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Journal Articles

High temperature gas-cooled reactors

Takeda, Tetsuaki*; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Aihara, Jun; Aoki, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Ho, H. Q.; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Imai, Yoshiyuki; et al.

High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors; JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation, Vol.5, 464 Pages, 2021/02

As a general overview of the research and development of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in JAEA, this book describes the achievements by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) on the designs, key component technologies such as fuel, reactor internals, high temperature components, etc., and operational experience such as rise-to-power tests, high temperature operation at 950$$^{circ}$$C, safety demonstration tests, etc. In addition, based on the knowledge of the HTTR, the development of designs and component technologies such as high performance fuel, helium gas turbine and hydrogen production by IS process for commercial HTGRs are described. These results are very useful for the future development of HTGRs. This book is published as one of a series of technical books on fossil fuel and nuclear energy systems by the Power Energy Systems Division of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Journal Articles

Innovation for flexible use of nuclear power in JAEA

Kamide, Hideki; Shibata, Taiju

NREL/TP-6A50-77088 (Internet), p.35 - 38, 2020/09

Journal Articles

VHTR technology development in Japan; Progress of R&D activities for GIF VHTR system

Shibata, Taiju; Sato, Hiroyuki; Ueta, Shohei; Takegami, Hiroaki; Takada, Shoji; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

2018 GIF Symposium Proceedings (Internet), p.99 - 106, 2020/05

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Trend of high temperature gas-cooled reactor development in the world, international cooperation and strategy

Nishihara, Tetsuo; Shibata, Taiju; Inaba, Yoshitomo

Hozengaku, 18(1), p.30 - 34, 2019/04

We explain the current status of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) development in the world and international cooperation between Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and these countries. We introduce the concept of Japanese HTGR technology deployment by using international cooperation.

Journal Articles

Post irradiation experiment about SiC-coated oxidation-resistant graphite for high temperature gas-cooled reactor

Shibata, Taiju; Mizuta, Naoki; Sumita, Junya; Sakaba, Nariaki; Osaki, Takashi*; Kato, Hideki*; Izawa, Shoichi*; Muto, Takenori*; Gizatulin, S.*; Shaimerdenov, A.*; et al.

Proceedings of 9th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2018) (USB Flash Drive), 7 Pages, 2018/10

Graphite materials are used for the in-core components of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). Oxidation damage on the graphite components in air ingress accident is a crucial issue for the safety point of view. SiC coating on graphite surface is a possible technique to enhance oxidation resistance. However, it is important to confirm the integrity of this material against high temperature and neutron irradiation for the application of the in-core components. JAEA and Japanese graphite companies carried out the R&D to develop the oxidation-resistant graphite. JAEA and INP investigated the irradiation effects on the oxidation-resistant graphite by using a framework of ISTC partner project. This paper describes the results of post irradiation experiment about the neutron irradiated SiC-coated oxidation-resistant graphite. A brand of oxidation-resistant graphite shows excellent performance against oxidation test after the irradiation.

Journal Articles

Investigation of irradiated properties of extended burnup TRISO fuel

Shaimerdenov, A.*; Gizatulin, S.*; Kenzhin, Y.*; Dyussambayev, D.*; Ueta, Shohei; Aihara, Jun; Shibata, Taiju

Proceedings of 9th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2018) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2018/10

The Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Republic of Kazakhstan (INP) conducts an irradiation test and post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel and materials to develop the extend burnup fuel up to 100 GWd/t-U collaboratively with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under projects in a frame of the International Science and Technology Centre (ISTC). Cylindrical fuel compact specimens consisting of newly-designed TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) coated fuel particles and a matrix made of graphite material were manufactured in Japan. An irradiation test of the fuel specimens using a helium-gas swept capsule designed and constructed in the INP has been performed up to 100 GWd/t-U in the WWR-K research reactor by April 2015. In the next stage, PIEs with the irradiated fuel specimens have been started in February 2017 as a new ISTC project. Several PIE technologies by non-destructive and destructive techniques with irradiated fuel compacts were developed by the INP. This report presents the developed technologies and interim results of the PIE for high burning TRISO fuel.

Journal Articles

Enhancement of oxidation tolerance of graphite materials for high temperature gas-cooled reactor

Mizuta, Naoki; Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Osaki, Takashi*; Kato, Hideki*; Izawa, Shoichi*; Muto, Takenori*; Gizatulin, S.*; Sakaba, Nariaki

Tanso Zairyo Kagaku No Shinten; Nihon Gakutsu Shinkokai Dai-117-Iinkai 70-Shunen Kinen-Shi, p.161 - 166, 2018/10

To enhance oxidation resistance of graphite material for in-core components of HTGR, JAEA and four Japanese graphite companies; Toyo Tanso, IBIDEN, Tokai Carbon and Nippon Techno-Carbon, are carrying out for development of oxidation-resistant graphite by CVD-SiC coating. This paper describes the outline of neutron irradiation test about the oxidation-resistant graphite by WWR-K reactor of INP, Kazakhstan through an ISTC partner project. Prior to the irradiation test, the oxidation-resistant graphite by CVD-SiC coating of all specimens showed enough oxidation resistance under un-irradiation condition. The neutron irradiation test was already completed and out-of-pile oxidation test will be carried out at the hot-laboratory of WWR-K.

JAEA Reports

Excellent feature of Japanese HTGR technologies

Nishihara, Tetsuo; Yan, X.; Tachibana, Yukio; Shibata, Taiju; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Kubo, Shinji; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Goto, Minoru; Ueta, Shohei; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2018-004, 182 Pages, 2018/07


Research and development on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in Japan started since late 1960s. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in cooperation with Japanese industries has researched and developed system design, fuel, graphite, metallic material, reactor engineering, high temperature components, high temperature irradiation and post irradiation test of fuel and graphite, high temperature heat application and so on. Construction of the first Japanese HTGR, High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), started in 1990. HTTR achieved first criticality in 1998. After that, various test operations have been carried out to establish the Japanese HTGR technologies and to verify the inherent safety features of HTGR. This report presents several system design of HTGR, the world-highest-level Japanese HTGR technologies, JAEA's knowledge obtained from construction, operation and management of HTTR and heat application technologies for HTGR.

JAEA Reports

Comparison between HTFP code and minory changed FORNAX-A code

Aihara, Jun; Ueta, Shohei; Goto, Minoru; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Shibata, Taiju; Ohashi, Hirofumi

JAEA-Technology 2018-002, 70 Pages, 2018/06


HTFP code is code for calculation of additional release amount of fission product (FP) from fuel rod in high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) after stop of fission. Minory changed Fornax-A code also can calculate that. Therefore, release behavior of Cs calculated with HTFP code was compared with that calculated with minory modified FORNAX-A code in this report. Release constants of Cs evaluated with minory modified FORNAX-A code are rather different from default values for HTFP code.

JAEA Reports

Research on demand of HTGR for investigation of introduction scenario and investigation on heat balance of HTGR

Fukaya, Yuji; Kasahara, Seiji; Mizuta, Naoki; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Shibata, Taiju; Nishihara, Tetsuo

JAEA-Research 2018-004, 38 Pages, 2018/06


The demand of HTGR to investigate its introduction scenario and heat balance of HTGR have been researched. First, previous studies of HTGR demand were researched. Next, heat balance of GTHTR300, a commercial scale HTGR design, and its characteristics were researched. By using this information, installation number of HTGR to suit for demand in Japan are evaluated. In addition, heat balance evaluation code was developed in this study.

Journal Articles

The Development status of Generation IV reactor systems, 2; High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR)

Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Yan, X.; Tachibana, Yukio; Shibata, Taiju

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 60(4), p.236 - 240, 2018/04

High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is a graphite-moderated and helium-gas-cooled thermal-neutron reactor that has excellent safety features and can produce high temperature heat of 950$$^{circ}$$C. It is expected to use for various heat applications as well as for electricity generation to reduce carbon dioxide emission. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been promoted research and development to demonstrate the HTGR safety features using High temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) and it's heat application. JAEA are also conducting the action to international deployment of Japanese HTGR technologies in cooperation with industries-government-academia. This paper reports status of the research and development of HTGR and domestic and international collaborations.

JAEA Reports

Applicability confirmation test of optimum decay heat evaluation method for HTGR with HTTR (Non-nuclear heating test); Validation of residual heat evaluation model

Honda, Yuki; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Shoichi; Aono, Tetsuya; Shibata, Taiju; Ishitsuka, Etsuo

JAEA-Technology 2017-013, 20 Pages, 2017/06


Decay heat is one of an important factor for a safety evaluation of depressurized loss-of-forced cooling accident, a representative high consequence accident, in high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Traditionally, a conservative decay heat curve is used for safety analysis according to the regulatory standards. On the other hand, there is growing interest in obtaining test data related to decay heat for the use of uncertainty analysis. However, such data has not been obtained for prismatic-type HTGR. Therefore, we have launched a test program to obtain the decay heat data from the HTTR. As an initial step, an applicability confirmation test of decay heat evaluation method for HTGR was conducted in February 2017 without non-nuclear heating condition. This report introduces an estimation method for the decay heat based on test data using HTTR and shows the results of validation of the reactor residual heat evaluation method which will be used to obtain the decay heat data based on test data.

JAEA Reports

Confirmation of feasibility of fabrication technology and characterization of high-packing fraction fuel compact for HTGR

Mizuta, Naoki; Ueta, Shohei; Aihara, Jun; Shibata, Taiju

JAEA-Technology 2017-004, 22 Pages, 2017/03


Confirmation of feasibility of fabrication technology and characterization of the high-packing fraction fuel compact of High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) fuel were carried out. Fuel compacts were fabricated with CFP packing fraction targeted at 33 percent by the same manufacturing condition of HTTR fuel compact. SiC-defective fraction, compressive strength and internal CFP distribution of the compact, important parameters to guarantee its integrity, were evaluated. The high-packing fuel compacts showed as same level of SiC-defective fraction as that of HTTR first loading fuel, 8$$times$$10$$^{-5}$$, and larger compressive strength than the HTTR fuel criteria, 4,900N. The feasibility of fabrication technology and the performance for the high-packing fraction fuel compact was confirmed.

JAEA Reports

Development of fuel temperature calculation code "FTCC" for high temperature gas-cooled reactors

Inaba, Yoshitomo; Isaka, Kazuyoshi; Shibata, Taiju

JAEA-Data/Code 2017-002, 74 Pages, 2017/03


In order to ensure the thermal integrity of fuel in High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs), it is necessary that the maximum fuel temperature in normal operation is to be lower than a thermal design target. In the core thermal-hydraulic design of block-type HTGRs, the maximum fuel temperature should be evaluated considering data such as core geometry and specifications, power density and neutron fluence distributions, and core coolant flow distribution. The fuel temperature calculation code used in the design stage of the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) presupposes to run on UNIX systems, and its operation and execution procedure are complicated and are not user-friendly. Therefore, a new fuel temperature calculation code, named FTCC, which has a user-friendly system such as a simple and easy operation and execution procedure, was developed. This report describes the calculation objects and models, the basic equations, the strong points (improvement points from the HTTR design code), the code structure, the using method of FTCC, and the result of a validation calculation with FTCC. The calculation result obtained by FTCC provides good agreement with that of the HTTR design code, and then FTCC will be used as one of the design codes for high temperature gas-cooled reactors. In addition, the effect of hot spot factors and fuel cooling forms on reducing the maximum fuel temperature is investigated with FTCC. As a result, it was found that the effect of center hole cooling for hollow fuel compacts and gapless cooling with monolithic type fuel rods on reducing the temperature is very high.

Journal Articles

Irradiation test about oxidation-resistant graphite in WWR-K research reactor

Shibata, Taiju; Sumita, Junya; Sakaba, Nariaki; Osaki, Takashi*; Kato, Hideki*; Izawa, Shoichi*; Muto, Takenori*; Gizatulin, S.*; Shaimerdenov, A.*; Dyussambayev, D.*; et al.

Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (CD-ROM), p.567 - 571, 2016/11

Graphite are used for the in-core components of HTGR, and it is desirable to enhance oxidation resistance to keep much safety margin. SiC coating is the candidate method for this purpose. JAEA and four Japanese graphite companies are studying to develop oxidation-resistant graphite. Neutron irradiation test was carried out by WWR-K reactor of INP of Kazakhstan through ISTC partner project. The total irradiation cycles of WWR-K operation was 10 cycles by 200 days. Irradiation temperature about 1473 K would be attained. The maximum fast neutron fluence (E $$>$$0.18 MeV) for the capsule irradiated at a central irradiation hole was preliminary calculated as 1.2$$times$$10$$^{25}$$/m$$^{-2}$$, and for the capsule at a peripheral irradiation hole as 4.2$$times$$10$$^{24}$$/m$$^{-2}$$. Dimension and weight of the irradiated specimens were measured, and outer surface of the specimens were observed by optical microscope. For the irradiated oxidation resistant graphite, out-of-pile oxidation test will be carried out at an experimental laboratory.

Journal Articles

Corrosion test of HTGR graphite with SiC coating

Chikhray, Y.*; Kulsartov, T.*; Shestakov, V.*; Kenzhina, I.*; Askerbekov, S.*; Sumita, Junya; Ueta, Shohei; Shibata, Taiju; Sakaba, Nariaki; Abdullin, Kh.*; et al.

Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (CD-ROM), p.572 - 577, 2016/11

Application of SiC as corrosion-resistive coating over graphite remains important task for HTGR. This study presents the results of chemical interaction of the SiC gradient coating over the high-density IG-110 graphite with water vapor in the temperature up to 1673 K. The experiments at 100 Pa of water vapor showed that the passive reaction caused to form SiO$$_{2}$$ film on the surface of SiC coating. Active corrosion of SiC in 1Pa of water vapor leads to deposits of various carbon composites on its surface.

Journal Articles

Applicability study of nuclear graphite material IG-430 to VHTR

Osaki, Hirotaka; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Konishi, Takashi; Ishihara, Masahiro

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2015/05

For the design on the VHTR graphite components, it is desirable to employ graphite material with higher strength. IG-430 graphite has been developed as an advanced candidate for VHTR. However, the new developed IG-430 does not have enough databases for the design of HTGR. In this paper, the compressive strength (Cs) of IG-430, one of important strengths for design data, is statistically evaluated. The component reliability is evaluated based on the safety factors defined by the graphite design code, and the applicability as the VHTR graphite material is discussed. It was found that IG-430 has higher strength (about 11%) and lower standard deviation (about 27%) than IG-110 which is one of traditional graphites used for HTGR, because the crack in IG-430 would not easy to propagate rather than IG-110. Since fracture probability for IG-430 is low, the higher reliability of core-component will be achieved using IG-430. It is expected that IG-430 is applicable for VHTR graphite material.

Journal Articles

Investigation on structural integrity of graphite component during high temperature 950$$^{circ}$$C continuous operation of HTTR

Sumita, Junya; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Shibata, Taiju

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 51(11-12), p.1364 - 1372, 2014/11

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:44.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Graphite material is used for internal structures in High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). The core components and graphite core support structures are so designed as to maintain the structural integrity to keep core cooling capability. In order to confirm that the core components and graphite core support structures satisfy the design requirement, the temperatures of the reactor internals are measured during the reactor operation. Surveillance test of graphite specimens and in-service inspection (ISI) using TV camera are planned in conjunction with the refueling. This paper describes the evaluation results of the integrity of the core components and graphite core support structures during the high temperature 950$$^{circ}$$C continuous operation, reactor outlet temperature of 950$$^{circ}$$C for 50 days, in HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor). The design requirements of the core components and graphite core support structure were satisfied during the high temperature 950$$^{circ}$$C continuous operation. The dimensional change of graphite which directly influences the temperature of coolant was evaluated with considering the temperature profiles of fuel block. The magnitude of irradiation-induced dimensional change was about 1.2 times larger than that of isotherm for 1000$$^{circ}$$C. In addition, the programs of surveillance test and ISI using TV camera were introduced.

Journal Articles

Irradiation test plan of oxidation-resistant graphite in WWR-K research reactor

Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Sakaba, Nariaki; Osaki, Hiroki*; Kato, Hideki*; Fujitsuka, Kunihiro*; Muto, Takenori*; Gizatulin, S.*; Shaimerdenov, A.*; Dyussambayev, D.*; et al.

Proceedings of 7th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2014) (USB Flash Drive), 7 Pages, 2014/10

Graphite materials are used for the in-core components of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor(HTGR)which is a graphite-moderated and helium gas-cooled reactor. In the case of air ingress accident in HTGR, SiO$$_{2}$$ protective layer is formed on the surface of SiC layer in TRISO CFP and oxidation of SiC does not proceed and fission products are retained inside the fuel particle. A new safety concept for the HTGR, called Naturally Safe HTGR, has been recently proposed. To enhance the safety of Naturally Safe HTGR ultimately, it is expected that oxidation-resistant graphite is used for graphite components to prevent the TRISO CFPs and fuel compacts from failure. SiC coating is one of candidate methods for oxidation-resistant graphite. JAEA and four graphite companies launched R&Ds to develop the oxidation-resistant graphite and the International Science and Technology Center(ISTC) partner project with JAEA and INP was launched to investigate the irradiation effects on the oxidation-resistant graphite. To determine grades of the oxidation-resistant graphite which will be adopted as irradiation test, a preliminary oxidation test was carried out. This paper described the results of the preliminary oxidation test, the plan of out-of-pile test, irradiation test and post-irradiation test(PIE)of the oxidation-resistant graphite.

JAEA Reports

Development on radiation damage calculation method for HTGR in-core structural material

Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Shibata, Taiju

JAEA-Technology 2014-030, 29 Pages, 2014/08


A study on radiation damage calculation method for in-core structural material of HTGR had been performed. Firstly, a theory and a calculation method for radiation damage were investigated. Secondly, a DPA cross-section calculation method using NJOY, which is the typical reactor constants generation code, was established. Moreover, DPA calculation method was established. To evaluate these evaluations simply, calculation method was developed including the function of NPRIM which includes NJOY code as a solver and was developed in previous study. In addition, necessary items were identified to improve the method for accuracy.

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