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Journal Articles

Overall approaches and experiences of first-time participants in the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group's Fourth Collaborative Material Exercise (CMX-4)

Ho, D. M. L.*; Nelwamondo, A. N.*; Okubo, Ayako; Rameb$"a$ck, H.*; Song, K.*; Han, S.-H.*; Hancke, J. J.*; Holmgren, S.*; Jonsson. S.*; Kataoka, Osamu; et al.

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 315(2), p.353 - 363, 2018/02

 Percentile:100(Chemistry, Analytical)

The Fourth Collaborative Material Exercise (CMX-4) of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) registered the largest participation for this exercise in nuclear forensics, with seven of the 17 laboratories participating for the first time. In this paper, participants from five of the first-time laboratories shared their individual experience in this exercise, from preparation to analysis of samples. The exercise proved to be highly useful for testing procedures, repurposing established methods, exercising skills, and improving the understanding of nuclear forensic signatures and their interpretation trough the post-exercise review meeting.

Journal Articles

Uranium age-dating using in-situ isotope ratios by thermal ionization mass spectrometry for nuclear forensics

Okubo, Ayako; Shinohara, Nobuo; Magara, Masaaki

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 314(1), p.231 - 234, 2017/10

 Percentile:100(Chemistry, Analytical)

The model date of two enriched uranium materials were determined using a new method for nuclear forensics investigation. In this method, the $$^{230}$$Th/$$^{234}$$U ratio was calculated without spike addition from measured ratios of $$^{230}$$Th/$$^{234}$$Th and $$^{234}$$U/$$^{238}$$U, and calculated $$^{234}$$Th/$$^{238}$$U ratio in secular equilibrium. The obtained model date for the low-enriched uranium material was agreed with the known production date within uncertainty. For the highly enriched uranium material, slightly younger model date than the known production date was obtained. The $$^{234}$$U interference on $$^{234}$$Th counting in thermal ionization mass spectrometry measurement was suspected as a potential cause.

Journal Articles

Prospective features for integration of nuclear forensics capability in national framework

Tamai, Hiroshi; Okubo, Ayako; Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Suda, Kazunori; Tomikawa, Hirofumi

Proceedings of INMM 58th Annual Meeting (Internet), 6 Pages, 2017/07

Nuclear forensics is a technical measure to analyse and collate samples of illegally used nuclear materials, etc., to clarify their origins, routes, etc. and contribute to criminal identifications. Close collaboration with police and judicial organizations is essential. The national response framework is being built up with international cooperation. Discussions on promoting technical capability and regional cooperation are presented.

Journal Articles

Technical/institutional prerequisite for nuclear forensics response framework

Tamai, Hiroshi; Okubo, Ayako; Kimura, Yoshiki; Kokaji, Lisa; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tomikawa, Hirofumi

Dai-37-Kai Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nippon Shibu Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2017/02

Nuclear Forensics capability has been developed under the international collaborations. For its effective function, technical development in analysis of seized nuclear materials as well as the institutional development in comprehensive response framework are required under individual national responsibility. In order to keep the "chain of custody" in the proper operation of sample collection at the event scene, radiological analysis at the laboratory, storage of the samples, and further inspection and trial, close cooperation and information sharing between relevant organisations are essential. IAEA issues the Implementing Guide to provide the model action plan and assists individual national development. International cooperation for the technical improvement and awareness cultivation is promoted. Examples in such national developments will be introduced and prospective technical/institutional prerequisite for nuclear forensics response framework will be studied.

Journal Articles

Current status and achievements on nuclear forensics technology developments for nuclear security

Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Okubo, Ayako

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 57(12), p.782 - 786, 2015/12

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Development of prototype national nuclear forensics library at Japan Atomic Energy Agency

Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Funatake, Yoshio

Proceedings of INMM 56th Annual Meeting (Internet), 8 Pages, 2015/07

JAEA Reports

Report on research and development of nuclear forensics technologies

Okubo, Ayako; Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Toda, Nobufumi; Funatake, Yoshio; Watahiki, Masaru; Sakurai, Satoshi; Kuno, Yusuke

JAEA-Technology 2015-001, 185 Pages, 2015/03

JAEA-Technology-2015-001.pdf:56.65MB

Nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material to provide evidence for nuclear attribution by determining origin, history, transit routes and purpose involving such material. Nuclear forensics activity includes sampling of the illicit material, analysis of the samples and evaluation of the attribution by comparing the analyzed data with database or numerical simulation. Because the nuclear forensics technologies specify the origin of the nuclear materials used illegal dealings or nuclear terrorism, it becomes possible to identify and indict offenders, hence to enhance deterrent effect against such terrorism. Worldwide network on nuclear forensics can contribute to strengthen global nuclear security regime. In this paper, the results of research and development of fundamental nuclear forensics technologies performed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency during the fiscal term of 2011-2013 were reported.

Journal Articles

Approaches to characterization of nuclear material for establishment of nuclear forensics

Okazaki, Hiro; Sumi, Mika; Sato, Mitsuhiro; Kayano, Masashi; Kageyama, Tomio; Martinez, P.*; Xu, N.*; Thomas, M.*; Porterfield, D.*; Colletti, L.*; et al.

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nippon Shibu Dai-35-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 9 Pages, 2015/01

The quality control section of Plutonium Fuel Development Center (PFDC) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been analyzing isotopic compositions and content of plutonium and uranium as well as impurity and physics of nuclear materials in the process of MOX fuel fabrication for accountancy purpose as well as process control purposes. These analytical techniques are also effective for nuclear forensics to identify the source, history, and route of the material by determining a composition and chemical property of it. Therefore, PFDC cooperates with Los Alamos National Laboratory which has broad experience and established measurement skill for nuclear forensics, and evaluates the each method, procedure, and analytical data toward R&D of characterizing a nuclear fuel for forensics purposes. This paper describes the approaches to develop characterization techniques of nuclear fuel for nuclear forensic purpose at PFDC.

Journal Articles

Progress and future prospects of nuclear forensics technology development project at JAEA

Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Sato, Kaneaki; Toda, Nobufumi; Shinoda, Yoshiharu; Funatake, Yoshio; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

Proceedings of INMM 55th Annual Meeting (Internet), 7 Pages, 2014/07

In 2010, the Japan Government issued the national statement at Nuclear Security Summit (Washington D.C., USA) to develop technologies related to measurement and detection of nuclear materials for nuclear forensics within three-year timeframe, and to share the products with the international community in order to contribute to strengthening the nuclear security system. In response to this statement, JAEA that possesses sufficient technical capabilities to fulfil this nuclear forensics mission has started a nuclear forensics technology development project since JFY 2011. This paper will present the progress of the development project during JFY 2011 to 2013. This project includes the developments of analytical technologies such as isotope and impurity measurements, morphology analysis, age determination technique, and the prototype of national nuclear forensics library (NNFL). Some future prospects of this project will be also presented in this paper.

Journal Articles

Lessons learned from the international tabletop exercise of national nuclear forensics library at JAEA

Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Funatake, Yoshio

Journal of Nuclear Materials Management, 42(4), p.40 - 45, 2014/00

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has initiated an R&D project on nuclear forensics technology from 2011. This project includes development of prototype national nuclear forensics library (NNFL), and the JAEA attended to the first international table top exercise of NNFL "Galaxy Serpent" held by ITWG as a part of our NNFL development project. In this paper, outline and experiences of the JAEA investigation in the table top exercise are described and the lessons learned from the experiences were discussed. Brief current status of the NNFL development project at JAEA was also introduced in the present paper. The lessons from the experiences in the exercise will be effectively applied to the development of NNFL at JAEA.

Journal Articles

Present status and future plan of development on National Nuclear Forensics Library at JAEA

Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Funatake, Yoshio; Sato, Kaneaki; Toda, Nobufumi; Shinoda, Yoshiharu; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nippon Shibu Dai-34-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 9 Pages, 2013/10

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has initiated R&D project on nuclear forensics technology such as analytical technologies towards the establishment of nuclear forensics capabilities in Japan. National Nuclear Forensics Library (NNFL) is one of the fundamental nuclear forensics capabilities and a prototype NNFL has been developed as one R&D topic of the project at JAEA. Main objective of a NNFL is to determine whether a seized nuclear or other radioactive material from nuclear security event (e.g. illicit trafficking) is originated from a country or not. Analytical data of the seized material are compared with the existing materials populated in a NNFL, and its attributions such as origin and history will be identified. This paper describes the current status and future plan on the development of prototype NNFL. The outline and the results of the participation in an international table top exercise on NNFL named "Galaxy Serpent" were also reported in the present paper.

Journal Articles

R&D status and future plan of nuclear forensics for analytical technology and national library at JAEA

Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Sato, Kaneaki; Toda, Nobufumi; Shinoda, Yoshiharu; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

Proceedings of INMM 54th Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2013/07

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) that possesses sufficient analytical capabilities to fulfil the mission of nuclear forensics technology development has started R&D project from JFY 2011. The R&D of the nuclear forensics technology at JAEA covers the development of analytical technology such as isotope and impurity measurements, morphology analysis, age determination technique, and proto-type of national nuclear forensics library. Each topic of the R&D has been promoted under the international cooperation with US-DOE. This paper will present the present status and brief results of the R&D project on nuclear forensics analytical technology and nuclear forensics library at JAEA. Some future plan of the R&D such as attribute identification of Japanese nuclear materials, data populating plan for existing nuclear materials data in JAEA fuel cycle facilities will be also introduced in the presentation.

Journal Articles

Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for determination of $$^{126}$$Sn content in spent nuclear fuel sample

Asai, Shiho; Toshimitsu, Masaaki; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Suzuki, Hideya; Shinohara, Nobuo; Inagawa, Jun; Okumura, Keisuke; Hotoku, Shinobu; Kimura, Takaumi; Suzuki, Kensuke*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 50(6), p.556 - 562, 2013/06

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:46.51(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The $$^{126}$$Sn content in a spent nuclear fuel solution was determined by ICP-MS for its inventory estimation in high-level radioactive waste. An irradiated UO$$_{2}$$ fuel was used as a sample to evaluate the reliability of the methodology. Prior to the measurement, Sn was separated from $$^{126}$$Te, which causes major isobaric interference in the determination of $$^{126}$$Sn content, along with highly radioactive coexisting elements using an anion-exchange column. The absence of counts attributed to Te in the Sn-containing effluent indicates that Te was completely removed. After washing, Sn retained on the column was readily eluted with 1 M HNO$$_{3}$$. The isotope ratios of Sn were successfully determined and showed good agreement with those obtained through ORIGEN2 calculations. The results reported in this paper are the first experimental values of $$^{126}$$Sn content in the spent nuclear fuel solution originating in spent nuclear fuel irradiated at a nuclear power plant in Japan.

JAEA Reports

The International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear Energy Management School 2012

Ohgama, Kazuya; Ando, Yoko; Yamaguchi, Mika; Ikuta, Yuko; Shinohara, Nobuo; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Kiyonobu; Uesaka, Mitsuru*; Demachi, Kazuyuki*; Komiyama, Ryoichi*; et al.

JAEA-Review 2013-004, 76 Pages, 2013/05

JAEA-Review-2013-004.pdf:13.53MB

JAEA together with the Japan Nuclear Human Resource Development Network (JN-HRD Net), the University of Tokyo (UT) and the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) cohosted the IAEA-Nuclear Energy Management School in Tokai Village, aiming that Japan will be the center of nuclear HRD in the Asian region. In the school, not only lectures by IAEA experts, but also lectures by Japanese experts and technical visits were included for foreign participants. The school contributed to the internationalization of Japanese young professionals, development of nuclear human resource of other countries, and enhancement of cooperation between IAEA and Japan. Additionally, collaborative relationship within JN-HRD Net was strengthened by the school. In this report, findings obtained during the preparatory work and the school period are reported for future international nuclear HRD activities in Japan.

Journal Articles

Simple cation-exchange separation for ICP-MS measurement of $$^{79}$$Se in spent nuclear fuel sample

Asai, Shiho; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Suzuki, Hideya; Toshimitsu, Masaaki; Okumura, Keisuke; Shinohara, Nobuo; Kimura, Takaumi; Inagawa, Jun; Suzuki, Kensuke*; Kaneko, Satoru*

Proceedings of International Conference on Toward and Over the Fukushima Daiichi Accident (GLOBAL 2011) (CD-ROM), 5 Pages, 2011/12

Journal Articles

Analyses of assay data of LWR spent nuclear fuels with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MVP and JENDL-4.0 for inventory estimation of $$^{79}$$Se, $$^{99}$$Tc, $$^{126}$$Sn and $$^{135}$$Cs

Okumura, Keisuke; Asai, Shiho; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Suzuki, Hideya; Toshimitsu, Masaaki; Inagawa, Jun; Okamoto, Tsutomu; Shinohara, Nobuo; Kaneko, Satoru*; Suzuki, Kensuke*

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 2, p.369 - 374, 2011/10

For accurate inventory estimation of long-lived fission products in LWR spent fuels, a new burn-up chain model and decay data based on the latest nuclear data such as JENDL-4.0 was developed. MVP-BURN with the latest nuclear data was applied to several post irradiation examinations including inventory measurements of $$^{79}$$Se, $$^{99}$$Tc, $$^{126}$$Sn and $$^{135}$$Cs. One of them is a new measurement by JAEA. From the PIE analyses, it is found that the new PIE data obtained by JAEA is consistent with the other PIE data by different laboratory with different techniques. It is also confirmed that the present calculation results show good agreements with experimental ones within about 10% for productions of $$^{79}$$Se and $$^{135}$$Cs. In contrast, amounts of $$^{99}$$Tc and $$^{126}$$Sn are overestimated by about 50%. These discrepancies are likely due to the effect of insoluble residue produced during sample dissolution and/or errors of fission yields in the analyses.

Journal Articles

Study on effectiveness assessment of proliferation resistance

Kuno, Yusuke; Oda, Takuji*; Tanaka, Satoru*; Fukasawa, Tetsuo*; Tanabe, Tomoyuki*; Tamai, Hiroshi; Horio, Kenta*; Hamasaki, Manabu*; Shinohara, Nobuo*; Ikeda, Yuta*

Proceedings of INMM 52nd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2011/07

The substance and implication of PR from the viewpoints of risk evaluation on nuclear proliferation was studied in this paper. As an example, ten next-generation reprocessing technology candidates were evaluated with GIF PR and PP methodology to find degree of relative difference in PR from the presently available technology - PUREX. PR effectiveness in proliferation risk was also assessed and it was found that the effectiveness of PR measures is subject to the status of each nation.

Journal Articles

Determination of $$^{79}$$Se and $$^{135}$$Cs in spent nuclear fuel for inventory estimation of high-level radioactive wastes

Asai, Shiho; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Okumura, Keisuke; Shinohara, Nobuo; Inagawa, Jun; Hotoku, Shinobu; Suzuki, Kensuke*; Kaneko, Satoru*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 48(5), p.851 - 854, 2011/05

Journal Articles

Development of selective detection method of the particles containing highly enriched uranium in safeguards environmental samples

Lee, C. G.; Suzuki, Daisuke; Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Kimura, Takaumi; Shinohara, Nobuo

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nippon Shibu Dai-31-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2010/12

A method to selectively detect uranium particles with higher $$^{235}$$U enrichment has been developed; this method can contribute to improving particle analysis on nuclear safeguards environmental samples. The newly developed method involves three key components, (1) a two-step filtration system for particle recovery from swipe samples, (2) a system for controlling the etching time of fission track (FT) detector, (3) a system for comparing the FT morphologies and particle sizes. In order to verify the effectiveness of the screening method developed, a mixture sample containing uranium particles with natural composition and those with 10% enrichment is used. It was shown that enrichment-based screening of uranium particles is possible by comparing the FT morphologies and particle sizes, in addition to controlling the etching time. The method is expected to serve as an effective tool of the particle analysis on nuclear safeguards environmental samples.

Journal Articles

Comparison of post-irradiation experimental data and theoretical calculations for inventory estimation of long-lived fission products in spent nuclear fuel

Asai, Shiho; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Okumura, Keisuke; Suzuki, Hideya; Toshimitsu, Masaaki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Kaneko, Satoru*; Suzuki, Kensuke*

Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM 2010) (CD-ROM), p.261 - 264, 2010/10

179 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)