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Journal Articles

Project IPAD; A Database to catalogue the analysis of Fukushima Daiichi accident fragmental release material

Martin, P.*; Alhaddad, O.*; Verbelen, Y.*; Satou, Yukihiko; Igarashi, Yasuhito*; Scott, T. B.*

Scientific Data (Internet), 7, p.282_1 - 282_8, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:0

Journal Articles

Assessment of the mode of occurrence and radiological impact of radionuclides in Nigerian coal and resultant post-combustion coal ash using scanning electron microscopy and gamma-ray spectroscopy

Okeme, I. C.*; Scott, T. B.*; Martin, P. G.*; Satou, Yukihiko; Ojonimi, T. I.*; Olaluwoye, M. O.*

Minerals (Internet), 10(3), p.241_1 - 241_15, 2020/03

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Mineralogy)

Journal Articles

Compositional and structural analysis of Fukushima-derived particulates using high-resolution X-ray imaging and synchrotron characterisation techniques

Martin, P. G.*; Jones, C. P.*; Cipiccia, S.*; Batey, D. J.*; Hallam, K. R.*; Satou, Yukihiko; Griffiths, I.*; Rau, C.*; Richards, D. A.*; Sueki, Keisuke*; et al.

Scientific Reports (Internet), 10(1), p.1636_1 - 1636_11, 2020/01

 Times Cited Count:1

Journal Articles

Pre- and post-accident $$^{14}$$C activities in tree rings near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

Matsunaka, Tetsuya*; Sasa, Kimikazu*; Takahashi, Tsutomu*; Matsumura, Masumi*; Satou, Yukihiko; Shen, H.*; Sueki, Keisuke*; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki*

Radiocarbon, 61(6), p.1633 - 1642, 2019/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Journal Articles

Classification of the insoluble particles including radioactive Cs found in Okuma town and Futaba town, Fukushima prefecture

Igarashi, Junya*; Zhang, Z. J.*; Ninomiya, Kazuhiko*; Shinohara, Atsushi*; Satou, Yukihiko; Minowa, Haruka*; Yoshikawa, Hideki

KEK Proceedings 2019-2, p.54 - 59, 2019/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

A Review of Cs-bearing microparticles in the environment emitted by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Igarashi, Yasuhito*; Kogure, Toshihiro*; Kuribara, Yuichi; Miura, Hikaru*; Okumura, Taiga*; Satou, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Yoshio*; Yamaguchi, Noriko*

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 205-206, p.101 - 118, 2019/09

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:18.49(Environmental Sciences)

Scientists face challenge in identifying the radioactive materials which are found as dotted images on various imaging plate (IP) autoradiographic photos of radioactively contaminated materials by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP, or FDNPP) accident, such as air filter, fugitive dust, surface soil, agricultural materials, and water-shed samples. It has been revealed that they are minute particles with distinct morphology and elemental composition with high specific radioactivity, and different from those of the so-called Chernobyl hot particles. Basically, they are glassy particles once molten, composed of Si, O, Fe, Zn etc. with highly concentrated radiocaesium, which can be called as radiocaesium-bearing microparticles (CsMP). At present, CsMP can be classified into two types, Types-A and -B, which are characterized by different specific radioactivity, $$^{134}$$Cs/$$^{137}$$Cs ratio, size and morphology, and geographic distribution around F1NPP. Such studies on the CsMP from various aspects have provided valuable information about what happened in the nuclear reactors during the F1NPP accident and fates of the CsMP in the environment. This review first provides a retrospective view on the research history of the CsMP, which is helpful to understand the unique character of the CsMP. Subsequently, more details about the current understanding of the natures of these hot particles, such as origin, morphology, chemical compositions, thermal properties, water-solubility, and secondary migration of CsMP in river and ocean systems are described with future prospects.

Journal Articles

Formation of radioactive cesium microparticles originating from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident; Characteristics and perspectives

Onuki, Toshihiko*; Satou, Yukihiko; Utsunomiya, Satoshi*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(9-10), p.790 - 800, 2019/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

First determination of Pu isotopes ($$^{239}$$Pu, $$^{240}$$Pu and $$^{241}$$Pu) in radioactive particles derived from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Igarashi, Junya*; Zheng, J.*; Zhang, Z.*; Ninomiya, Kazuhiko*; Satou, Yukihiko; Fukuda, Miho*; Ni, Y.*; Aono, Tatsuo*; Shinohara, Atsushi*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 9(1), p.11807_1 - 11807_10, 2019/08

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:52.23(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Radioactive particles were released into the environment during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Many studies have been conducted to elucidate the chemical composition of released radioactive particles in order to understand their formation process. However, whether radioactive particles contain nuclear fuel radionuclides remains to be investigated. Here, we report the first determination of Pu isotopes in radioactive particles. To determine the Pu isotopes ($$^{239}$$Pu, $$^{240}$$Pu and $$^{241}$$Pu) in radioactive particles derived from the FDNPP accident which were free from the influence of global fallout, radiochemical analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry measurements were conducted. Radioactive particles derived from unit 1 and unit 2 or 3 were analyzed. For the radioactive particles derived from unit 1, activities of $$^{239+240}$$Pu and $$^{241}$$Pu were (1.70-7.06)$$times$$10$$^{-5}$$ Bq and (4.10-8.10)$$times$$10$$^{-3}$$ Bq, respectively and atom ratios of $$^{240}$$Pu/$$^{239}$$Pu and $$^{241}$$Pu/$$^{239}$$Pu were 0.330-0.415 and 0.162-0.178, respectively. These ratios were consistent with the simulation results from ORIGEN code and measurements from various environmental samples. In contrast, Pu was not detected in the radioactive particles derived from unit 2 or 3. The difference in Pu contents is clear evidence towards different formation processes of radioactive particles, and detailed formation processes can be investigated from Pu analysis.

Journal Articles

DNA damage induction during localized chronic exposure to an insoluble radioactive microparticle

Matsuya, Yusuke; Satou, Yukihiko; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Date, Hiroyuki*; Ishikawa, Masayori*; Sato, Tatsuhiko

Scientific Reports (Internet), 9(1), p.10365_1 - 10365_9, 2019/07

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:40(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Insoluble radioactive microparticles (so called Cs-bearing particles) have been assumed to adhere in the long term to trachea after aspirated into respiratory system, leading to heterogeneous dose distribution within healthy tissue around the particles. The biological effects posed by such a particle remain unclear. Here, we show cumulative DNA damage in cultured cells proximal and distal to the particle under localized chronic exposure in comparison with uniform exposure. We placed the particle-contained microcapillary onto a glass-base dish containing normal human lung cells in vitro, and observed a significant change in nuclear $$gamma$$-H2AX foci after 24 h or 48 h exposure to the particle. The dose calculation by a Monte Carlo simulation and the comparison with nuclear foci under uniform exposure suggested that the localized exposure to a Cs-bearing particle leads to not only signal-induced DNA damage to distal cells but also the reduction of DNA damage induction yield to proximal cells (protective effects). Considering the small organ dose, the conventional radiation risk assessment is adequate. This study is the first to quantify the spatial distribution of cumulative DNA lesions under heterogeneous exposure by insoluble Cs-bearing particles.

Journal Articles

Provenance of uranium particulate contained within Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 ejecta material

Martin, P. G.*; Louvel, M.*; Cipiccia, S.*; Jones, C. P.*; Batey, D. J.*; Hallam, K. R.*; Yang, I. A. X.*; Satou, Yukihiko; Rau, C.*; Mosselmans, J. F. W.*; et al.

Nature Communications (Internet), 10(1), p.2801_1 - 2801_7, 2019/06

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:27.63(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Synchrotron radiation (SR) analysis techniques alongside secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements have been made on sub-mm particulate material derived from reactor Unit 1 of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). Using these methods, it has been possible to investigate the distribution, state and isotopic composition of micron-scale U particulate contained within the larger Si-based ejecta material. Through combined SR micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (SR-micro-XRF) and absorption contrast SR micro-focused X-ray tomography (SR-micro-XRT), the U particulate was found to be located around the exterior circumference of the highly-porous particle. Synchrotron radiation micro-focused X-ray absorption near edge structure (SR-micro-XANES) analysis of a number of these entrapped particles revealed them to exist within the U(IV) oxidation state, as UO$$_{2}$$, and identical in structure to reactor fuel. Confirmation that this U was of nuclear origin ($$^{235}$$U-enriched) was provided through secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis with an isotopic enrichment ratio characteristic of a provenance from reactor Unit 1 at the FDNPP. These results provide clear evidence of the event scenario (that a degree of core fragmentation and release occurred from reactor Unit 1), with such spent fuel ejecta existing; (i) within the stable U(IV) oxidation state; and (ii) contained within a bulk Si-based particle. While this U is unlikely to represent an environmental or health hazard, such assertions would likely change, however, should break-up of the Si-containing bulk particle occur. However, more important to the long-term decommissioning of the reactors (and clean-up) on the FDNPP, is the knowledge that core integrity of reactor Unit 1 was compromised with nuclear material existing outside of the reactors primary containment.

Journal Articles

Radioactive particles emitted at the 1FNPS accident; Overview of insoluble cesium particle

Satou, Yukihiko

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 61(6), p.446 - 448, 2019/06

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Activity of $$^{90}$$Sr in fallout particles collected in the difficult-to-return zone around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Zhang, Z.*; Igarashi, Junya*; Satou, Yukihiko; Ninomiya, Kazuhiko*; Sueki, Keisuke*; Shinohara, Atsushi*

Environmental Science & Technology, 53(10), p.5868 - 5876, 2019/05

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:38.8(Engineering, Environmental)

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident released abundant radioactive particles into the surrounding environment. Herein, we analyzed the activity of $$^{90}$$Sr in these particles to estimate the contribution of this radionuclide to the overall radiation exposure and shed light on the processes that occurred during the accident. Seven radioactive particles were isolated from the dust and soil samples collected from areas surrounding the FDNPP, and the minimum/maximum $$^{137}$$Cs activities were determined as 224/4,100 Bq. Based on the size, specific activity, and $$^{134}$$Cs/$$^{137}$$Cs activity ratios, we concluded that six of the seven radioactive particles were released from the Unit 1 reactor, while one particle was released from the Unit 3 reactor by a hydrogen explosion. Strontium-90 was detected in all radioactive particles, and the minimal/maximal $$^{90}$$Sr activities were determined as 0.046/1.4 Bq. $$^{137}$$Cs/$$^{90}$$Sr activity ratios above 1000 were observed for all seven particles, that is, compared to $$^{137}$$Cs, $$^{90}$$Sr had negligible contribution to the overall radiation exposure. The $$^{137}$$Cs/$$^{90}$$Sr activity ratios of the radioactive particles were similar to those of terrestrial environmental samples and were higher for particles released from the Unit 1 reactor than for samples collected from the Unit 1 reactor building, which indicates possibility of additional $$^{90}$$Sr -rich contamination after release of the particles.

Journal Articles

Depth profile and inventory of $$^{36}$$Cl in soil near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

Ota, Yuki*; Sueki, Keisuke*; Sasa, Kimikazu*; Takahashi, Tsutomu*; Matsunaka, Tetsuya*; Matsumura, Masumi*; Tosaki, Yuki*; Honda, Maki*; Hosoya, Seiji*; Takano, Kenta*; et al.

JAEA-Conf 2018-002, p.99 - 102, 2019/02

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Radiocarbon variations in tree rings since 1960 near the Tokai nuclear facility, Japan

Matsunaka, Tetsuya*; Sasa, Kimikazu*; Takahashi, Tsutomu*; Hosoya, Seiji*; Matsumura, Masumi*; Satou, Yukihiko; Shen, H.*; Sueki, Keisuke*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 439, p.64 - 69, 2019/01

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:53.3(Instruments & Instrumentation)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Isotope-selective microscale imaging of radioactive Cs without isobaric interferences using sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with two-step resonant ionization employing newly-developed Ti:Sapphire lasers

Sakamoto, Tetsuo*; Morita, Masato*; Kanenari, Keita*; Tomita, Hideki*; Sonnenschein, V.*; Saito, Kosuke*; Ohashi, Masaya*; Kato, Kotaro*; Iguchi, Tetsuo*; Kawai, Toshihide*; et al.

Analytical Sciences, 34(11), p.1265 - 1270, 2018/11

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:67.24(Chemistry, Analytical)

Journal Articles

Analysis of two forms of radioactive particles emitted during the early stages of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident

Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke*; Sasa, Kimikazu*; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakama, Shigeo; Minowa, Haruka*; Abe, Yoshinari*; Nakai, Izumi*; Ono, Takahiro*; Adachi, Koji*; et al.

Geochemical Journal, 52(2), p.137 - 143, 2018/00

 Times Cited Count:26 Percentile:2.33(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Journal Articles

Radioactivity in soil from near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant at five years after the accident

Ninomiya, Kazuhiko*; Satou, Yukihiko; 53 of others*

KEK Proceedings 2017-6, p.31 - 34, 2017/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Analysis of external surface irregularities on Fukushima-derived fallout particles

Martin, P. G.*; Satou, Yukihiko; Griffiths, I.*; Richards, D.*; Scott, T.*

Frontiers in Energy Research (Internet), 5, p.25_1 - 25_9, 2017/09

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:58.34(Energy & Fuels)

Journal Articles

Journal Articles

Radiocarbon variations since 1960 in tree rings around the nuclear facilities of the eastern Japan

Matsunaka, Tetsuya*; Sasa, Kimikazu*; Takahashi, Tsutomu*; Hosoya, Seiji*; Matsumura, Masumi*; Sueki, Keisuke*; Satou, Yukihiko

Dai-19-Kai AMS Shimpojiumu, 2016-Nendo "Jumoku Nenrin" Kenkyukai Kyodo Kaisai Shimpojiumu Hokokushu, p.76 - 79, 2017/06

To evaluate the radiological impact of the atmospheric $$^{14}$$C discharge from the Tokai nuclear facilities, a 80-year-old Japanese pine tree from Tokai, 1.8 km south-southwest of the Tokai Nuclear Power Plants (Tokai NPP and Tokai-2 NPP) and 1.4 km North-Northwest of the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (Tokai RP), was cored and each annual ring was measured for $$^{14}$$C. The $$^{14}$$C specific activities varied from 232.8 Bq kg$$^{-1}$$ C to 403.3Bq kg$$^{-1}$$ C in the tree rings formed during the periods 1954-2013. The specific activities in 1967-2010 are significantly elevated compared with the ambient background values, clearly indicating $$^{14}$$C discharges from the nuclear facilities during their normal operation. The excess $$^{14}$$C activities of 0.5-70.0 Bq kg$$^{-1}$$ C in 1970-2011 are positively correlated with the estimated annual $$^{14}$$C discharges of 0.1-1.2 TBq from Tokai NPP and Tokai-2 NPP with R$$^{2}$$ of 0.66 (n = 38). These activity values of $$<$$ 70.0 Bq kg$$^{-1}$$ C were corresponding to an additional annual effective dose of $$<$$ 3.9 uSv via the food ingestion pathway in the study location.

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