伊藤 大介*; 佐藤 博隆*; 大平 直也*; 齊藤 泰司*; Parker, J. D.*; 篠原 武尚; 甲斐 哲也; 及川 健一
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 569, p.153921_1 - 153921_6, 2022/10
To develop a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled nuclear reactor, phase transition phenomena of LBE are very important. In the solidification of LBE, the crystalline structure is varied with the cooling process. The volumetric expansion of LBE must be clarified for the safety of an LBE cooled nuclear reactor. The time dependence of the volumetric expansion depends on the crystalline microstructure. In this study, the crystalline microstructure of the LBE samples solidified with the different cooling processes was investigated by the neutron Bragg edge imaging technique. Spatially integrated and local microstructure characteristics of LBE samples were analyzed. Characteristics of preferred orientation of LBE microstructure were clarified.
伊勢川 和久; 瀬戸山 大吾*; 樋口 雄紀*; 松本 吉弘*; 長井 康貴*; 篠原 武尚
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1040, p.167260_1 - 167260_10, 2022/10
This paper reports on development of pulsed neutron imaging for phase differentiation between liquid water and ice with introduction of a gated image intensifier. Previous neutron-imaging systems for phase differentiation between liquid-water and ice, on the other hand, had some issues with temporal resolution, horizontal distribution of neutron wavelength, and field-of-view size. By using energy-selected pulsed neutron imaging with an optical image intensifier, the authors have achieved liquid-water/ice phase identification with a shorter temporal resolution than before with a suitable field of view area to observe commercial PEFCs.
Malamud, F.*; Santisteban, J. R.*; Gao, Y.*; 篠原 武尚; 及川 健一; Tremsin, A.*
Journal of Applied Crystallography, 55(2), p.228 - 239, 2022/04
Lattice misfit in nickel-based superalloys is one of the important microstructural parameters that control their mechanical properties, such as creep behaviour at high temperatures. Here, energy-resolved neutron imaging experiments are performed at a spallation neutron source to determine the spatial variation of lattice misfit on a second-generation nickel-based single-crystal superalloy specimen produced from a failed low-cycle fatigue specimen. An analysis of the position and width of those Laue peaks in the obtained transmission spectra allows determination of the lattice parameters of the and phases that compose the specimen, as well as the strain misfit and the misorientation between them. An analytical model is developed to describe the full wavelength pattern of Laue peaks arising from a specimen composed of two single crystals, and this model is used to perform least-squares refinements of the spectra measured at different positions of the specimen.
伊勢川 和久; 瀬戸山 大吾*; 木村 英彦*; 篠原 武尚
Journal of Imaging (Internet), 7(11), p.232_1 - 232_9, 2021/11
Tremsin, A. S.*; Gao, Y.*; Makinde, A.*; Bilheux, H. Z.*; Bilheux, J. C.*; An, K.*; 篠原 武尚; 及川 健一
Additive Manufacturing, 46, p.102130_1 - 102130_20, 2021/10
Microstructures produced by Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques determine many characteristics of components where these materials are used. Residual stress and texture are among those characteristics, which need to be optimized. In this study, we employ energy-resolved neutron imaging to investigate, non-destructively, the uniformity of texture and to map the distribution of strain due to residual stress in Inconel 625 samples. The samples used in this study were printed by a direct metal laser melting additive manufacturing technique. Strain and texture variation are measured at room temperature as well as their changes during annealing at 700C and 875C in a vacuum furnace. The uniformity of crystalline plane distribution, from which texture can be inferred, is imaged with sub-mm spatial resolution for the entire sample area.
Tremsin, A. S.*; Bilheux, H. Z.*; Bilheux, J. C.*; 篠原 武尚; 及川 健一; Gao, Y.*
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1009, p.165493_1 - 165493_12, 2021/09
The investigation of microstructure of crystalline materials is one of the possible and frequently used applications of energy-resolved neutron imaging. The position of Bragg edges is defined by sharp changes in neutron transmission and can thus be determined by the measurement of the transmission spectra as a function of neutron wavelength. The accuracy of this measurement depends on both the data analysis technique and the quality of the measured spectra. While the optimization of reconstruction methods was addressed in several previous studies, here we introduce an important prerequisite when aiming for high resolution Bragg edge strain imaging - a well calibrated flight path across the entire field of view (FOV). Compared to e.g. powder diffraction, imaging often uses slightly different geometries and hence requires a calibration for each particular setup. We herein show the importance of this calibration across the entire FOV in order to determine the instrumental error correction for pulsed neutron beamlines.
Busi, M.*; Kalentics, N.*; Morgano, M.*; Griffiths, S.*; Tremsin, A. S.*; 篠原 武尚; Loge, R.*; Leinenbach, C.*; Strobl, M.*
Additive Manufacturing, 39, p.101848_1 - 101848_9, 2021/03
Laser powder bed fusion is an efficient technique for additive manufacturing of metallic materials. The quality of the material produced depends on the optimization of a large range of build parameters and the complex thermo- mechanical build process is prone to inducing detrimental material features such as porosity and residual stresses negatively affecting fatigue resistance and lifetime. Here we apply neutron Bragg edge radiography in a para- metric study on printing 316L steel. The parameters concerned are the laser scanning speed and strategy as well as the optional use of support structures. Analyses of the full field single shot wavelength-resolved Bragg edge radiography data enables to characterize local density inhomogeneities, as well as cracks, based on the long wavelength tail of the spectrum and variations of the stress field but also textural features based on the Bragg edge pattern. It is found that in the performed study not only respective differences in the residual stresses due to parameter variation are manifesting but also systematic irregularities due to machine imperfections (e.g. issues with the powder coater) are observed in the printed samples. The study supports the use of the parallel scanning strategy without supports and with the lower utilized scanning speed.
及川 健一; Harjo, S.; Pham, A. H.*; 川崎 卓郎; 森戸 茂一*; 鬼柳 善明*; 篠原 武尚; 甲斐 哲也; 大庭 卓也*; 伊藤 正和*
JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011062_1 - 011062_6, 2021/03
The metallurgy of historic melee weapons is one of the most interesting topics in archaeometallurgy. In particular, Japanese swords are paid great admiration in the world as the honor of classical technology and of the art. There have been many reports in the past that tried to elucidate this Japanese sword's microstructure and/or manufacturing process scientifically. In this study, we tried to use neutron diffraction as the non-destructive testing method. TOF neutron diffraction experiment was performed at TAKUMI of J-PARC. The gauge volume for the mapping was limited to 2 2 2 mm. Data sets for the normal and transverse direction and the normal and axial direction were obtained for the four pieces of sliced Japanese sword. All diffraction data were analyzed by the Rietveld refinement program to obtain lattice constants, phase volume fractions, preferred orientation, the crystallite size and the microstrain from the line-broadening. Detailed analysis results will be presented.
阿部 雄太; 土川 雄介; 甲斐 哲也; 松本 吉弘*; Parker, J. D.*; 篠原 武尚; 大石 佑治*; 加美山 隆*; 永江 勇二; 佐藤 一憲
JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011075_1 - 011075_6, 2021/03
Since the hardness of fuel debris containing boride from BC pellet in control rod is estimated to be two times higher as that of oxide, such as UO and ZrO, distribution of such boride in the fuel debris formed in the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants may affect the process of debris cutting and removal. The high neutron absorption of boron may affect the possibility of re-criticality during the process of debris removal. Therefore, boride distribution in fuel debris is regarded as an important issue to be addressed. However, boron tends to have difficult in quantification with conventionally applied methods like EPMA and XPS. In this study, accelerator-driven neutron-imaging system was applied. Since boron is the material for neutron absorption, its sensitivity in terms of neutron penetration through specimens is concerned. To adjust neutron attenuation of a specimen to suit a particular measurement by selecting the neutron energy range, we focused on the energy resolved neutron imaging system RADEN, which utilizes wide energy range from meV to keV. Development of a method to visualize boron distribution using energy-resolved neutrons has been started. In this presentation the authors show the status of the development of a method utilizing energy-resolved neutrons and provide some outcome from its application to the Core Material Melting and Relocation (CMMR)-0 and -2 specimens.
土川 雄介; 阿部 雄太; 大石 佑治*; 甲斐 哲也; 藤 暢輔; 瀬川 麻里子; 前田 亮; 木村 敦; 中村 詔司; 原田 正英; et al.
JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011074_1 - 011074_6, 2021/03
福島原子力発電所の解体作業では、溶融した燃料棒に含まれるホウ素分布を事前に把握することが重要である。溶融燃料棒の模擬試験体を用意し、ホウ素やホウ化物の含有量を調査する研究が行われてきた。本研究では、その一環として中性子を用いたホウ素並びにホウ化物分布の測定技術開発を行った。ホウ素の中性子吸収に伴う即発ガンマ線を測定し、ホウ素量や二次元分布を測定した。また、n(B,)反応における478keV線は、ホウ素の化合状態により、線ピークの幅が変化することが知られている。このことを用い、特に溶融燃料棒周辺に存在することが予測されているZrBやFeBといったホウ化物の識別可能性について調査した。測定はJ-PARC/MLFのANNRI, NOBORU, RADENにて行った。これらの解析結果について報告する。
Su, Y. H.; 及川 健一; 篠原 武尚; 甲斐 哲也; 堀野 孝*; 井戸原 修*; 三阪 佳孝*; 友田 陽*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11, p.4155_1 - 4155_14, 2021/02
A time-of-flight Bragg-edge neutron transmission imaging was used to investigate the microstructure and strain distributions in a gear hardened by a newly developed two-step induction-heating method: precursor (Sample 1) and final product (Sample 2). The edge- position and edge-broadening were determined and mapped with high spatial resolution, which enabled us to confirm the two-dimensional distributions of the microstructure and residual strain. A deep hardened layer was made for Sample 1 in which martensite was formed on the entire teeth and the outer peripheral portion of the gear body. Sample 2 was subjected to double induction-hardening, where a tempered martensite was formed as the thermal refined microstructure between a fine-grained martensite at the tooth surface and a ferrite-pearlite microstructure at the core. The relationship between edge-broadening and the Vickers hardness described by a linear equation was employed to derive the elastic residual strain. The residual strain map for Sample 2 revealed that a steep compressive strain was introduced into the fine-grained martensite at the tooth surface by the super rapid induction- heating and quenching process. The reversal of tension was speculated to occur below 2 mm from the tooth tip, and the strain was almost zero in the core region.
奥平 琢也; 奥 隆之; 猪野 隆*; 林田 洋寿*; 吉良 弘*; 酒井 健二; 廣井 孝介; 高橋 慎吾*; 相澤 一也; 遠藤 仁*; et al.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 977, p.164301_1 - 164301_8, 2020/10
We are developing a neutron polarizer with polarized He gas, referred to as a He spin filter, based on the Spin Exchange Optical Pumping (SEOP) for polarized neutron scattering experiments at Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). A He gas-filling station was constructed at J-PARC, and several He cells with long spin relaxation times have been fabricated using the gas-filling station. A laboratory has been prepared in the MLF beam hall for polarizing He cells, and compact pumping systems with laser powers of 30 W and 110 W, which can be installed onto a neutron beamline, have been developed. A He polarization of 85% was achieved at a neutron beamline by using the pumping system with the 110 W laser. Recently, the first user experiment utilizing the He spin filter was conducted, and there have been several more since then. The development and utilization of He spin filters at MLF of J-PARC are reported.
阿部 雄太; 土川 雄介; 甲斐 哲也; 松本 吉弘*; Parker, J. D.*; 篠原 武尚; 大石 佑治*; 加美山 隆*; 永江 勇二; 佐藤 一憲
Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2020/08
Boron carbide is used as a neutron-absorbing material in Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), producing borides that are twice as hard as oxides (such as UO and ZrO). The high neutron absorption of boron affects the evaluation of re-criticality during the process of debris retrieval. Therefore, it is important not only to determine the presence of boron but also to investigate the distribution of boron inside the material in a non-destructive manner during decommissioning. To address the uncertainties in the core material relocation behavior of boiling water reactor (BWR) during a severe accident (SA), solidified melt specimens of a simulated fuel assembly were prepared by plasma heating. If core material melting and relocation (CMMR) specimens can be used to estimate the B distribution in 1F Unit-3, that will provide valuable information in the decommissioning of 1F. To address this, the authors focused on the energy-resolved neutron imaging system, RADEN, which utilizes a wide energy range, from meV to keV. This is an innovative three-dimensional analysis technology for boride distribution that affects the evaluation of hardness and re-criticality. In the calibration standard samples (ZrB and FeB), there was a good correlation between boron concentration and the energy-dependence of the cross sections of cold and epi-thermal neutrons. In the CMMR specimens, boron distribution was confirmed from the contrast difference between cold and epi-thermal neutrons. In the future, the results of calibration standard samples will be applied to the results of CMMR specimens. With this method, three-dimensional boron distribution will be measured, and the understanding of boride distribution 1F Unit-3 will be improved, which may be reflected in an improved SA code.
友田 陽*; 村上 俊夫*; Wang, Y. X.*; 大村 孝仁*; Harjo, S.; Su, Y. H.; 篠原 武尚
Materials Characterization, 163, p.110243_1 - 110243_8, 2020/05
In this study, the effects of carbon concentration and magnetic transition on the austenite lattice parameter of Fe-30Mn-C alloys were assessed. A linear relationship was obtained between the carbon content and the lattice parameter determined by neutron diffraction and neutron Bragg-edge transmission imaging for austenitic steels bearing 0.007-1.20 mass% C. The results obtained through both methods showed good agreement. In addition, carbon partitioning was evaluated in artificially piled-up discs with different carbon contents in order to develop a new technique for advanced multi-phase steels. The analysis of asymmetry and broadening of the diffraction line profile revealed that the carbon partitioning could be determined. In conclusion, the results presented herein expand the current knowledge on the properties of high Mn austenite.
篠原 武尚; 甲斐 哲也; 及川 健一; 中谷 健; 瀬川 麻里子; 廣井 孝介; Su, Y. H.; 大井 元貴; 原田 正英; 飯倉 寛; et al.
Review of Scientific Instruments, 91(4), p.043302_1 - 043302_20, 2020/04
The energy-resolved neutron imaging system, RADEN, has been installed at the pulsed neutron source in the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. In addition to conventional neutron radiography and tomography, RADEN, the world's first imaging beam-line at a pulsed neutron source, provides three main options for new, quantitative neutron imaging techniques: Bragg-edge imaging to visualize the spatial distribution of crystallographic information, resonance absorption imaging for elemental composition and temperature information, and polarized neutron imaging for magnetic field information. This paper describes the results of characterization studies of the neutronic performance and installed devices at RADEN and shows the results of several demonstration studies for pulsed neutron imaging.
Tremsin, A. S.*; Perrodin, D.*; Losko, A. S.*; Vogel, S. C.*; 篠原 武尚; 及川 健一; Bizarri, G. A.*; Bourret, E. D.*; Peterson, J. H.*; Wang, K. P.*; et al.
Acta Materialia, 186, p.434 - 442, 2020/03
Energy-resolved neutron imaging is employed for measurements of dopant transport in a simple experiment performed before the crystal growth of the scintillator BaBrCl:5%Eu via a vertical gradient freeze technique. During a stabilization period preceding growth, we observed the diffusion of Eu from the solid phase into the melt over a period of approximately 4 h. Comparing the measured centerline concentration profile with a mathematical model for the system, we estimate the solid-state diffusivity of Eu in BaBrCl as = 1.9 10 m/s and an upper limit for the liquid-phase diffusivity of Eu in the melt as = 2.5 10 m/s, at temperatures near the melting point. We compare this experiment, where diffusion is driven by a concentration discontinuity arising from segregation, to the classical diffusion couple technique.
Sonnenschein, V.*; 辻 義之*; 國立 將真*; 久保 渉*; 鈴木 颯*; 富田 英生*; 鬼柳 善明*; 井口 哲夫*; 松下 琢*; 和田 信雄*; et al.
Review of Scientific Instruments, 91(3), p.033318_1 - 033318_12, 2020/03
For the purpose of future visualization of the flow field in superfluid helium-4, clusters of the triplet state excimer He are generated along the micro-scale recoil tracks of the neutron-absorption reaction n + He T + p. This reaction is induced by neutron irradiation of the He fraction contained in natural isotopic abundance liquid helium with neutron beams either from the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (JPARC)/Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility or from the Kyoto University Institute for Integrated Radiation and Nuclear Science. These He clusters are expected to be ideal tracers of the normal-fluid component in superfluid helium with several advantageous properties. Evidence of the excimer generation is inferred by detection of laser induced fluorescence emitted from the He clusters excited by a purpose-built short pulse gain-switched titanium:sapphire (Ti:sa) laser operating at a wavelength of 905 nm. The setup and performance characteristics of the laser system including the Ti:sa and two continuous wave re-pumping lasers are described. Detection at the fluorescence wavelength of 640 nm is performed by using optical bandpass filtered photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Electrical noise in the PMT acquisition traces could successfully be suppressed by post-processing with a simple algorithm. Despite other laser-related backgrounds, the excimer was clearly identified by its fluorescence decay characteristics. Production of the excimer was found to be proportional to the neutron flux, adjusted via insertion of different collimators into the neutron beam. These observations suggest that the apparatus we constructed does function in the expected manner and, therefore, has the potential for groundbreaking turbulence research with superfluid helium.
甲斐 哲也; 篠原 武尚; 松本 吉弘*
検査技術, 25(2), p.1 - 5, 2020/02
大場 洋次郎; 伊藤 大介*; 齊藤 泰司*; 小野寺 陽平*; Parker, J. D.*; 篠原 武尚; 及川 健一
Materials Research Proceedings, Vol.15, p.160 - 164, 2020/02
及川 健一; 鬼柳 善明*; 佐藤 博隆*; 大前 良磨*; Pham, A.*; 渡辺 賢一*; 松本 吉弘*; 篠原 武尚; 甲斐 哲也; Harjo, S.; et al.
Materials Research Proceedings, Vol.15, p.207 - 213, 2020/02
Japanese swords are very attractive not only as a work of art but also a metallurgical point of view. Since Japanese vintage swords became valuable, it is indispensable to establish non-destructive analysis method to identify some peculiar characteristics. Bragg edge imaging gives real-space distributions of bulk information in a crystalline material as well as neutron tomography. In this work, we investigated crystallographic information of a Japanese sword made by Sukemasa in Izumi province in the first quarter of the 16th century. The experiments have been performed at RADEN at J-PARC. The Sukemasa sword was measured with a counting-type 2D detector and with a CCD camera. We are now analyzing the measured 2D-transmission spectra using RITS code to obtain spatial distribution of the crystallite size, the texture variation, the d110 shift and its broadening. Complementary data analysis using white beam tomography is also on going. Detailed analysis results will be presented.