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Journal Articles

Space weather benchmarks on Japanese society

Ishii, Mamoru*; Shiota, Daiko*; Tao, Chihiro*; Ebihara, Yusuke*; Fujiwara, Hitoshi*; Ishii, Takako*; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi*; Kataoka, Ryuho*; Koga, Kiyokazu*; Kubo, Yuki*; et al.

Earth, Planets and Space (Internet), 73(1), p.108_1 - 108_20, 2021/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:74.81(Geosciences, Multidisciplinary)

We surveyed the relationship between the scale of space weather events and their occurrence rate in Japan and we discussed the social impact of these phenomena during the Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction (PSTEP). The information was compiled for domestic users of space weather forecasts for appropriate preparedness against space weather disasters. This paper gives a comprehensive summary of the survey, focusing on the fields of electricity, satellite operations, communication and broadcasting, satellite positioning usage, aviation, human space activity, and daily life on the Earth's surface, using the cutting-edge knowledge of space weather. Quantitative estimations of the economic impact of space weather events on electricity and aviation are also given.

Journal Articles

Oxygen enhancement ratios of cancer cells after exposure to intensity modulated X-ray fields; DNA damage and cell survival

Matsuya, Yusuke; McMahon, S. J.*; Butterworth, K. T.*; Naijo, Shingo*; Nara, Isshi*; Yachi, Yoshie*; Saga, Ryo*; Ishikawa, Masayori*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Date, Hiroyuki*; et al.

Physics in Medicine & Biology, 66(7), p.075014_1 - 075014_11, 2021/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Engineering, Biomedical)

Hypoxic cancer cells within solid tumours show radio-resistance, leading to malignant progression in fractionated radiotherapy. When prescribing dose to tumours under heterogeneous oxygen pressure with intensity-modulated radiation fields, intercellular signalling could have an impact on radiosensitivity between in-field and out-of-field cells. However, the impact of hypoxia on radio-sensitivity under modulated radiation intensity remains uncertain. In this study, we investigate the impact of hypoxia on in-field and out-of-field radio-sensitivities using two types of cancer cells. These in vitro measurements indicate that hypoxia apparently impacts out-of-field cells, although the OER values in out-of-field cells were smaller compared to those for in-field and uniformly irradiated cells. These decreased radio-sensitivities of out-of-field cells were shown as a consistent tendency for both DSB and cell death endpoints, suggesting that radiation-induced intercellular communication is of importance in treatment planning with intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

Journal Articles

Visualization of the boron distribution in core material melting and relocation specimen by neutron energy resolving method

Abe, Yuta; Tsuchikawa, Yusuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro*; Parker, J. D.*; Shinohara, Takenao; Oishi, Yuji*; Kamiyama, Takashi*; Nagae, Yuji; Sato, Ikken

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011075_1 - 011075_6, 2021/03

Journal Articles

Feasibility study of PGAA for boride identification in simulated melted core materials

Tsuchikawa, Yusuke; Abe, Yuta; Oishi, Yuji*; Kai, Tetsuya; Toh, Yosuke; Segawa, Mariko; Maeda, Makoto; Kimura, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Masahide; et al.

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011074_1 - 011074_6, 2021/03

In the decommissioning of the Fukushima-Daiichi (1F) Nuclear Power Plant, it is essential to understand characteristics of the melted core materials. The estimation of boride in the real debris is of great importance to develop safe debris removal plans. Hence, it is required to investigate the amount of boron in the melted core materials with nondestructive methods. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) is one of the useful techniques to determine the amount of borides by means of the 478 keV prompt gamma-ray from neutron absorption reaction of boron. Moreover, it is well known that the width of the 478 keV gamma-ray peak is typically broadened due to the Doppler effect. The degree of the broadening is affected by coexisting materials, and can be recognized by the width of the prompt gamma-ray peak. As a feasibility study, the prompt gamma-ray from boride samples were measured using the ANNRI, NOBORU, and RADEN beamlines at the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) of Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (J-PARC).

Journal Articles

Measurement of Doppler broadening of prompt gamma-rays from various zirconium- and ferro-borons

Tsuchikawa, Yusuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Abe, Yuta; Oishi, Yuji*; Sun, Y.*; Oikawa, Kenichi; Nakatani, Takeshi; Sato, Ikken

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 991, p.164964_1 - 164964_5, 2021/03

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.03(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Peak shape analysis was performed for the energy spectra of Doppler-broadened prompt $$gamma$$-rays generated by neutron capture reactions with various boride or boron samples. Significant differences were observed between nonmetallic and metallic borides. Minor differences between the peak shapes of prompt $$gamma$$-rays from zirconium- and ferro-borons were evaluated by a peak fitting method. The identification of zirconium- and ferro-borons and other types of borides was estimated.

Journal Articles

Verification of KURBUC-based ion track structure mode for proton and carbon ions in the PHITS code

Matsuya, Yusuke; Kai, Takeshi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Liamsuwan, T.*; Sasaki, Kohei*; Nikjoo, H.*

Physics in Medicine & Biology, 66(6), p.06NT02_1 - 06NT02_11, 2021/03

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:77.24(Engineering, Biomedical)

A general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation code, Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS), has the ability to handle diverse particle types over a wide range of energy. In PHITS version 3.20, ion track structure mode has been developed based on the algorithms in the KURBUC code, which enables to simulate the atomic interactions by primary ion and secondary particles (named as PHITS-KURBUC mode). In this study, we compared the range, radial dose distributions, and microdosimetric distributions calculated using the PHITS-KURBUC mode to the corresponding data obtained from the original KURBUC and from other studies. These comparative studies confirm the successful inclusion of the KURBUC code in the PHITS code. As results of the synergistic effect between the macroscopic and microscopic radiation transport codes, this implementation enabled the detailed calculation of the microdosimetric and nanodosimetric quantities under complex radiation fields, such as proton beam therapy with the spread-out Bragg peak. This PHITS-KURBUC mode is expected to pave the way for next-generation radiation researches, such as radiation physics, radiological protection, medical physics, and radiation biology.

Journal Articles

High temperature gas-cooled reactors

Takeda, Tetsuaki*; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Aihara, Jun; Aoki, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Ho, H. Q.; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Imai, Yoshiyuki; et al.

High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors; JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation, Vol.5, 464 Pages, 2021/02

As a general overview of the research and development of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in JAEA, this book describes the achievements by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) on the designs, key component technologies such as fuel, reactor internals, high temperature components, etc., and operational experience such as rise-to-power tests, high temperature operation at 950$$^{circ}$$C, safety demonstration tests, etc. In addition, based on the knowledge of the HTTR, the development of designs and component technologies such as high performance fuel, helium gas turbine and hydrogen production by IS process for commercial HTGRs are described. These results are very useful for the future development of HTGRs. This book is published as one of a series of technical books on fossil fuel and nuclear energy systems by the Power Energy Systems Division of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Journal Articles

Quasifree neutron knockout reaction reveals a small $$s$$-Orbital component in the Borromean nucleus $$^{17}$$B

Yang, Z. H.*; Kubota, Yuki*; Corsi, A.*; Yoshida, Kazuki; Sun, X.-X.*; Li, J. G.*; Kimura, Masaaki*; Michel, N.*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; Yuan, C. X.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 126(8), p.082501_1 - 082501_8, 2021/02

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:97.59(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

A quasifree ($$p$$,$$pn$$) experiment was performed to study the structure of the Borromean nucleus $$^{17}$$B, which had long been considered to have a neutron halo. By analyzing the momentum distributions and exclusive cross sections, we obtained the spectroscopic factors for $$1s_{1/2}$$ and $$0d_{5/2}$$ orbitals, and a surprisingly small percentage of 9(2)% was determined for $$1s_{1/2}$$. Our finding of such a small $$1s_{1/2}$$ component and the halo features reported in prior experiments can be explained by the deformed relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory in continuum, revealing a definite but not dominant neutron halo in $$^{17}$$B. The present work gives the smallest $$s$$- or $$p$$-orbital component among known nuclei exhibiting halo features and implies that the dominant occupation of $$s$$ or $$p$$ orbitals is not a prerequisite for the occurrence of a neutron halo.

Journal Articles

Development of a new microdosimetric biological weighting function for the RBE$$_{10}$$ assessment in case of the V79 cell line exposed to ions from $$^{1}$$H to $$^{238}$$U

Parisi, A.*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Matsuya, Yusuke; Kase, Yuki*; Magrin, G.*; Verona, C.*; Tran, L.*; Rosenfeld, A.*; Bianchi, A.*; Olko, P.*; et al.

Physics in Medicine & Biology, 65(23), p.235010_1 - 235010_20, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:87.62(Engineering, Biomedical)

A new biological weighting function (IBWF) is proposed to phenomenologically relate microdosimetric lineal energy probability density distributions with the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the in vitro clonogenic cell survival (survival fraction = 10%) of the most commonly used mammalian cell line, i.e. the Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79). The RBE values assessed by the IBWF were found to be consistent and in good agreement with the ones calculated in combination with computer-simulated microdosimetric spectra, with an average relative deviation of 0.8% and 5.7% for H and C ions respectively.

JAEA Reports

Development of technique for acquiring fracture void structure data for a single fracture and acquisition of hydraulic/mass transport properties in a fracture

Sato, Hisashi*; Sawada, Atsushi; Takayama, Yusuke

JAEA-Research 2020-012, 37 Pages, 2020/11


In the safety assessment of the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it is important to fully understand the permeability and mass transport properties of actual fractures when setting parameters for permeability and mass transport properties of fractures. Permeability and mass transport properties of a fracture are affected by the void structure of the fracture. Therefore, it is necessary not only to conduct a hydraulic test but also to evaluate hydraulic properties based on the void structure of the fracture. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a technique to acquire a three-dimensional void structure of a fracture from fracture surface shape data, and to obtain a dataset of three- dimensional void structure data and hydraulic data of the fracture. Specifically, we made a transparent replica sample of fracture and measure the fracture surface shape data in the exact coordinates. The three-dimensional void structure data was constituted from fracture surface shape data in the same coordinates. In addition, we conducted a permeability test and tracer test for the same sample to obtain a permeability and mass transport properties of the fracture. To assess the validity of the acquired data, we compared it with the apertures evaluated based on different methods. As a result, the average aperture from the fracture void structure was almost same as the average aperture acquired by different methods, from the above that the test result was validated.

Journal Articles

Development of three-dimensional distribution visualization technology for boron using energy resolved neutron-imaging system (RADEN)

Abe, Yuta; Tsuchikawa, Yusuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro*; Parker, J. D.*; Shinohara, Takenao; Oishi, Yuji*; Kamiyama, Takashi*; Nagae, Yuji; Sato, Ikken

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2020/08

Journal Articles

Electronic structure of a (3$$times$$3)-ordered silicon layer on Al(111)

Sato, Yusuke*; Fukaya, Yuki; Cameau, M.*; Kundu, A. K.*; Shiga, Daisuke*; Yukawa, Ryu*; Horiba, Koji*; Chen, C.-H.*; Huang, A.*; Jeng, H.-T.*; et al.

Physical Review Materials (Internet), 4(6), p.064005_1 - 064005_6, 2020/06

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:55.29(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

A Theoretical cell-killing model to evaluate oxygen enhancement ratios at DNA damage and cell survival endpoints in radiation therapy

Matsuya, Yusuke; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Nakamura, Rui*; Naijo, Shingo*; Date, Hiroyuki*

Physics in Medicine & Biology, 65(9), p.095006_1 - 095006_12, 2020/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:35.6(Engineering, Biomedical)

Radio-resistance induced under low oxygen pressure plays an important role in malignant progression in fractionated radiotherapy. For the general approach to predict cell killing under hypoxia, cell-killing models (e.g., the Linear-Quadratic model) have to be fitted to ${it in vitro}$ experimental survival data for both normoxia and hypoxia to obtain the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER). However, model parameters for every oxygen condition needs to be considered by model-fitting approaches. This is inefficient for fractionated irradiation planning. Here, we present an efficient model for fractionated radiotherapy the integrated microdosimetric-kinetic model including cell-cycle distribution and the OER at DNA double-strand break endpoint. The cell survival curves described by this model can reproduce the ${it in vitro}$ experimental survival data for both acute and chronic low oxygen concentrations. The OER$$_{DSB}$$ used for calculating cell survival agrees well with experimental DSB ratio of normoxia to hypoxia. This work provides biological effective dose (BED) under various oxygen conditions including its uncertainty, which can contribute to creating fractionated regimens for multi-fractionated radiotherapy. If the oxygen concentration in a tumor can be quantified by medical imaging, the present model will make it possible to estimate the cell-killing and BED under hypoxia in more realistic intravital situations.

Journal Articles

A Simplified Cluster Analysis of Electron Track Structure for Estimating Complex DNA Damage Yields

Matsuya, Yusuke; Nakano, Toshiaki*; Kai, Takeshi; Shikazono, Naoya*; Akamatsu, Ken*; Yoshii, Yuji*; Sato, Tatsuhiko

International Journal of Molecular Sciences (Internet), 21(5), p.1701_1 - 1701_13, 2020/03

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:68.46(Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

Among various DNA damage induced after irradiation, clustered damage composed of at least two vicinal lesions within from 10 to 20 base pairs is recognized as fatal damage to human tissue. Such clustered damage yields have been evaluated by means of computational approaches; however, the simulation validity has not been sufficiently made yet. Meanwhile, the experimental technique to detect clustered DNA damage has been evolved in the recent decades, so both approaches with simulation and experiment get used to be available for investigating clustered damage recently. In this study, we have developed a simple model for estimating clustered damage yield based on the spatial density of ionization and electronic excitation events obtained by the PHITS code, and compared the computational results to the experimental clustered damage coupled with base damage (BD) measured by gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. The computational results agreed well with experimental fractions of clustered damage of strand breaks (SB) and BD, when the yield ratio of BD/SSB is assumed to be 1.3. From the comparison of complex DNA double-strand break coupled with BDs between simulation and experimental data, it was suggested that aggregation degree of the events along electron track reflects the complexity of DNA damage. The resent simulation enables to quantify the type of clustered damage which cannot be measured in in vitro experiment, which succeeded in interpreting the experimental detection efficiency for clustered BD.

Journal Articles

Modeling of yield estimation for DNA strand breaks based on Monte Carlo simulations of electron track structure in liquid water

Matsuya, Yusuke; Kai, Takeshi; Yoshii, Yuji*; Yachi, Yoshie*; Naijo, Shingo*; Date, Hiroyuki*; Sato, Tatsuhiko

Journal of Applied Physics, 126(12), p.124701_1 - 124701_8, 2019/09

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:76.05(Physics, Applied)

Biological effects after ionizing radiation exposure arise from initial DNA strand breaks. DNA damage can be estimated from the simulation with both track structure analysis and diffusion of free radicals; however, the simulation is a time-consuming process. In this study, we present a simple model for estimating yields of strand breaks based only on spatial patterns of inelastic interactions (i.e., ionization and electronic excitation) generated by electrons, which are evaluated by PHITS code without considering the production and diffusion of free radicals. In this model, the number of events per track and that of the two events pair within 3.4 nm (corresponding to 10 base pair) were stochastically sampled for calculating SSB and DSB yields, respectively. The calculated results agreed well with other simulations and experimental data on DSB yield and yield ratio of DSB/SSB for the exposure to mono-energetic electrons. The present model also can demonstrate the relative biological effectiveness at the DSB endpoint for various photon exposures. This study indicated that the spatial pattern of inelastic events composed of ionization and electronic excitation is sufficient to obtain the impact of electrons on initial induction to DNA strand break.

Journal Articles

Impact of stellar superflares on planetary habitability

Yamashiki, Yosuke*; Maehara, Hiroyuki*; Airapetian, V.*; Notsu, Yuta*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Notsu, Shota*; Kuroki, Ryusuke*; Murashima, Keiya*; Sato, Hiroaki*; Namekata, Kosuke*; et al.

Astrophysical Journal, 881(2), p.114_1 - 114_24, 2019/08

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:80.8(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

The impact of Stellar flares on extrasolar planetary systems has been discussed and argued, especially whether there is a potential impact on their life systems. Here, we propose a comprehensive evaluation system for stellar flares, focusing on Stellar Proton Events (SPE) on selected extrasolar planets with hypothetical atmospheres and oceans. This is done by cross-linking KIC flare-observed and flare-estimated stars by their start pots that are directly linked with the Monte Carlo simulation system PHITS through the exoplanetary database system ExoKyoto. The estimated dose at ground level for each planetary surface did not exceed the critical dose for complex animals.

Journal Articles

Intensity modulated radiation fields induce protective effects and reduce importance of dose-rate effects

Matsuya, Yusuke; McMahon, S. J.*; Ghita, M.*; Yoshii, Yuji*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Date, Hiroyuki*; Prise, K. M.*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 9(1), p.9483_1 - 9483_12, 2019/07

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:67.25(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

In radiotherapy, intensity modulated radiation fields and complex dose-delivery are used to prescribe doses to tumors. Here, we analyzed the impact of modulated field on radio-sensitivity and cell recovery during irradiation time. The dose was delivered to either 50% of the area of the flask containing cells (half-field) or 100% of the flask (uniform-field). We also modelled cell-killing considering dose-rate effects and intercellular signals. It is found that (i) in-field cell survival under half-field exposure is higher than uniform-field exposure even with the same dose; (ii) the importance of sub-lethal damage repair in normal human skin fibroblast cells under the half-field is reduced; (iii) the increase of cell survival under half-field is predominantly attributed to not rescue effects (increased repair) but protective effects (reduced initial DNA lesion yield). These findings provide new understanding of radio-sensitivity for hit and non-hit cells under non-uniform exposure.

Journal Articles

DNA damage induction during localized chronic exposure to an insoluble radioactive microparticle

Matsuya, Yusuke; Satou, Yukihiko; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Date, Hiroyuki*; Ishikawa, Masayori*; Sato, Tatsuhiko

Scientific Reports (Internet), 9(1), p.10365_1 - 10365_9, 2019/07

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:52.42(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Insoluble radioactive microparticles (so called Cs-bearing particles) have been assumed to adhere in the long term to trachea after aspirated into respiratory system, leading to heterogeneous dose distribution within healthy tissue around the particles. The biological effects posed by such a particle remain unclear. Here, we show cumulative DNA damage in cultured cells proximal and distal to the particle under localized chronic exposure in comparison with uniform exposure. We placed the particle-contained microcapillary onto a glass-base dish containing normal human lung cells in vitro, and observed a significant change in nuclear $$gamma$$-H2AX foci after 24 h or 48 h exposure to the particle. The dose calculation by a Monte Carlo simulation and the comparison with nuclear foci under uniform exposure suggested that the localized exposure to a Cs-bearing particle leads to not only signal-induced DNA damage to distal cells but also the reduction of DNA damage induction yield to proximal cells (protective effects). Considering the small organ dose, the conventional radiation risk assessment is adequate. This study is the first to quantify the spatial distribution of cumulative DNA lesions under heterogeneous exposure by insoluble Cs-bearing particles.

Journal Articles

Structure of nitride layer formed on titanium alloy surface by N$$_{2}$$-gas exposure at high temperatures

Takeda, Yusuke; Iida, Kiyoshi*; Sato, Shinji*; Matsuo, Tadatoshi*; Nagashima, Yasuyuki*; Okubo, Nariaki; Kondo, Keietsu; Hirade, Tetsuya

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 25, p.011023_1 - 011023_3, 2019/03

In this study, we prepared samples under two different conditions, (1) 810$$^{circ}$$C, for 600 min, and (2) 850$$^{circ}$$C, for 720 min. A depth-profile analysis of the surfaces of the samples is conducted through Doppler broadening (DB) measurements of positron annihilation $$gamma$$ rays using a slow positron beam. It was indicated that many of positrons annihilated in defects near the surface. According to the TEM image, there are nano-crystal grains near the surface and then positrons can diffuse in the grains and annihilate in defects at the grain boundaries. Furthermore, DB measurements indicated that there is a depth dependence on the chemical composition where positrons annihilate. EDS spectroscopy measurements also indicated that there is a depth dependence of impurities such as Vanadium. These results indicated change of the chemical composition at the grain boundaries.

JAEA Reports

Report on cause investigation and countermeasure of leakage trace from the drum

Shimomura, Yusuke; Sato, Takuya; Fukui, Yasutaka; Kudo, Kenji; Yoshioka, Tatsuji

JAEA-Review 2018-023, 220 Pages, 2019/01


On September 11, 2015, leaky traces of bituminized wastes were confirmed from four drums filled with bituminization in waste packages storage yard (II) of waste management facility in Oarai Research and Development Center. Moreover, even after the subsequent investigation, a leakage trace was found from one bituminous drum on November 10, 2015. Furthermore, on December 2, 2015, there was no a leakage trace in one bituminous drum, however the upper lid was found to be intensely corroded. To investigate the causes and the countermeasures for leakages of bituminized wastes from the drums, we have set up a Work Group to investigate the causes and the countermeasures to leakage traces from the drums. This report is based on "Report on Cause Investigation and Countermeasure of Leakage Trace from the Drum" summarized by this working group, the report was reconstructed including the contents clarified in the subsequent document investigation.

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