of the Laboratory-1's implementation was approved by The Secretariat of the Nuclear Regulation Authority and the construction started in April 2017 and plans an operational start in 2020. Laboratory-2 provides concrete cells, steel cells for the analysis of the fuel debris and high level radioactive rubble. The Laboratory-2's major analysis items is reviewed by review meeting organized of cognoscente.

Journal Articles

Study on the behavior of radiolytically produced hydrogen in a high-level liquid waste tank of a reprocessing plant; Comparison between actual and simulated solutions

Kinuhata, Hiroshi*; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Taguchi, Shigeo; Surugaya, Naoki; Sato, Soichi; Kodama, Takashi*; Tamauchi, Yoshikazu*; Shibata, Yuki*; Anzai, Kiyoshi*; Matsuoka, Shingo*

Nuclear Technology, 192(2), p.155 - 159, 2015/11

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Experiments using a small-scale apparatus with 30 ml actual high-level liquid waste from the Tokai Reprocessing Plant were carried out to show that the hydrogen concentration in the gas phase reaches a steady-state value of much less than 4% (lower explosive limit) in the absence of sweeping-air. The H$$_{2}$$ concentration reached a steady-state value as was expected and it was compared with a value predicted from an equation with parameters which had been obtained using the simulated solution. Satisfactory agreement showed that the Pd-ion catalytic H$$_{2}$$ consumption reaction previously found in the simulated solution proceeded equally well in the actual solution.

JAEA Reports

Measurement of hydrogen generating from radiolysis of highly active liquid waste and its quantitative evaluation

Yamamoto, Masahiko; Surugaya, Naoki; Mori, Eito; Taguchi, Shigeo; Sato, Soichi

JAEA-Research 2015-013, 27 Pages, 2015/10

JAEA-Research-2015-013.pdf:2.84MB

The H$$_{2}$$ concentration generating from Highly Active Liquid Waste (HALW) of Tokai Reprocessing Plant is measured in a closed experimental system. The experimental results show that H$$_{2}$$ concentration gradually increases at first and then approaches a steady-state due to the H$$_{2}$$ consumption reaction by Pd ions. The highest H$$_{2}$$ concentration is 1200 ppm (0.1%) when the solution temperature is at 23$$^{circ}$$C. It is found that H$$_{2}$$ generating from HALW is equilibrated one order of magnitude lower than the H$$_{2}$$ combustion lower limit. Moreover, a model based on H$$_{2}$$ generation from HALW by the radiolysis and H$$_{2}$$ consumption reaction by Pd ions is proposed and applied to evaluate H$$_{2}$$ concentration behavior in the gas phase. The calculated H$$_{2}$$ concentrations from proposed model agreed well with the experimental values. It is demonstrated that the behavior of H$$_{2}$$ generating from HALW can be evaluated quantitatively by applying the proposed model in this study.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of plutonium(IV) extraction rate between nitric acid and tri-$$n$$-butylphosphate solution using a glass chip microchannel

Yamamoto, Masahiko; Taguchi, Shigeo; Sato, Soichi; Surugaya, Naoki

Journal of Separation Science, 38(10), p.1807 - 1812, 2015/05

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:58.83(Chemistry, Analytical)

The extraction of Pu with tri-$$n$$-butyl phosphate (TBP) is performed using a glass microchip to evaluate the extraction rate. The parallel two-phase laminar flow is constructed in a microchannel by introducing plutonium nitrate solution and TBP diluted with $$n$$-dodecane as aqueous and organic phase, respectively. It was found that extraction ratio of Pu increases with increasing the contact time of two phases. A numerical model based on the diffusion in the microchannel and the reaction at the interface was incorporated to evaluate the extraction rate. The experimental data points were subjected to least-squares fitting and the forward extraction rate of Pu(IV) was determined.

Journal Articles

The Cause of corrosion occurred in a glove box filter casing and its repair technique

Mori, Eito; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Taguchi, Shigeo; Sato, Soichi; Kitao, Takahiko; Surugaya, Naoki

Nihon Hozen Gakkai Dai-11-Kai Gakujutsu Koenkai Yoshishu, p.132 - 138, 2014/07

The contamination of the radioactive material was observed on the filter casing surface of the glove box installed at the analytical laboratory in Tokai Reprocessing Plant. The cause of the contamination was investigated with visual inspection, penetrant testing and ultrasonic thickness measurement. It was found that a micro through-hole due to the corrosion of stainless-steel was generated in the glove box filter casing. The repair work of the filter casing was performed keeping the glove box negative pressure. The corrosion part of filter casing was replaced and newly fabricated casing was connected to the glove box with Tungsten Inert Gas welding method.

Journal Articles

Optimization for removal of ruthenium from nitric acid solution by volatilizing with electrochemical oxidation

Sato, Soichi; Endo, Noboru; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Morita, Yasuji

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 49(2), p.182 - 188, 2012/02

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:58.08(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Electrochemical oxidation method, to oxidize nitrosyl ruthenium to the tetra-oxide and then to remove ruthenium to the gas phase, was studied to separate Ru from the high-level liquid waste (HLLW). We carried out the experiments to clarify the effects following fundamental conditions to the electric oxidation, which are (a) electrolyte temperature, (b) presence of promoter elements, (c) evaporation or reflux of condensed phase and (d) using or not using of diaphragm at counter electrode. We found the fast oxidation conditions as follows; (1) higher temperature; 95$$^{circ}$$C, (2) Ce coexistence; 3000 ppm and (3) usage of a diaphragm for counter electrode. However evaporation or reflux conditions do not directly affect the electrochemical oxidation efficiency. Electric oxidation rate was increased 3 times compared with 25$$^{circ}$$C, without Ce and diaphragm for counter electrode.

JAEA Reports

Estimation of runoff volume by geomorphometry and statistics analysis using digital elevation model in Tono area

Takeuchi, Ryuji; Kosaka, Hiroshi; Sato, Atsuya*; Tomiyama, Shingo*; Kageyama, Soichiro*; Ikeda, Makoto*

JAEA-Research 2011-008, 77 Pages, 2011/06

JAEA-Research-2011-008.pdf:4.76MB

Subsurface water balance observation is a kind of methods in order to estimate a recharge rate. Results of the observation are affected by the various factors such as the scale, the topography, a geological feature, the climate. Therefore, the observation in the regional scale is necessary at many basins. The purpose of this study is to confirm the applicability of the method for the evaluation of runoff volume, which is one of parameters to evaluate the recharge rate by surface water balance observation, by geomorphometry and statistical analyses using digital elevation model (DEM). The runoff index which is the original indicator to evaluate the degree of flow rate on a catchment was calculated by the comparison between the result of geomorphometry and statistics analyses, and the observed data of river flow rate in the monitoring stations. Using this index, the flow rate of the Hiyoshi River was evaluated. The evaluated flow rate was about 60% against the observed flow rate.

Journal Articles

Identified charged hadron production in $$p + p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 and 62.4 GeV

Adare, A.*; Afanasiev, S.*; Aidala, C.*; Ajitanand, N. N.*; Akiba, Yasuyuki*; Al-Bataineh, H.*; Alexander, J.*; Aoki, Kazuya*; Aphecetche, L.*; Armendariz, R.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 83(6), p.064903_1 - 064903_29, 2011/06

 Times Cited Count:156 Percentile:99.42(Physics, Nuclear)

Transverse momentum distributions and yields for $$pi^{pm}, K^{pm}, p$$, and $$bar{p}$$ in $$p + p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 and 62.4 GeV at midrapidity are measured by the PHENIX experiment at the RHIC. We present the inverse slope parameter, mean transverse momentum, and yield per unit rapidity at each energy, and compare them to other measurements at different $$sqrt{s}$$ collisions. We also present the scaling properties such as $$m_T$$ and $$x_T$$ scaling and discuss the mechanism of the particle production in $$p + p$$ collisions. The measured spectra are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations.

Journal Articles

Azimuthal correlations of electrons from heavy-flavor decay with hadrons in $$p+p$$ and Au+Au collisions at $$sqrt{s_{NN}}$$ = 200 GeV

Adare, A.*; Afanasiev, S.*; Aidala, C.*; Ajitanand, N. N.*; Akiba, Yasuyuki*; Al-Bataineh, H.*; Alexander, J.*; Aoki, Kazuya*; Aphecetche, L.*; Aramaki, Y.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 83(4), p.044912_1 - 044912_16, 2011/04

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:52.71(Physics, Nuclear)

Measurements of electrons from the decay of open-heavy-flavor mesons have shown that the yields are suppressed in Au+Au collisions compared to expectations from binary-scaled $$p+p$$ collisions. Here we extend these studies to two particle correlations where one particle is an electron from the decay of a heavy flavor meson and the other is a charged hadron from either the decay of the heavy meson or from jet fragmentation. These measurements provide more detailed information about the interaction between heavy quarks and the quark-gluon matter. We find the away-side-jet shape and yield to be modified in Au+Au collisions compared to $$p+p$$ collisions.

Journal Articles

Application of laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy for determination of plutonium concentration in nuclear waste solutions

Surugaya, Naoki; Sato, Soichi; Jitsukata, Shu*; Watahiki, Masaru

Analytical Sciences, 24(4), p.527 - 530, 2008/04

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:8.16(Chemistry, Analytical)

Laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy was demonstrated in a quantitative analysis of Pu in nitric acid medium. Plutonium was quantitatively oxidized to Pu(VI) using Ce(IV). The photoacoustic measurement of Pu(VI) with maximum absorption at 830.5 nm was subsequently performed to determine the concentration. The photoacoustic signal was linearly proportional to the Pu(VI) ion concentration. The detection limit of Pu(VI) was estimated to be 0.5 $$mu$$g/mL. By the proposed method, Pu concentration was successfully determined in a nuclear waste solution for use in nuclear materials management.

Journal Articles

Spectrophotometric determination of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste using an internal standardization technique with Neodymium(III)

Surugaya, Naoki; Taguchi, Shigeo; Sato, Soichi; Watahiki, Masaru; Hiyama, Toshiaki

Analytical Sciences, 24(3), p.377 - 380, 2008/03

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:15.16(Chemistry, Analytical)

A simple and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Pu in highly radioactive liquid waste. This method uses Nd(III) as an internal standard, which enables us to determine the concentration of Pu and to authenticate the whole analytical scheme as well. A Nd(III) standard was mixed with a sample solution and Pu was quantitatively oxidized to Pu(VI) with Ce(IV) in a nitric acid medium, having maximum absorbance at 830 nm. The spectrophotometric measurement of Pu(VI) was subsequently performed to determine the concentration compared with maximum absorbance of Nd(III) at 795nm. The proposed method was validated through comparison experiments with isotope dilution mass spectrometry and was successfully applied to the analysis for the nuclear waste management at spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.

Journal Articles

Spent fuel reprocessing process by selective sulfurization

Sato, Nobuaki*; Sato, Soichi

Tohoku Daigaku Tagen Busshitsu Kagaku Kenkyujo Sozai Kogaku Kenkyu Iho, 63(1-2), p.69 - 76, 2007/12

For the recovery of nuclear materials from spent oxide fuel, a selective sulfurization method was examined. Sulfurization behavior of uranium and fission products such as rare-earths, was investigated by XRD analysis as well as thermodynamic consideration. The sulfurization behavior of PuO$$_{2}$$ was also investigated by using CeO$$_{2}$$ as a stand-in of PuO$$_{2}$$. The results are summarized as follows; (1)At voloxidation, a part of U$$_{3}$$O$$_{8}$$ changed to rare-earth doped UO$$_{2}$$ solid solution in the presence of rare-earths. (2)Rare-earth oxides were selectively sulfurized, while U$$_{3}$$O$$_{8}$$ was reduced to UO$$_{2}$$. (3)CeO$$_{2}$$ showed a similar sulfurization behavior to that of UO$$_{2}$$. (4)The sulfurized rare-earths selectively dissolved into nitric acid, while UO$$_{2}$$ did not. (5)Sulfurization behaviors of other fission products such as Cs, Sr and platinum group were discussed by thermodynamic consideration. (6)Process for recycling nuclear materials as oxides by selective sulfurization was proposed.

Journal Articles

Sulfurization of rare-earth oxides in simulated spent fuel

Shinohara, Genki*; Sato, Nobuaki*; Kirishima, Akira*; Tochiyama, Osamu*; Sato, Soichi

Proceedings of 16th Iketani Conference: Masuko Symposium, p.153 - 160, 2006/11

For the recovery of uranium from spent nuclear fuel, the sulfide reprocessing process has been proposed. The process consists of voloxidation and sulfurization steps followed by either magnetic separation or selective leaching steps. In this process, selective sulfurization of the rare-earth elements is applied, while the uranium oxide remains unreacted. The sulfurization of rare-earth oxides R$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ (R=Nd, Eu) was examined using CS$$_{2}$$, and found that they formed oxysulfide and sulfides even at temperatures lower than 500$$^{circ}$$C. From the results of the sulfurization of R$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ in the simulated spent fuel, it was found that R$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ for Nd and Eu were selectively sulfurized by CS$$_{2}$$ at 500$$^{circ}$$C forming Nd$$_{2}$$S$$_{3}$$ and EuS, respectively, while uranium remained as UO$$_{2}$$. Effects of sulfurizing temperature and time were also investigated and compared with the results of thermodynamic consideration.

JAEA Reports

Determination of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste by spectrophotometry using neodymium as an internal standard for safeguards analysis

Taguchi, Shigeo; Surugaya, Naoki; Sato, Soichi; Kurosawa, Akira; Watahiki, Masaru; Hiyama, Toshiaki

JAEA-Technology 2006-040, 76 Pages, 2006/07

JAEA-Technology-2006-040.pdf:5.23MB

A spectrophotometric determination using neodymium as an internal standard has been developed for safeguards verification analysis of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste which is produced by the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The method offers reduced sample preparation and analysis time compared to isotope dilution mass spectrometry. It uses neodymium as an internal standard, which allows for determining an index for the authentication of the analytical operation and the instrument conditions. The sample was mixed with a known amount of neodymium as an internal standard. Subsequently, plutonium was quantitatively oxidized to Pu(IV) by the addition of Ce(IV). Plutonium concentration was calculated from a relation between Nd(III)/Pu(VI) molar extinction coefficient ratio and their absorbance ratio. The expanded uncertainty of the repeated analysis of plutonium (n=5) was found to be $$pm$$15mgL$$^{-1}$$ (confidence interval 95%) for a highly radioactive liquid waste sample (173mgL$$^{-1}$$). The determination limit was calculated to be 6mgL$$^{-1}$$ (ten fold's the standard deviation). This method was validated through comparison experiments with isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The analytical results of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste using this method were agree well with values obtained using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The proposed method was successfully applied for the independent on-site safeguards analysis at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant.nt on-site safeguards analysis at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant.

JAEA Reports

Determination of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste by spectrophotometry using neodymium as an internal standard for safeguards analysis; Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS), JC-19

Taguchi, Shigeo; Surugaya, Naoki; Sato, Soichi; Kurosawa, Akira; Watahiki, Masaru; Hiyama, Toshiaki

JAEA-Technology 2006-041, 58 Pages, 2006/06

JAEA-Technology-2006-041.pdf:4.38MB

We have developed a method of spectrophotometric determination of plutonium ($$>$$10$$^{-4}$$ M) in highly radioactive liquid waste for safeguards verification analysis. The method offers reduced sample preparation and analysis time compared to isotope dilution mass spectrometry. It uses neodymium as an internal standard, which allows for determining an index for the authentication of the analytical scheme and the inspection procedure. The relative expanded uncertainty of the repeated analysis (n = 5) was 8.9 % (coverage factor k = 2) for a highly radioactive liquid waste sample(173 mgL$$^{-1}$$). The determination limit was calculated to be 6 mgL$$^{-1}$$ (ten fold's the standard deviation). This method was validated through comparison experiments with isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The analytical results of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste using this method were in good agreement with those obtained using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. It is to be noted that the neodymium standard is intended to be provided by the inspector so that an inspector can check the instrument conditions as well as the analytical scheme. The proposed method was successfully applied for the independent on-site safeguards analysis at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant.

Journal Articles

Spectrophotometric determination of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste of a reprocessing plant

Taguchi, Shigeo; Surugaya, Naoki; Sato, Soichi; Hiyama, Toshiaki

Proceedings of International Conference on Nuclear Energy System for Future Generation and Global Sustainability (GLOBAL 2005) (CD-ROM), 5 Pages, 2005/10

AA spectrophotometric determination of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste has been developed for safeguards verification analysis. The method offers reduced sample preparation and analysis time compared to isotope dilution mass spectrometry. It uses neodymium as an internal standard, which allows for determining an index for the authentication of the analytical scheme and the inspection procedure. The relative expanded uncertainty of the repeated analysis of plutonium (n = 5) was found to be 8.9 % (coverage factor k = 2) for a typical highly radioactive liquid waste sample (172 mg/L). The determination limit was calculated to be 6.1 mg/L (ten fold's the standard deviation). This method was validated through comparison experiments with isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The analytical results of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste using this method were in good agreement with those obtained using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. It is to be noted that the neodymium standard is intended to be provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency so that an inspector can check the instrument conditions as well as the analytical scheme. The proposed method was successfully applied to independent on-site safeguards analysis at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant.

Journal Articles

Composition of insoluble materials in highly active liquid waste at Tokai Reprocessing Plant

Kuno, Takehiko; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Okano, Masanori; Sato, Soichi; Watahiki, Masaru

Proceedings of International Conference on Nuclear Energy System for Future Generation and Global Sustainability (GLOBAL 2005) (CD-ROM), 3 Pages, 2005/10

The elemental composition and amount of insoluble materials in highly active liquid waste (HALW) were measured at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. To evaluate the composition of the insoluble material between the treatment and storage processes, samples from the evaporator and two vessels which differ in the storage period, were taken. The concentration of insoluble material evaluated by both its weight on filter paper after filtration as well as by filtration volume showed no difference for three different samples. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine the elements in samples dissolved by sulfate fusion. Analytical data revealed that Zr and Mo were the main components of the insoluble material in three samples, but low levels of Rh, Ru and Pd were also present. These results suggest that most of insoluble material had re-precipitated from the HALW solution during the concentration process.

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