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Journal Articles

Denuclearization study on possible future options for dismantlement and verification of Uranium Enrichment Facility

Hori, Masato; Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Nakatani, Takayoshi

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting 2023 (Internet), 8 Pages, 2023/05

To improve preparedness of future denuclearization, series of study to achieve effective and efficient denuclearization have been performed in JAEA. As part of this study, this paper focus on dismantlement and verification of potential uranium enrichment facility and potential nuclear material in the uranium enrichment facility, considering (a) peaceful use operation, (b) freeze, (c) disablement, (d) dismantlement, (e) removal from the state as potential options.

JAEA Reports

Research on factor analysis and technical process for achieving denuclearization; Denuclearization of South Africa

Tazaki, Makiko; Kimura, Takashi; Shimizu, Ryo; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

JAEA-Review 2022-056, 54 Pages, 2023/01

JAEA-Review-2022-056.pdf:1.86MB

As part of the "Research on Factor Analysis and Technical Processes for Achieving Denuclearization" South Africa's nuclear development and denuclearization cases were investigated then analyzed from seven denuclearization factors namely (1) motivation for nuclear development, (2) internal and external situations at the time of denuclearization decision, (3) progress of nuclear development, (4) effects of sanctions, (5) incentives for denuclearization, (6) international framework for denuclearization, (7) denuclearization and verification methods. At the same time, characteristics of its denuclearization and lessons learned from the denuclearization were also analyzed. South Africa shifted its nuclear activities from research and development of "peaceful nuclear detonation" in the 1970s to developing "limited nuclear deterrence" and finally to manufacturing "transportable nuclear weapons" in the late 1980s. By then, it had completed producing six nuclear explosive devices using highly enriched uranium. However, in 1989, along with the abolition of the apartheid policy, South Africa decided denuclearization and dismantled its nuclear explosive devices and related facilities. Upon completion of dismantlement, it joined the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and concluded a Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement (CSA) with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The South Africa has remained one of the rare countries that has continued to the peaceful use nuclear energy, and its voluntary denuclearization is considered as a good example of denuclearization in the future.

Journal Articles

Measurement of the transverse asymmetry of $$gamma$$ rays in the $$^{117}$$Sn($$n,gamma$$)$$^{118}$$Sn reaction

Endo, Shunsuke; Okudaira, Takuya*; Abe, Ryota*; Fujioka, Hiroyuki*; Hirota, Katsuya*; Kimura, Atsushi; Kitaguchi, Masaaki*; Oku, Takayuki; Sakai, Kenji; Shima, Tatsushi*; et al.

Physical Review C, 106(6), p.064601_1 - 064601_7, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:47.37(Physics, Nuclear)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Research on technical process for achieving denuclearization, 1; Denuclearization processes and technical measures

Tazaki, Makiko; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Hori, Masato

Dai-43-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2022/11

Denuclearization consists of (1) verification of nuclear activities prior to denuclearization, (2) freeze, disablement and decommissioning of nuclear weapons, nuclear materials such as HEU and Pu, their production facilities, including facilities and equipment, and their verification. In this study, as a premise for the denuclearization of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities, and with reference to the results of previous denuclearization case surveys and related literature, the denuclearization process and its options for technical measures are discussed and considered.

Journal Articles

Research on factor analysis and technical process for achieving denuclearization, 3; Dismantlement and verification of nuclear reactor

Nakatani, Takayoshi; Shimizu, Ryo; Tazaki, Makiko; Kimura, Takashi; Hori, Masato

Dai-43-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2022/11

Denuclearization is the verification of nuclear development and the freezing, disabling, decommissioning, and verification of nuclear weapons, nuclear materials that can be used for nuclear weapons, and their manufacturing facilities, equipment, equipment, and materials. In this study, the technical process of measures and verification methods to effectively and efficiently achieve denuclearization at nuclear installations is examined and considered from a technical point of view.

Journal Articles

Research on technical process for achieving denuclearization, 4; Dismantlement and verification of reprocessing facilities

Shimizu, Ryo; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Tazaki, Makiko; Kimura, Takashi; Hori, Masato

Dai-43-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 3 Pages, 2022/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Research on technical process for achieving denuclearization, 5; Comparative evaluation for dismantlement and verification of Uranium Enrichment Facility, Nuclear Reactor and Reprocessing Facility

Kimura, Takashi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Shimizu, Ryo; Tazaki, Makiko; Hori, Masato

Dai-43-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2022/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Radiation exposure and oxidative stress status of wild Japanese macaques in the ex-evacuation zone of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Ishikawa, Ryoya*; Suzuki, Masatoshi*; Kino, Yasushi*; Endo, Satoru*; Nakajima, Hiroo*; Oka, Toshitaka; Takahashi, Atsushi*; Shimizu, Yoshinaka*; Suzuki, Toshihiko*; Shinoda, Hisashi*; et al.

KEK Proceedings 2022-2, p.61 - 66, 2022/11

The balance between oxidative stress and antioxidant activity, which is a defense mechanism against oxidative stress, was investigated in the liver and bladder of wild Japanese macaques captured in Fukushima Prefecture. No significant induction of oxidative stress by exposure to environmental radionuclides after the Fukushima nuclear accident was observed, suggesting that the stress defense mechanism of the organism is activated in some organs.

JAEA Reports

Research on factor analysis and technical process for achieving denuclearization; Denuclearization of Iraq

Tazaki, Makiko; Kimura, Takashi; Shimizu, Ryo; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

JAEA-Review 2022-020, 82 Pages, 2022/09

JAEA-Review-2022-020.pdf:2.14MB

As part of the "Research on Factor Analysis and Technical Processes for Achieving Denuclearization" started in 2018, comprehensive survey of nuclear development and denuclearization of Iraq was conducted, together with analysis of the characteristics and lessons learned from the denuclearization. Iraq's clandestine nuclear weapon related activities were initially focused on plutonium production, but it then switched its focus on producing highly enriched uranium, and built various facilities, including electromagnetic isotope separation (EMIS) and centrifuge uranium enrichment facilities. Denuclearization of Iraq began with the defeat in the 1991 Gulf War, which forced Iraq to accept United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 (1991) that year. The Resolution set out a framework for destruction, removal, or rendering harmless of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs. Within the framework, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the support and cooperation of the newly established United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM), had verified Iraq's past nuclear activities and denuclearization. Characteristics of Iraq's denuclearization include that 1) Iraq had no choice but to accept denuclearization, 2) IAEA was empowered to implement detectable inspection measures and methods, which later came to fruition as the IAEA Safeguards Agreement Additional Protocol (AP), 3) economic sanctions for the purpose of promoting denuclearization of Iraq were not very successful, and 4) denuclearization of Iraq and subsequent Iraq war, together with collapse of the Hussein regime, has affected the denuclearization of Libya, North Korea and Iraq. Furthermore, the lessons learned from the denuclearization are 1) the need for universalization of AP, and necessities for 2) economic sanctions that are suitable for the original purposes without being abused, 3) the need for diplomatic efforts including denuclearization frameworks and measures with a clear roadmap

Journal Articles

Evaluation of analyzing power of gamma-ray polarimeter

Endo, Shunsuke; Shizuma, Toshiyuki*; Zen, H.*; Taira, Yoshitaka*; Omer, M.; Kawamura, Shiori*; Abe, Ryota*; Okudaira, Takuya*; Kitaguchi, Masaaki*; Shimizu, Hirohiko*

UVSOR-49, P. 38, 2022/08

Journal Articles

Repeatable photoinduced insulator-to-metal transition in yttrium oxyhydride epitaxial thin films

Komatsu, Yuya*; Shimizu, Ryota*; Sato, Ryuhei*; Wilde, M.*; Nishio, Kazunori*; Katase, Takayoshi*; Matsumura, Daiju; Saito, Hiroyuki*; Miyauchi, Masahiro*; Adelman, J. R.*; et al.

Chemistry of Materials, 34(8), p.3616 - 3623, 2022/04

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:83.58(Chemistry, Physical)

Journal Articles

Progress in conceptual design of a pool-type sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan

Kato, Atsushi; Kubo, Shigenobu; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Miyagawa, Takayuki*; Uchita, Masato*; Suzuno, Tetsuji*; Endo, Junji*; Kubo, Koji*; Murakami, Hisatomo*; Uzawa, Masayuki*; et al.

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2022/04

The authors are carrying out conceptual design studies for a pool-type sodium-cooled fast reactor. There are main challenges such as measures against severe earthquake in Japan, thermal hydraulic in a reactor vessel (RV), a decay heat removal system design. When the JP-pool SFR of 650 MWe is installed in Japan, it shall be designed against the severe seismic conditions. Additionally, a newly three-dimensional seismic isolation system is under development.

JAEA Reports

Research on factor analysis and technical process for achieving denuclearization; Case study and factor analysis of denuclearization

Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

JAEA-Review 2021-076, 108 Pages, 2022/03

JAEA-Review-2021-076.pdf:3.89MB

In order to find ways to lead the denuclearization successfully, effectively, and efficiently in the future, "Research on factor analysis and technical process for achieving denuclearization" has been conducted since 2018. This report covers the first half of the research, namely "Factor analysis for denuclearization", summarizing the results of the case study and factor analysis of denuclearization. First, South Africa, Iraq, Libya, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus, North Korea, Iran and Syria were selected as the initial research target countries, and the history of nuclear development as well as characteristics of denuclearization in each country were investigated and analyzed. Next, in order to consider the measures for the international community to lead the denuclearization of the target countries, eight main denuclearization factors ((1) Motivation for nuclear development, (2) Internal and external situation at the time of the denuclearization, (3) Progress of nuclear development, (4) Effects of sanctions, (5) International framework for denuclearization, (6) Incentives for denuclearization, (7) Denuclearization method, (8) Verification method/verifier) were found out. Finally, the contents of each denuclearization factor from (1) to (8)) in above target countries except Syria were analyzed, together with whether each factor was effective for denuclearization or not. In addition, in order to lead denuclearization effectively and efficiently, what should be done in relation to the eight factors were considered. These results are expected to serve as a basis for research on the technological process of denuclearization, and to help considering the way to accomplish denuclearization.

JAEA Reports

Research on factor analysis and technical process for achieving denuclearisation; Investigation on Libya's case

Tamai, Hiroshi; Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

JAEA-Review 2021-073, 19 Pages, 2022/03

JAEA-Review-2021-073.pdf:1.51MB

As a part of "Research on Factor Analysis and Technical Process for Achieving Denuclearisation", investigation on Libya's cases of nuclear development and denuclearisation, and analysis of its characteristics have been conducted. Libya had been suspected that dictator Qadaffi had an interest in the acquisition of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) since early 1970s after his revolution. US and UK intelligence were focusing on Libya's situation; however, actual status was not revealed for a long time. In 1980s, Libya faced to economic exhaustion due to sanctions from the international community against Libya's supporting terrorism. Libya decided to abandon WMD development and its denuclearisation in early 2000s. Several factors to prompt Libya's decisions can be highlighted; economic sanctions; witnessing regime collapse of President Hussein due to Iraq War who aimed at WMD; revealing secret procurement of centrifuge equipment through the inspection of German-flagged ships by US. Libya's denuclearisation was rapidly implemented to prevent Libya from reverting to nuclear development through well-coordinated roles among main players, quick decisions by Libyan side, and warning effect of Iraqi case. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) played a central role in the verification of all related facilities and activities in Libya. Through safeguards activities beyond those permitted by Additional Protocol (AP), IAEA evaluated the whole Libya's nuclear programme. The denuclearisation was successfully completed by removal of nuclear materials and related equipment from Libya. It was also revealed that Libya's technological capabilities had not well developed to utilize procured materials and equipment. Libya's case is regarded in the international community as a good practice of denuclearisation. On the other hand, Qadaffi administration was overthrown by the democratisation movement that occurred after denuclearisation. It might be understood as a miserable end

Journal Articles

Bayesian sparse modeling of extended X-ray absorption fine structure to determine interstitial oxygen positions in yttrium oxyhydride epitaxial thin film

Kumazoe, Hiroyuki*; Igarashi, Yasuhiko*; Iesari, F.*; Shimizu, Ryota*; Komatsu, Yuya*; Hitosugi, Taro*; Matsumura, Daiju; Saito, Hiroyuki*; Iwamitsu, Kazunori*; Okajima, Toshihiko*; et al.

AIP Advances (Internet), 11(12), p.125013_1 - 125013_5, 2021/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:11.39(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

Journal Articles

Study of rational safeguards for the treatment of radioactive waste containing nuclear materials

Nakatani, Takayoshi; Shimizu, Ryo; Tazaki, Makiko; Kimura, Takashi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Suda, Kazunori

Dai-42-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2021/11

Currently, JAEA is in the advancing of decommissioning own nuclear facilities, and some facilities have been handling nuclear materials. In decommissioning, it is necessary to consider rational methods while keeping nuclear non-proliferation and transparency, including treatment of radioactive waste generated from these facilities and methods for terminating safeguards. In this study, we considered the above issues regarding waste treatment with reference to the guidance of Safeguards by Design (SBD) published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Journal Articles

Investigation and consideration of the requirements and issues from the viewpoint of the IAEA safeguards for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

Kimura, Takashi; Fukui, Yasuhito; Tazaki, Makiko; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Shimizu, Ryo; Suda, Kazunori

Dai-42-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2021/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Research on factor analysis for achieving denuclearization, 10; Summary of research; Analysis of denuclearization factors of target countries and lessons learned from the analysis

Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Suda, Kazunori

Dai-42-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2021/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Research on factor analysis for achieving denuclearization, 11; Concept of the disabling nuclear facilities in denuclearization

Shimizu, Ryo; Tazaki, Makiko; Kimura, Takashi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

Dai-42-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 3 Pages, 2021/11

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Carrying-out of whole nuclear fuel materials in Plutonium Research Building No.1

Inagawa, Jun; Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Otobe, Haruyoshi; Nakada, Masami; Takano, Masahide; Akie, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Osamu; Komuro, Michiyasu; Oura, Hirofumi*; Nagai, Isao*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2021-001, 144 Pages, 2021/08

JAEA-Technology-2021-001.pdf:12.98MB

Plutonium Research Building No.1 (Pu1) was qualified as a facility to decommission, and preparatory operations for decommission were worked by the research groups users and the facility managers of Pu1. The operation of transportation of whole nuclear materials in Pu1 to Back-end Cycle Key Element Research Facility (BECKY) completed at Dec. 2020. In the operation included evaluation of criticality safety for changing permission of the license for use nuclear fuel materials in BECKY, cask of the transportation, the registration request of the cask at the institute, the test transportation, formulation of plan for whole nuclear materials transportation, and the main transportation. This report circumstantially shows all of those process to help prospective decommission.

146 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)