Takeda, Tetsuaki*; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Aihara, Jun; Aoki, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Ho, H. Q.; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Imai, Yoshiyuki; et al.
High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors; JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation, Vol.5, 464 Pages, 2021/02
As a general overview of the research and development of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in JAEA, this book describes the achievements by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) on the designs, key component technologies such as fuel, reactor internals, high temperature components, etc., and operational experience such as rise-to-power tests, high temperature operation at 950C, safety demonstration tests, etc. In addition, based on the knowledge of the HTTR, the development of designs and component technologies such as high performance fuel, helium gas turbine and hydrogen production by IS process for commercial HTGRs are described. These results are very useful for the future development of HTGRs. This book is published as one of a series of technical books on fossil fuel and nuclear energy systems by the Power Energy Systems Division of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Hamamoto, Shimpei; Kawamoto, Taiki; Kondo, Makoto; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Takada, Shoji; Shinozaki, Masayuki
Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 15(2), p.66 - 69, 2016/06
High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) has the reactivity control system which is accompanied with the Reserved Shutdown System (RSS). The RSS consists of BC/C pellets, guide tube, electric plug, motor which contains brake and reducer, and so on. In accidents when the control rods cannot be inserted, an electric plug is pulled out by motor and the BC/C pellets fall into the core by gravity. It was revealed that the motor in the RSS drive mechanism did not work as the result of pre-start up checks as described followings: (1) The oil which was separated from a grease of motor reducer flowed down from gap of oil seal, (2) the separated oil penetrated into the brake, (3) the penetrated oil was mixed with abrasion powder released from brake disk, finally, (4) the adhesive mixture blocked the rotation of the motor. A new evaluation method was proposed to detect a sign of the motor sticking. Through the overhaul inspection of all RSS drive mechanisms of HTTR, it was revealed that the proposed method was effective to evaluate the integrity of the RSS drive mechanism.
Sawahata, Hiroaki; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Yanagida, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Takada, Shoji; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Tochio, Daisuke
Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2016/06
In the HTTR, Cf is loaded in the reactor core as a neutron startup source and changed at frequency. In this exchange work, there were two technical issues; slightly higher radiation exposure of workers by neutron leakage and reliability of neutron source transportation container in handling. To reduce the radiation dose by neutron leakage, detail numerical evaluations using PHITS code were carried out, the effective shielding method for fuel handling machine was proposed. Easily removable polyethylene blocks and particles were used as the neutron shielding, and installed in the cooling paths of the fuel handling machine. As a result, the collective effective dose by neutron was reduced from about 700 man-microSv to about 300 man-microSv. As to the neutron source transportation container, the handling performance was improved and the handling work was safety accomplished by downsizing.
Kobayashi, Takayuki; Sawahata, Masayuki; Terakado, Masayuki; Hiranai, Shinichi; Ikeda, Ryosuke; Oda, Yasuhisa; Wada, Kenji; Hinata, Jun; Yokokura, Kenji; Hoshino, Katsumichi; et al.
Proceedings of 40th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz 2015) (USB Flash Drive), 3 Pages, 2015/08
A gyrotron for electron cyclotron heating and current drive (ECH/CD) has been developed for JT-60SA (Super-Advanced). In high-power, long-pulse operations, oscillations of 1 MW/100 s have been demonstrated at both 110 GHz and 138 GHz, for the first time. These results fully satisfied the requirements for JT-60SA. Moreover, it was experimentally shown that the higher power operation at each frequency is expected to be acceptable for this gyrotron from the viewpoint of heat load at the cavity resonator, collector, and stray radiation absorbers. An oscillation at 82 GHz, which is an additional frequency, has been demonstrated up to 2 s at the output power of 0.4 MW, so far. High power experiments toward higher power of 1.5 MW (110/138 GHz) and 1 MW (82 GHz) are ongoing.
Kobayashi, Takayuki; Moriyama, Shinichi; Yokokura, Kenji; Sawahata, Masayuki; Terakado, Masayuki; Hiranai, Shinichi; Wada, Kenji; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Hinata, Jun; Hoshino, Katsumichi; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 55(6), p.063008_1 - 063008_8, 2015/06
A gyrotron enabling high-power, long-pulse oscillations at both 110 GHz and 138 GHz has been developed for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (CD) in JT-60SA. Oscillations of 1 MW for 100 s have been demonstrated at both frequencies, for the first time as a gyrotron operating at two frequencies. The optimization of the anode voltage, or the electron pitch factor, using a triode gun was a key to obtain high power and high efficiency at two frequencies. It was also confirmed that the internal losses in the gyrotron were sufficiently low for expected long pulse operation at the higher power level of 1.5 MW. Another important result is that an oscillation at 82 GHz, which enables to use fundamental harmonic waves in JT-60SA while the other two frequencies are used as second harmonics waves, was demonstrated up to 0.4 MW for 2 s. These results of the gyrotron development significantly contribute to enhancing operation regime of the ECH/CD system in JT-60SA.
Kobayashi, Takayuki; Moriyama, Shinichi; Isayama, Akihiko; Sawahata, Masayuki; Terakado, Masayuki; Hiranai, Shinichi; Wada, Kenji; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Hinata, Jun; Yokokura, Kenji; et al.
EPJ Web of Conferences, 87, p.04008_1 - 04008_5, 2015/03
A dual-frequency gyrotron, which can generate 110 GHz and 138 GHz waves independently, is being developed in JAEA to enable electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) in a wider range of plasma discharge conditions of JT-60SA. Operation for the gyrotron conditioning and parameter optimization toward 1 MW for 100 s, which is the target output power and pulse length for JT-60SA, is in progress without problems. Oscillations of 1 MW for 10 s and 0.51 MW for 198 s were obtained, so far, at both frequencies. In addition, an oscillation (0.3 MW for 20 ms) at 82 GHz was demonstrated as an additional frequency of the dual-frequency gyrotron which shows a possibility of the use of fundamental harmonic wave in JT-60SA.
Shimizu, Atsushi; Kawamoto, Taiki; Tochio, Daisuke; Saito, Kenji; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Homma, Fumitaka; Furusawa, Takayuki; Saikusa, Akio; Takada, Shoji; Shinozaki, Masayuki
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 271, p.499 - 504, 2014/05
The long term high temperature operation using HTTR was carried out to establish the technical basis of HTGR in the high temperature test operation mode during 50-day since January till March, 2010. It is necessary to demonstrate the stability of plant during long-term operation in order to attain the stable supply of the high temperature heat to the planned heat utilization system of HTTR. Test data obtained in the operation were evaluated for the technical issues which were extracted before the operation. As the results, Stability and reliability of the components and facility was demonstrated by evaluating the heat transfer performance of high temperature components, the performance of pressure control to compensate helium gas leak, the reliability of the dynamic components such as helium gas circulators, the performance of heat-up protection of radiation shielding. Through the operation, the technical basis for the operation and maintenance technology of HTGRs was established.
Yokokura, Kenji; Moriyama, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Hiranai, Shinichi; Sawahata, Masayuki; Terakado, Masayuki; Hinata, Jun; Wada, Kenji; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Hoshino, Katsumichi; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2014-002, 64 Pages, 2014/03
A new instrument has been developed to measure spatial distribution of power density and total power of the millimeter wave, by measuring temperature rise of dielectric material inserted in the waveguide. For a measurement, a dielectric disk with thermally insulated support is inserted into the few millimeters gap in the waveguide. The disk is heated by the millimeter wave pulse for 0.10.2 s, and immediately after the pulse, it is pulled up and its temperature distribution is measured by an infrared camera to estimate the spatial power density distribution of the millimeter wave. In the other hand, total transmission power is estimated by the disk temperature reached equilibrium. In the measurement test, deformation of the power density distribution was successfully detected when the mirror angle was intentionally changed in the matching optics unit (MOU) at the waveguide input from the gyrotron. The test result shows that the instrument is effective for both adjustment of MOU without opening the vacuum boundary and to detect any abnormal transmission during operation of the ECH system. The test also shows high reliability of the instrument which stands with 1 MW high power transmission without any arcing or pressure rise in vacuum region. The instrument will be contributed to keep good condition of high power long pulse ECH system by detecting abnormal transmission in the waveguide in operation without open vacuum boundary.
Moriyama, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Isayama, Akihiko; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Hiranai, Shinichi; Yokokura, Kenji; Sawahata, Masayuki; Terakado, Masayuki; Hinata, Jun; et al.
Fusion Engineering and Design, 88(6-8), p.935 - 939, 2013/10
An antenna having a first mirror driven in the linear motion (LM) and a fixed second mirror was proposed for electron cyclotron range of frequency (ECRF) heating and current drive system, to minimize the risk of cooling-water-leakage. Basic mechanical feasibilities of the bellows covering the movable structures of the antenna were previously investigated using a mock-up. This time, a support structure of the shaft has been designed using a metallic sliding bearing with solid lubricant. The sliding bearing can support combination of linear and rotational motions while a ball bearing supports either linear or rotational motion. We have newly installed the sliding bearing into the mock-up. A vacuum pumping test has been carried out paying attention to the influence of the solid lubricant by mass analysis. To design the LM antenna for JT-60SA in detail, heating and current drive characteristics for typical experimental scenarios of JT-60SA has been investigated by calculation.
Kobayashi, Takayuki; Isayama, Akihiko; Sawahata, Masayuki; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Terakado, Masayuki; Hiranai, Shinichi; Wada, Kenji; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Hinata, Jun; Yokokura, Kenji; et al.
Fusion Science and Technology, 63(1T), p.160 - 163, 2013/05
A dual frequency electron cyclotron range of frequency system has been developed for JT-60SA, by which a second frequency (135 140 GHz) is generated in addition to the first frequency of 110 GHz. A development of a dual frequency gyrotron is a key to realize the dual frequency system. The second frequency was chosen to be 138 GHz from the above frequency range from the viewpoint of gyrotron design. In order to realize high-power ( 1 MW) and long-pulse operation for both frequencies, we designed main components of the gyrotron (the diamond window, cavity resonator and quasi-optical mode converter). We found the optimum parameter set from the parameters of these components, which has discrete characteristics. It was confirmed that the output power higher than 1 MW is obtained for both frequencies as a result of numerical design. Based on the above design, a dual frequency gyrotron was newly fabricated. In the conditioning operation, an output power was obtained as we expected.
Shimizu, Atsushi; Kawamoto, Taiki; Tochio, Daisuke; Saito, Kenji; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Homma, Fumitaka; Furusawa, Takayuki; Saikusa, Akio; Shinozaki, Masayuki
Proceedings of 6th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2012) (USB Flash Drive), 8 Pages, 2012/10
To establish the technical basis of HTGR, the long term high temperature operation using HTTR was carried out during 50-day in 2010. It is necessary to demonstrate the stability of plant during long-term operation and the reliability of components and facilities special to HTGRs, in order to attain the stable supply of the high temperature heat to the planned hydrogen production system of HTTR. Test data obtained in the operation were evaluated for the technical issues which were extracted before the operation. As the results, stability and reliability of the components and facility special to HTGRs was demonstrated by evaluating the heat transfer performance of high temperature components, the helium gas leak tightness, the reliability of the dynamic components such as helium gas circulators, the performance of heat-up protection of radiation shielding. Through the operation, the technical basis for the operation and maintenance technology of HTGRs were established.
Kobayashi, Takayuki; Isayama, Akihiko; Sawahata, Masayuki; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Terakado, Masayuki; Hiranai, Shinichi; Wada, Kenji; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Hinata, Jun; Yokokura, Kenji; et al.
Proceedings of 37th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz 2012) (USB Flash Drive), 2 Pages, 2012/09
A new dual frequency (110 GHz and 138 GHz) gyrotron development began for JT-60SA. An output power and efficiency higher than 1 MW and 30% with a peak heat load lower than 1.4 kW/cm were obtained for both frequencies in calculation. High mode conversion efficiencies of the quasioptical mode converter (96.8% for 110 GHz and 98.3% for 138 GHz), which is higher than the previously developed 110 GHz long pulse gyrotron (96.5%), was obtained. The new gyrotron was fabricated and conditioning operation has been started from the middle of June 2012. The gyrotron output power of approximately 200 kW was obtained, so far, as we expected in the design of the gyrotron at low beam current of 10 A and low beam voltage of 75 kV.
Isayama, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Yokokura, Kenji; Shimono, Mitsugu; Sawahata, Masayuki; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Terakado, Masayuki; Hiranai, Shinichi; Wada, Kenji; Hinata, Jun; et al.
Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 7(Sp.1), p.2405029_1 - 2405029_5, 2012/05
no abstracts in English
Katagiri, Hiromi; Okuno, Hiroshi; Sawahata, Masayoshi; Ikeda, Takeshi; Sato, Sohei; Terakado, Naoya; Nagakura, Tomohiro; Nakanishi, Chika; Fukumoto, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Kazuya; et al.
JAEA-Review 2011-037, 66 Pages, 2011/12
When a Nuclear emergency occurs, Nuclear Emergency Assistance & Training Center (NEAT) of JAEA gives technical advice and information, dispatch specialists as required, supplies emergency equipment and materials to the National Government and local governments. NEAT provides various lectures and training courses concerning nuclear disaster prevention for those personnel taking an active part in emergency response organizations at normal time. NEAT also researches on nuclear disaster prevention and cooperates with international organizations. Concerning about the assistance to the Accident of Fukushima No.1 Nuclear Power Station caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake at 11 March, 2011, JAEA assisted activities including environmental radiation monitoring, environmental radioactivity analyses, resident public consulting etc., with its full scale effort. NEAT served as the center of these supporting activities of JAEA.
Kobayashi, Takayuki; Isayama, Akihiko; Hasegawa, Koichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Hiranai, Shinichi; Sato, Fumiaki; Wada, Kenji; Yokokura, Kenji; Shimono, Mitsugu; Sawahata, Masayuki; et al.
Fusion Engineering and Design, 86(6-8), p.763 - 767, 2011/10
Progress of antenna development of the Electron Cyclotron Range of Frequency system for JT-60 SA is presented. Capability of pulse length of 100 s, which requires active cooling for mirrors, and flexibility of beam injection angles in both poloidal and toroidal directions are required for the antenna with high reliability. Mechanical and structural design works of the launcher (antenna and its support with steering structure) based on a linear motion antenna concept are in progress. The key component is a long-stroke bellows which enables to alter poloidal injection angle and a bellows which enables to alter toroidal injection angle. Using a newly fabricated mock-up of the steering structure, it was confirmed that the antenna was mechanically realized for poloidal and toroidal injection angle ranges of -10 to +45 and -15 to +15, respectively. Those angles are consistent with angles required in JT-60SA. The results of thermal and structural analyses are also presented.
Kobayashi, Takayuki; Isayama, Akihiko; Yokokura, Kenji; Shimono, Mitsugu; Hasegawa, Koichi; Sawahata, Masayuki; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Terakado, Masayuki; Hiranai, Shinichi; Sato, Fumiaki; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 51(10), p.103037_1 - 103037_10, 2011/10
A new gyrotron operation technique to increase oscillation efficiency was developed on the JT 60 ECRF system. The electron pitch factor was optimized by controlling anode voltage within 0.1 s after the start of the operation. By applying this technique, the gyrotron output power of 1.5 MW for 4 s was recorded, for the first time. The reduced collector heat load at 1.5 MW operations was reduced by 20% and it will be acceptable for longer pulse operation. A new gyrotron with an improved mode converter was developed in order to demonstrate reduction of the stray radiation which had limited the pulse length. The stray radiation was reduced to 1/3 of that of the original gyrotron. A conditioning operation of the improved gyrotron is proceeding up to 31 s at 1 MW. These progresses significantly contribute to enhancing the high power and long pulse capability of the ECRF system toward JT 60SA.
Kobayashi, Takayuki; Isayama, Akihiko; Fasel, D.*; Yokokura, Kenji; Shimono, Mitsugu; Hasegawa, Koichi; Sawahata, Masayuki; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Terakado, Masayuki; Hiranai, Shinichi; et al.
Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.9, p.363 - 368, 2010/08
Improvements are required for expanding the pulse length of the JT-60 ECRF system (5s) for JT-60SA (100s). Newly developed power supplies will be fabricated and installed by EU. The conditioning operation of an improved gyrotron equipping a newly designed mode convertor has been started. The mode convertor will reduce heat flux on the internal components and therefore expected to enable long pulse operation at 1 MW. Pre-programmed and/or feedback control of the heater current and anode voltage, which was successfully demonstrated in JT-60U, will be key techniques because the beam current decreases during a shot. The evacuated transmission lines have a capability of 1 MW per line. Since maintenance of the components in the vacuum vessel is difficult, a linear motion antenna concept was proposed to reduce risks of water leakage and fault of the driving mechanism in the vacuum vessel. The detailed design and the low power test of a mock-up antenna have been started.
Kobayashi, Takayuki; Terakado, Masayuki; Sato, Fumiaki; Yokokura, Kenji; Shimono, Mitsugu; Hasegawa, Koichi; Sawahata, Masayuki; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Hiranai, Shinichi; Igarashi, Koichi; et al.
Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 4, p.037_1 - 037_10, 2009/08
Electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive (CD) are key tools to control fusion plasma especially for effective electron heating and for suppression of neoclassical tearing mode (NTM). Recently, developments of a high power gyrotron and a power modulation technique have been successfully achieved on JT-60U ECRF system in order to enhance the system performance. Stable gyrotron oscillation with oscillation power of 1.5 MW for 1 s was demonstrated in 2007, for the first time. Then temperature rise of cavity and collector has been investigated. It has been shown that the longer pulse operation with 1.5 MW by an improved 110 GHz gyrotron is possible. In addition, modulated ECCD in synchronized with NTM rotation has been performed with the oscillation power of 0.8 MW and the frequency around 5 kHz. The synchronizing system has worked very well and it has played an essential role in NTM suppression experiments on JT-60U.
Moriyama, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Isayama, Akihiko; Terakado, Masayuki; Sawahata, Masayuki; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Yokokura, Kenji; Shimono, Mitsugu; Hasegawa, Koichi; Hiranai, Shinichi; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 49(8), p.085001_1 - 085001_7, 2009/07
In the gyrotron development in JT-60U ECRF system, output power of 1.5 MW for 1 s has been achieved at 110 GHz. It is the world highest power oscillation 1 s. In addition to the carefully designed cavity and collector in view of thermal stress, an RF shield for the adjustment bellows, and a low-dielectric-loss DC break enabled this achievement. Power modulation technique by anode voltage control was improved to obtain high modulation frequency and 5 kHz has been achieved for NTM stabilizing experiments. Long pulse demonstration of 0.4 MW, 30 s injection to the plasma has been achieved with real time control of anode/cathode-heater. It has been confirmed that the temperature of cooled components were saturated and no evidence of damage were found. An innovative antenna having wide range of beam steering capability with linearly-moving-mirror concept has been designed for long pulse. Beam profile and mechanical strength analyses shows the feasibility of the antenna.
Yokokura, Kenji; Shimono, Mitsugu; Hasegawa, Koichi; Sawahata, Masayuki; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Terakado, Masayuki; Hiranai, Shinichi; Igarashi, Koichi; Sato, Fumiaki; Wada, Kenji; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2008-065, 98 Pages, 2008/10
Construction of the JT-60SA (super advanced) is planned as an upgrade of JT-60U as the satellite tokamak in ITER broader approach and as the national centralized tokamak facility program in Japan. The present JT-60U will be disassembled and the JT-60SA will be constructed at the same location in the JT-60 tours hall. The disassembly work will be planned in the period from 2009 to 2011. In this report, disassembly of the radio frequency heating system of JT-60U in the amplifier rooms and heating power supply building is studied on (1) object for disassembly, (2) work plan, (3) estimation of materials amount, (4) procedure.