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JAEA Reports

Annual report on the environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant FY2021

Nakada, Akira; Kanai, Katsuta; Seya, Natsumi; Nishimura, Shusaku; Futagawa, Kazuo; Nemoto, Masashi; Tobita, Keiji; Yamada, Ryohei*; Uchiyama, Rei; Yamashita, Daichi; et al.

JAEA-Review 2022-078, 164 Pages, 2023/03

Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, based on "Safety Regulations for the Reprocessing Plant of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Chapter IV - Environmental Monitoring". This annual report presents the results of the environmental monitoring and the dose estimation to the hypothetical inhabitant due to the radioactivity discharged from the plant to the atmosphere and the sea during April 2021 to March 2022. In this report, some data include the influence of the accidental release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (the trade name was changed to Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. on April 1, 2016) in March 2011. Appendices present comprehensive information, such as monitoring programs, monitoring methods, monitoring results and their trends, meteorological data and discharged radioactive wastes. In addition, the data which were influenced by the accidental release and exceeded the normal range of fluctuation in the monitoring, were evaluated.

Journal Articles

High-sensitive XANES analysis at Ce L$$_{2}$$-edge for Ce in bauxites using transition-edge sensors; Implications for Ti-rich geological samples

Li, W.*; Yamada, Shinya*; Hashimoto, Tadashi; Okumura, Takuma*; Hayakawa, Ryota*; Nitta, Kiyofumi*; Sekizawa, Oki*; Suga, Hiroki*; Uruga, Tomoya*; Ichinohe, Yuto*; et al.

Analytica Chimica Acta, 1240, p.340755_1 - 340755_9, 2023/02

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Individual exposure dose assessment of residents for lifting of evacuation orders (Contract research)

Sato, Rina; Sanada, Yukihisa; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Nakayama, Mariko*

JAEA-Review 2022-055, 42 Pages, 2023/01


The evacuation order zones established after the accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station have been reorganized according to the decrease in ambient dose equivalent rates and the decontamination progress. It has been decided to decontaminate the difficult-to-return zones and lift the evacuation order depending on the evacuee's intention of returning to the areas over the course of the 2020s. In order to consider the future of individual exposure dose assessment for residents for lifting of the evacuation orders, the methods and characteristics of the assessment that have been conducted after the accident using personal dosimeter measurements and simulations were systematically reviewed. This report summarized the results of the review.

Journal Articles

Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library version 5; JENDL-5

Iwamoto, Osamu; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Kunieda, Satoshi; Minato, Futoshi; Nakayama, Shinsuke; Abe, Yutaka*; Tsubakihara, Kosuke*; Okumura, Shin*; Ishizuka, Chikako*; Yoshida, Tadashi*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(1), p.1 - 60, 2023/01

Journal Articles

JENDL-5 benchmark test for shielding applications

Konno, Chikara; Ota, Masayuki*; Kwon, Saerom*; Onishi, Seiki*; Yamano, Naoki*; Sato, Satoshi*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 24 Pages, 2023/00

 Times Cited Count:0

JENDL-5 was validated from a viewpoint of shielding applications under the Shielding Integral Test Working Group of the JENDL Committee. The following benchmark experiments were selected: JAEA/FNS in-situ experiments, Osaka Univ./OKTAVIAN TOF experiments, ORNL/JASPER sodium experiments, NIST iron experiment and QST/TIARA experiments. These experiments were analyzed with MCNP and nuclear data libraries (JENDL-5, JENDL-4.0 or JENDL-4.0/HE, ENDF/B-VIII.0 and JEFF-3.3). The analysis results demonstrate that JENDL-5 is comparable to or better than JENDL-4.0 or JENDL-4.0/HE, ENDF/B-VIII.0 and JEFF-3.3.

Journal Articles

External exposure assessment in the Fukushima accident area for governmental policy planning in Japan, 2; Matters to be attended for assessments of external exposure

Yoshimura, Kazuya; Sanada, Yukihisa; Sato, Rina; Nakayama, Mariko*; Tsubokura, Masaharu*

Journal of Radiation Research (Internet), 7 Pages, 2023/00

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.21(Biology)

After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, individual exposure doses to residents have been assessed by many municipalities, governments and research institutes. Various methods including measurements with personal dosimeters and simulations have been used for this evaluation depending on purposes, but the information of assessments and methods has not been systematically organized. A comprehensive review of the knowledge and experiences of individual exposure doses assessments accumulated so far and understanding the characteristics of the assessment methods will be very useful for radiation protection and risk communication, following to governmental policy planning. We reviewed the efforts made by the Japanese government and research institutes to assess radiation doses to residents after the FDNPS accident in Part1. On the other hand, each method of assessing individual exposure doses includes uncertainties and points to be considered for the appropriate assessment. These knowledge and experiences are important for the assessment implementation and applying the assessment results to the governmental policy planning, and are summarized in Part2 of this article.

Journal Articles

Comprehensive analysis and evaluation of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 3

Yamashita, Takuya; Honda, Takeshi*; Mizokami, Masato*; Nozaki, Kenichiro*; Suzuki, Hiroyuki*; Pellegrini, M.*; Sakai, Takeshi*; Sato, Ikken; Mizokami, Shinya*

Nuclear Technology, 26 Pages, 2023/00

Journal Articles

New $$K$$ isomers in $$^{248}$$Cf

Orlandi, R.; Makii, Hiroyuki; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Hirose, Kentaro; Asai, Masato; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Sato, Tetsuya; Ito, Yuta; Suzaki, Fumi; Nagame, Yuichiro*; et al.

Physical Review C, 106(6), p.064301_1 - 064301_11, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Physics, Nuclear)

Journal Articles

Legal compliance activities and nuclear security culture development activities in JAEA

Amano, Tsukasa; Sato, Yoshiharu; Shibata, Ryodai; Yamazaki, Katsuyuki; Shiromo, Hideo; Nakamura, Hironobu

Dai-43-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2022/11

About ten years have passed since the introduction of nuclear security compliance and security culture development activities. While there have been changes in domestic and international situations, it is essential for nuclear security that the entire organization maintains an attitude that emphasizes compliance with laws and regulations and nuclear security. JAEA has been effectively implementing various activities with evaluation and improvement. Especially, e-learning which combines education and awareness, case studies, and internal audits are considered effective in maintaining nuclear security compliance and security culture development activities.

Journal Articles

Structural change by phosphorus addition to borosilicate glass containing simulated waste components

Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Shimamura, Keisuke*; Kobayashi, Hidekazu; Nagai, Takayuki; Inose, Takehiko*; Sato, Seiichi*; Hatakeyama, Kiyoshi*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 570, p.153962_1 - 153962_13, 2022/11

Simulated nuclear waste glass samples containing phosphorus, which increase the solubility of molybdenum, were prepared and analyzed using synchrotron X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) analysis for some constituent elements and Raman spectroscopic analysis of their complex structure. Changes in local structure and chemical state due to different phosphorus additions and waste loading rates were systematically studied. Consequently, no crystalline phase due to the molybdate compound was observed even at a maximum waste content of 30 wt% (corresponding to 1.87 mol% MoO$$_3$$). Oxidation proceeded when the waste-loading rate was increased, whereas the reduction proceeded when phosphorus was added. In some cases, the effects of oxidation and reduction were offset. The local structure around specific elements can be classified as follows; Zn that is affected mainly by the waste-loading rate, Ce that is affected by both the waste-loading rate and phosphorus addition, and Zr element that is not affected by either of them. From the comparison between the analytical results of Mo and other elements, it was considered that the added phosphorus exists as a free PO$$_4$$ structural unit and may deprive the alkali metal coordinated to the molybdate ion.

Journal Articles

Present status of JAEA's R&D toward HTGR deployment

Shibata, Taiju; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Kubo, Shinji; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sakaba, Nariaki; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 398, p.111964_1 - 111964_4, 2022/11

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been promoting the research and development (R&D) of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). R&D on reactor technologies is carried out by using High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). The HTTR was resumed without significant reinforcements in 2021. On January 2022, a safety demonstration test under the OECD/NEA LOFC project was carried out. JAEA is promoting R&D on a carbon-free hydrogen production by thermochemical water splitting Iodine-Sulfur process (IS process). JAEA conducts design study for various HTGR systems toward commercialization. A new test program about demonstration of hydrogen production by the HTTR was launched. Steam methane reforming hydrogen production system was selected for the first demonstration by 2030.

JAEA Reports

Structural investigation of borosilicate glasses by using XAFS measurement in soft X-ray region, 2 (Joint research)

Nagai, Takayuki; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamagishi, Hirona*; Kojima, Kazuo*; Inose, Takehiko*; Sato, Seiichi*; Hatakeyama, Kiyoshi*

JAEA-Research 2022-008, 37 Pages, 2022/10


The local structure of glass-forming elements and waste elements in borosilicate glasses varies with its chemical composition. In this study, borosilicate glass frit and simulated waste glass samples were prepared and the chemical state regarding boron (B), silicon (Si) and waste elements of iron (Fe), cesium (Cs) were estimated by using XAFS measurement in soft X-ray region. Following results were obtained by XAFS measurements of simulated waste glass surfaces after immersion test to investigate the long chemical stability. (1) As the leaching time of glass samples in immersion test passed, the Cs M$$_{5}$$, M$$_{4}$$-edge XANES spectra disappeared and the Fe L$$_{3}$$, L$$_{2}$$-edge spectra changed. (2) A new compound was formed on the sample surface after the immersion test, and these changes in the surface state were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. However, it became difficult to obtain a clear B K-edge XANES spectrum by forming a compound on glass surfaces. The Si K-edge XANES spectra of borosilicate glass frits with different Na$$_{2}$$O content were measured, and following was confirmed. (1) As the Na$$_{2}$$O concentration increases in borosilicate glass frit, the K-edge peak of Si shifts to the low energy side. (2) The intensity of the Si K-edge peak is maximum when the Na$$_{2}$$O content in glass frits was about 7wt%.

Journal Articles

Microdosimetric modeling of relative biological effectiveness for skin reactions; Possible linkage between in vitro and in vivo data

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Matsuya, Yusuke; Hamada, Nobuyuki*

International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 114(1), p.153 - 162, 2022/09

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:68.37(Oncology)

The microdosimetric kinetic model, which was originally developed for estimating cell surviving fractions for various radiations, was improved to be capable of estimating the mean and uncertainty of RBE for skin reactions. The parameter used in the model was independently determined from in vitro measurements of dermal cell survival and in vivo measurements of skin reactions taken from 8 and 23 papers, respectively. Our model quantitatively revealed that RBE for skin reactions tend to be higher than that for dermal cell survival. RBE of various mono-energetic radiations calculated from this model confirmed that the past evaluations made by ICRP and NCRP a few decades ago are still supported by recent experimental data. Conclusions: Our model can play important roles not only in medical physics for avoiding unnecessary skin reactions in particle therapy and BNCT but also in radiation protection for future decision making of the recommended RBE values.

Journal Articles

Study on the relation between the crystal structure and thermal stability of FeUO$$_{4}$$ and CrUO$$_{4}$$

Akiyama, Daisuke*; Kusaka, Ryoji; Kumagai, Yuta; Nakada, Masami; Watanabe, Masayuki; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Nagai, Takayuki; Sato, Nobuaki*; Kirishima, Akira*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 568, p.153847_1 - 153847_10, 2022/09

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:71.47(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

FeUO$$_{4}$$, CrUO$$_{4}$$, and Fe$$_{x}$$Cr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ are monouranates containing pentavalent U. Even though these compounds have similar crystal structures, their formation conditions and thermal stability are significantly different. To determine the factors causing the difference in thermal stability between FeUO$$_{4}$$ and CrUO$$_{4}$$, their crystal structures were evaluated in detail. A Raman band was observed at 700 cm$$^{-1}$$ in all the samples. This Raman band was derived from the stretching vibration of the O-U-O axis band, indicating that Fe$$_{x}$$Cr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ was composed of a uranyl-like structure in its lattice regardless of its "x"' value. M$"o$ssbauer measurements indicated that the Fe in FeUO$$_{4}$$ and Fe$$_{x}$$Cr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ were trivalent. Furthermore, Fe$$_{x}$$Cr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ lost its symmetry around Fe$$^{mathrm{III}}$$ with increasing electron densities around Fe$$^{mathrm{III}}$$, as the abundance of Cr increased. These results suggested no significant structural differences between FeUO$$_{4}$$ and CrUO$$_{4}$$. Thermogravimetric measurements for UO$$_{2}$$, FeUO$$_{4}$$, and CrUO$$_{4}$$ showed that the temperature at which FeUO$$_{4}$$ decomposed under an oxidizing condition (approximately 800 $$^{circ}$$C) was significantly lower than the temperature at which the decomposition of CrUO$$_{4}$$ started (approximately 1250 $$^{circ}$$C). Based on these results, we concluded that the decomposition of FeUO$$_{4}$$ was triggered by an ``in-crystal'' redox reaction, i.e., Fe$$^{mathrm{III}}$$ $${+}$$ U$$^{mathrm{V}}$$ $$rightarrow$$ Fe$$^{mathrm{II}}$$ $${+}$$ U$$^{mathrm{VI}}$$, which would not occur in the CrUO$$_{4}$$ lattice because Cr$$^{mathrm{III}}$$ could never be reduced under the investigated condition. Finally, the existence of Cr$$^{mathrm{III}}$$ in FexCr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ effectively suppressed the decomposition of the Fe$$_{x}$$Cr$$_{1-x}$$UO$$_{4}$$ crystal, even at a very low Cr content.

Journal Articles

Design and actual performance of J-PARC 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron for high-intensity operation

Yamamoto, Kazami; Kinsho, Michikazu; Hayashi, Naoki; Saha, P. K.; Tamura, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Tani, Norio; Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Kamiya, Junichiro; Shobuda, Yoshihiro; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(9), p.1174 - 1205, 2022/09

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:71.47(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, the purpose of the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) is to accelerate a 1 MW, high-intensity proton beam. To achieve beam operation at a repetition rate of 25 Hz at high intensities, the RCS was elaborately designed. After starting the RCS operation, we carefully verified the validity of its design and made certain improvements to establish a reliable operation at higher power as possible. Consequently, we demonstrated beam operation at a high power, namely, 1 MW. We then summarized the design, actual performance, and improvements of the RCS to achieve a 1 MW beam.

Journal Articles

Measurement of differential cross sections for $$Sigma^+ p$$ elastic scattering in the momentum range 0.44-0.80 GeV/c

Nanamura, Takuya; Fujita, Manami; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Ichikawa, Masaya; Ichikawa, Yudai; Imai, Kenichi*; Naruki, Megumi; Sato, Susumu; Sako, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Hirokazu; et al.

Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Internet), 2022(9), p.093D01_1 - 093D01_35, 2022/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

JAEA Reports

Document collection of the Special Committee on HTTR Heat Application Test

Aoki, Takeshi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Okita, Shoichiro; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Mizuta, Naoki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sakaba, Nariaki

JAEA-Review 2022-016, 193 Pages, 2022/08


Aiming to realize a massive, cost-effective and carbon-free hydrogen production technology utilizing a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is planning a HTTR heat application test producing hydrogen with High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) achieved 950$$^{circ}$$C of the highest reactor outlet coolant temperature in the world. In the HTTR heat application test, it is required to establish its safety design realizing highly safe connection of a HTGR and a hydrogen production plant by the Nuclear Regulation Authority to obtain the permission of changes to reactor installation. However, installation of a system connecting the hydrogen production plant and a nuclear reactor, and its safety design has not been conducted so far in conventional nuclear power plant including HTTR in the world. A special committee on the HTTR heat application test, established under the HTGR Research and Development Center, considered a safety design philosophy for the HTTR heat application test based on an authorized safety design of HTTR in terms of conformity to the New Regulatory Requirements taking into account new considerable events as a result of the plant modification and connection of the hydrogen production plant. This report provides materials of the special committee such as technical reports, comments provided from committee members, response from JAEA for the comments and minutes of the committee.

Journal Articles

On the adsorption and reactivity of element 114, flerovium

Yakushev, A.*; Lens, L.*; D$"u$llmann, Ch. E.*; Khuyagbaatar, J.*; J$"a$ger, E.*; Krier, J.*; Runke, J.*; Albers, H. M.*; Asai, Masato; Block, M.*; et al.

Frontiers in Chemistry (Internet), 10, p.976635_1 - 976635_11, 2022/08

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:57.86(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Flerovium (Fl, element 114) is the heaviest element chemically studied so far. The first chemical experiment on Fl suggested that Fl is a noble-gas-like element, while the second studies suggested that Fl has a volatile-metal-like character. To obtain more reliable conclusion, we performed further experimental studies on Fl adsorption behavior on Si oxide and gold surfaces. The present results suggest that Fl is highly volatile and less reactive than the volatile metal, Hg, but has higher reactivity than the noble gas, Rn.

Journal Articles

Structure, stability, and actinide leaching of simulated nuclear fuel debris synthesized from UO$$_{2}$$, Zr, and stainless-steel

Kirishima, Akira*; Akiyama, Daisuke*; Kumagai, Yuta; Kusaka, Ryoji; Nakada, Masami; Watanabe, Masayuki; Sasaki, Takayuki*; Sato, Nobuaki*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 567, p.153842_1 - 153842_15, 2022/08

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:88.59(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

To understand the chemical structure and stability of nuclear fuel debris consisting of UO$$_{2}$$, Zr, and Stainless Steel (SUS) generated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan in 2011, simulated debris of the UO$$_{2}$$-SUS-Zr system and other fundamental component systems were synthesized and characterized. The simulated debris were synthesized by heat treatment for 1 to 12 h at 1600$$^{circ}$$C, in inert (Ar) or oxidative (Ar + 2% O$$_{2}$$) atmospheres. $$^{237}$$Np and $$^{241}$$Am tracers were doped for the leaching tests of these elements and U from the simulated debris. The characterization of the simulated debris was conducted by XRD, SEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy, and M$"o$ssbauer spectroscopy, which provided the major uranium phase of the UO $$_{2}$$-SUS-Zr debris was the solid solution of U$$^{mathrm{IV}}$$O$$_{2}$$ (s.s.) with Zr(IV) and Fe(II) regardless of the treatment atmosphere. The long-term immersion test of the simulated debris in pure water and that in seawater revealed the macro scale crystal structure of the simulated debris was chemically very stable in the wet condition for a year or more. Furthermore, the leaching test results showed that the actinide leaching ratios of U, Np, Am from the UO$$_{2}$$-SUS-Zr debris were very limited and less than 0.08 % for all the experiments in this study.

2635 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)