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Cryogenic impact fracture behavior of a high-Mn austenitic steel using electron backscatter diffraction and neutron Bragg-edge transmission imaging

Wang, Y. W.*; Wang, H. H.*; Su, Y. H.; 徐 平光; 篠原 武尚

Materials Science & Engineering A, 887, p.145768_1 - 145768_13, 2023/11

A unique impact fracture behavior is found in a high-Mn austenitic steel (24Mn-4Cr-0.4C-0.3Cu) in this work. The steel exhibits concurrent twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) effect and the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect. By analyzing the load-deflection curves recorded during Charpy impact testing, the resistance to crack initiation and propagation is quantified from the absorbed energy. The high-Mn steel demonstrates good resistance to crack initiation at 273 K and 77 K. However, as the temperature decreases from 273 K to 77 K, there is an accelerated transition from stable crack growth to unstable crack growth during impact, resulting in the deterioration of resistance to crack propagation. The plastic deformation of the impact-tested samples, especially in the region close to the crack-path profile was quantitatively analyzed using neutron Bragg-edge transmission (BET) imaging. The deformation zones, divided by using the width of the 200 Bragg edge, exhibit good agreement with the impact absorbed energy characteristics obtained from dynamic load-deflection curves. Moreover, the unstable growth transition point was roughly determined on the impact-tested sample. Then, the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique is employed to examine the deformation microstructure along the crack-path in the impact-tested samples. The results revealed the dual roles of TRIP effect in impact toughness of the high-Mn steel. On one hand, the TRIP effect plays a positive role in improving resistance to crack initiation and propagation. On the other hand, the excessive accumulation of brittle $$varepsilon$$/$$alpha$$'-martensite caused by the enhanced TRIP effect at 77 K leads to quasi-cleavage fracture, thereby playing a negative role. Finally, we discussed the prominent toughening mechanisms associated with the TWIP and TRIP effects, which greatly impact the impact fracture behavior.


Corrigendum to "Visualization of the working fluid in a flat-plate pulsating heat pipe by neutron radiography" [International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 185 (2022) 122336]

安田 陽介*; 松本 吉弘*; 篠原 武尚; 鍋島 史花*; 堀内 敬介*; 永井 大樹*

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 213, p.124291_1 - 124291_2, 2023/10

Behaviors of the working fluid in a flat-plate pulsating heat pipe (PHP), made of aluminum alloy, in the bottom- and top-heating orientations were visualized by neutron radiography. The results indicate that the initial distribution of the working fluid does not affect the startup characteristics of oscillation of the working fluid in regard to the specifications of flat-plate PHP used in this study.


Update of Bragg edge analysis software "GUI-RITS"

及川 健一; 佐藤 博隆*; 渡辺 賢一*; Su, Y. H.; 篠原 武尚; 甲斐 哲也; 鬼柳 善明*; 長谷美 宏幸

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 2605, p.012013_1 - 012013_6, 2023/10

Spectral data of Bragg-edge imaging, which is one of the energy-resolved neutron imaging methods, can be analyzed by single-edge analysis and full-pattern analysis with the Bragg-edge analysis code RITS developed by Sato et al. This program has a function to generate neutron transmission data considering wavelength-dependent pulse-shape function, atomic number density, crystalline structure, etc., and to extract these parameters from the measured data by the nonlinear least-squares fitting. Last year, we worked on updating the operating environment of the platform Scientific Linux 6 and the language Python 2, which have been discontinued, to Windows 10 and Python 3, and added some functions to improve usability. GUI-RITS for the windows platform has been released to users. In this presentation, we will show concrete examples of the results of the analysis of the same data by the old and new programs, and compare the efficiency of data analysis.


Development of an areal density imaging for boron and other elements

土川 雄介; 甲斐 哲也; 阿部 雄太; 及川 健一; Parker, J. D.*; 篠原 武尚; 佐藤 一憲

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 2605, p.012022_1 - 012022_6, 2023/10



Introduction to Neutron Radiography Facilities at the Japan Research Reactor-3

栗田 圭輔; 飯倉 寛; 土川 雄介; 甲斐 哲也; 篠原 武尚; 大平 直也*; 伊藤 大介*; 齊藤 泰司*; 松林 政仁

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 2605, p.012005_1 - 012005_6, 2023/10

2021年2月26日にJapan Research Ractor-3(JRR-3)の運転が再開され、2021年7月には利用運転が再開された。JRR-3の運転再開に伴い、TNRFとCNRFと呼ばれる2つのイメージング施設も利用を再開している。本発表では、これら2つの中性子施設の詳細について報告する。


Residual stress relaxation by bending fatigue in induction-hardened gear studied by neutron Bragg edge transmission imaging and X-ray diffraction

Su, Y. H.; 及川 健一; 篠原 武尚; 甲斐 哲也; 堀野 孝*; 井戸原 修*; 三阪 佳孝*; 友田 陽*

International Journal of Fatigue, 174, p.107729_1 - 107729_12, 2023/09

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:63.29(Engineering, Mechanical)

A novel procedure, double induction quenching (DIQ), effective for improving the fatigue strength of gear products, has been used for producing gears with steep gradients of compressive residual stress generated in the tooth surface. We performed a Bragg edge imaging experiment at a pulsed neutron source to determine the spatial distribution of the {110} lattice spacing (d$$_{110}$$) and the broadening of the {110} Bragg edge (w$$_{110}$$) on the DIQ gear product after tooth-bending fatigue tests to which different loading cycles were applied. No significant difference occurred in the d$$_{110}$$ and the w$$_{110}$$at Hofer 's critical section of the teeth with different loading conditions within the accuracy of data analysis. However, we detected a decrease in the w$$_{110}$$ and changes in the residual lattice strain distribution in the axial direction along the tooth root directions at the opposite side of Hofer 's critical section for both teeth after 3$$times$$10 $$^{5}$$ and 8$$times$$10 $$^{5}$$ cycles, relieving the compressive residual stresses during the fatigue process. The residual stress close to the gear tooth surface determined by X-ray diffraction using sequential polishing showed a slight relaxation and redistribution from the tensile side in the hoop direction, complementary to the neutron Bragg edge imaging.


3D water management in polymer electrolyte fuel cells toward fuel cell electric vehicles

吉宗 航*; 樋口 雄紀*; 加藤 晃彦*; 日比 章五*; 山口 聡*; 松本 吉弘*; 林田 洋寿*; 野崎 洋*; 篠原 武尚; 加藤 悟*

ACS Energy Letters (Internet), 8(8), p.3485 - 3487, 2023/08

A multiscale water visualization technique for polymer electrolyte fuel cells was established by using ${it operando}$ multiprobe radiography with pulsed spallation neutron and synchrotron X-ray sources. The three-dimensional water distribution revealed that water back-diffusion from the cathode to the anode significantly contributes to the drainability of practical polymer electrolyte fuel cells toward fuel cell electric vehicles.


Neutron resonance absorption imaging of simulated high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass

大場 洋次郎; 元川 竜平; 金子 耕士; 永井 崇之; 土川 雄介; 篠原 武尚; Parker, J. D.*; 岡本 芳浩

Scientific Reports (Internet), 13, p.10071_1 - 10071_8, 2023/06

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01

The spatial distribution of constituent elements in borosilicate glasses containing simulated high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW) was investigated using neutron resonance absorption imaging. The resonance absorption dips of Rh, Pd, Na, Gd, Cs, and Sm were detected in the neutron transmission spectra of the glass samples. The neutron transmission images at the resonance energies of these elements provided the spatial distributions within the glass samples. Rh and Pd led sedimentation, while Gd, Sm, and Cs were uniformly dispersed. These results clearly show the potential of neutron resonance absorption imaging for characterizing borosilicate glasses.


Mechanical surface treatment studies by Bragg edge neutron imaging

Ramadhan, R. S.*; Glaser, D.*; 祖山 均*; Kockelmann, W.*; 篠原 武尚; Pirling, T.*; Fitzpatrick, M. E.*; Tremsin, A. S.*

Acta Materialia, 239, p.118259_1 - 118259_12, 2022/10

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:48.15(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Mechanical surface treatment technologies such as laser peening and cavitation peening require detailed characterization, including residual stress analysis, to optimize their processing parameters. Recent developments at neutron facilities allow non-destructive 2-dimensional residual strain mapping through Bragg edge imaging. The present work highlights the application of Bragg edge neutron imaging for the study of mechanical surface treatments, through determination of lattice spacing distributions by energy-resolved radiography. Through three different examples, the unique capabilities of the method are demonstrated, particularly for providing near surface residual strain maps within samples with complex geometries with relatively high spatial resolution. By providing a comparison with X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction results, the present work emphasizes the potential of Bragg edge neutron imaging as a tool for surface treatment research.


Spatial distribution and preferred orientation of crystalline microstructure of lead-bismuth eutectic

伊藤 大介*; 佐藤 博隆*; 大平 直也*; 齊藤 泰司*; Parker, J. D.*; 篠原 武尚; 甲斐 哲也; 及川 健一

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 569, p.153921_1 - 153921_6, 2022/10

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:33.72(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

To develop a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled nuclear reactor, phase transition phenomena of LBE are very important. In the solidification of LBE, the crystalline structure is varied with the cooling process. The volumetric expansion of LBE must be clarified for the safety of an LBE cooled nuclear reactor. The time dependence of the volumetric expansion depends on the crystalline microstructure. In this study, the crystalline microstructure of the LBE samples solidified with the different cooling processes was investigated by the neutron Bragg edge imaging technique. Spatially integrated and local microstructure characteristics of LBE samples were analyzed. Characteristics of preferred orientation of LBE microstructure were clarified.


Fast phase differentiation between liquid-water and ice by pulsed neutron imaging with gated image intensifier

伊勢川 和久; 瀬戸山 大吾*; 樋口 雄紀*; 松本 吉弘*; 長井 康貴*; 篠原 武尚

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1040, p.167260_1 - 167260_10, 2022/10

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:34.54(Instruments & Instrumentation)

This paper reports on development of pulsed neutron imaging for phase differentiation between liquid water and ice with introduction of a gated image intensifier. Previous neutron-imaging systems for phase differentiation between liquid-water and ice, on the other hand, had some issues with temporal resolution, horizontal distribution of neutron wavelength, and field-of-view size. By using energy-selected pulsed neutron imaging with an optical image intensifier, the authors have achieved liquid-water/ice phase identification with a shorter temporal resolution than before with a suitable field of view area to observe commercial PEFCs.


Neutron imaging of generated water inside polymer electrolyte fuel cell using newly-developed gas diffusion layer with gas flow channels during power generation

那須 三紀*; 谷内 浩*; 平山 尚樹*; 安達 宏法*; 柿澤 優*; 白勢 裕登*; 西山 博道*; 川本 鉄平*; 犬飼 潤治*; 篠原 武尚; et al.

Journal of Power Sources, 530, p.231251_1 - 231251_11, 2022/05

 被引用回数:9 パーセンタイル:88.61(Chemistry, Physical)

To accelerate the spread use of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), it is essential to increase power density and durability, while reduce costs. We have succeeded in developing an innovative gas diffusion layer (GDL) with gas flow channels (GDLFC$$^{+}$$) fabricated on a flat separator that enabled both cost reduction and high performance. In this study, neutron radiography was used to observe the distribution of liquid water during power generation. With using our GDLs and interdigitated (comb-shaped) gas flow channels, the distributions of liquid water were quantitatively imaged, influenced by the current density, the relative humidity, the oxygen utilization, and the water repellency of the GDL. The increase in linear velocity of the oxidant gases effectively suppressed the retention of liquid water at the cathode.


Bragg edge tomography characterization of additively manufactured 316L steel

Busi, M.*; Polatidis, E.*; Malamud, F.*; Kockelmann, W.*; Morgano, M.*; Kaestner, A.*; Tremsin, A.*; Kalentics, N.*; Log$'e$, R.*; Leinenbach, C.*; et al.

Physical Review Materials (Internet), 6(5), p.053602_1 - 053602_8, 2022/05

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:73.76(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

In this work we perform a neutron Bragg edge tomography of stainless steel 316L additive manufacturing samples, one as built via standard laser powder bed fusion, and one using the novel three-dimensional (3D) laser shock peening technique. First, we consider conventional attenuation tomography of the two samples by integrating the signal for neutron wavelengths beyond the last Bragg edge, to analyze the bulk density properties of the material. Second, we obtain strain maps for each of the tomography projections by tracking the wavelength of the strongest Bragg edge corresponding to the {111} lattice plane family. It is found that not only the volume of the sample where the shock peening treatment was carried out yields a higher bulk density, but also a deep and remarkable compressive strain region.


Non-destructive characterization of the spatial variation of $$gamma$$/$$gamma$$$$^{'}$$ lattice misfit in a single-crystal Ni-based superalloy by energy-resolved neutron imaging

Malamud, F.*; Santisteban, J. R.*; Gao, Y.*; 篠原 武尚; 及川 健一; Tremsin, A.*

Journal of Applied Crystallography, 55(2), p.228 - 239, 2022/04

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:31.49(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Lattice misfit in nickel-based superalloys is one of the important microstructural parameters that control their mechanical properties, such as creep behaviour at high temperatures. Here, energy-resolved neutron imaging experiments are performed at a spallation neutron source to determine the spatial variation of lattice misfit on a second-generation nickel-based single-crystal superalloy specimen produced from a failed low-cycle fatigue specimen. An analysis of the position and width of those Laue peaks in the obtained transmission spectra allows determination of the lattice parameters of the $$gamma$$ and $$gamma$$$$^{'}$$ phases that compose the specimen, as well as the strain misfit and the misorientation between them. An analytical model is developed to describe the full wavelength pattern of Laue peaks arising from a specimen composed of two single crystals, and this model is used to perform least-squares refinements of the spectra measured at different positions of the specimen.


Tracer diffusion coefficients measurements on LaPO$$_{4}$$-dispersed LATP by means of neutron radiography

Song, F.*; Chen, H.*; 林田 洋寿*; 甲斐 哲也; 篠原 武尚; 薮塚 武史*; 八尾 健*; 高井 茂臣*

Solid State Ionics, 377, p.115873_1 - 115873_6, 2022/04

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:33.33(Chemistry, Physical)

Lithium tracer diffusion coefficients have been measured in Li$$_{1.3}$$Al$$_{0.3}$$Ti$$_{1.7}$$(PO$$_4$$)$$_3$$ (LATP) and LATP - LaPO$$_4$$ composite solid electrolytes in the temperature range between 300$$^{circ}$$C and 500$$^{circ}$$C by means of neutron radiography technique that utilizes the difference in neutron attenuation of $$^6$$Li and $$^7$$Li isotopes. The diffusion coefficient of LATP - LaPO$$_4$$ composite is higher than that of pristine LATP, although the difference is much smaller than that estimated from the room temperature conductivity. This suggests that the bulk diffusion becomes the predominant diffusion mechanism at 300$$^{circ}$$C to 500$$^{circ}$$C instead of the diffusion along the space charge layer formed around the LaPO$$_4$$ dispersants.


Strain distribution visualization of punched electrical steel sheets using neutron Bragg-edge transmission imaging

笹田 星児*; Takahashi, Yoshihito*; Takeuchi, Keisuke*; 廣井 孝介; Su, Y. H.; 篠原 武尚; 渡辺 賢一*; 瓜谷 章*

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 61(4), p.046004_1 - 046004_8, 2022/03

Residual strains in a punched electrical steel sheet increase the iron loss in the steel sheet. To accurately estimate the effect of residual strain on iron loss, the residual strain distribution in a punched electrical steel sheet should be evaluated. In this study, we demonstrated the two- dimensional imaging of the residual strain distribution in a punched electrical steel sheet using the neutron Bragg-edge transmission imaging method. To improve the accuracy of strain measurement with minimal deterioration of spatial resolution, we applied a process of superposing many specimen images. The tensile strain near the punched edge and the compressive strain inside the core were experimentally confirmed using this method. Finally, the neutron Bragg-edge imaging results and those obtained from kernel average misorientation map using electron backscattered diffraction were compared to verify the validity of the proposed method.


High-spatial-resolution measurement of magnetization distribution using polarized neutron imaging

笹田 星児*; 廣井 孝介; 小山内 健太*; 篠原 武尚; Watanabe, K.*; 瓜谷 章*

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 60(12), p.126003_1 - 126003_6, 2021/12

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:8.23(Physics, Applied)

The evaluation of the magnetization distribution inside a bulk magnet is important for ensuring the performance of automotive motors because it strongly depends on the quality of magnetization inside the permanent magnet. In the conventional destructive method, it is difficult to accurately measure the magnetization with a high spatial resolution. The polarized neutron imaging technique can be used to visualize the distribution of the magnetic flux density inside a magnet nondestructively. In this study, we demonstrated the imaging of the magnetization distribution using polarized neutrons in an anisotropic ferrite magnet sample. The 2D distribution of the magnetization was experimentally obtained by polarized neutron imaging with a high spatial resolution of less than 1 mm. Furthermore, the validity of the results was confirmed by comparing them with those obtained using the conventional destructive method.


The First application of a Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$:Ce single-crystal scintillator to neutron radiography

伊勢川 和久; 瀬戸山 大吾*; 木村 英彦*; 篠原 武尚

Journal of Imaging (Internet), 7(11), p.232_1 - 232_9, 2021/11



Monitoring residual strain relaxation and preferred grain orientation of additively manufactured Inconel 625 by in-situ neutron imaging

Tremsin, A. S.*; Gao, Y.*; Makinde, A.*; Bilheux, H. Z.*; Bilheux, J. C.*; An, K.*; 篠原 武尚; 及川 健一

Additive Manufacturing, 46, p.102130_1 - 102130_20, 2021/10

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:45.37(Engineering, Manufacturing)

Microstructures produced by Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques determine many characteristics of components where these materials are used. Residual stress and texture are among those characteristics, which need to be optimized. In this study, we employ energy-resolved neutron imaging to investigate, non-destructively, the uniformity of texture and to map the distribution of strain due to residual stress in Inconel 625 samples. The samples used in this study were printed by a direct metal laser melting additive manufacturing technique. Strain and texture variation are measured at room temperature as well as their changes during annealing at 700$$^{circ}$$C and 875$$^{circ}$$C in a vacuum furnace. The uniformity of crystalline plane distribution, from which texture can be inferred, is imaged with sub-mm spatial resolution for the entire sample area.


Calibration and optimization of Bragg edge analysis in energy-resolved neutron imaging experiments

Tremsin, A. S.*; Bilheux, H. Z.*; Bilheux, J. C.*; 篠原 武尚; 及川 健一; Gao, Y.*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1009, p.165493_1 - 165493_12, 2021/09

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:58.42(Instruments & Instrumentation)

The investigation of microstructure of crystalline materials is one of the possible and frequently used applications of energy-resolved neutron imaging. The position of Bragg edges is defined by sharp changes in neutron transmission and can thus be determined by the measurement of the transmission spectra as a function of neutron wavelength. The accuracy of this measurement depends on both the data analysis technique and the quality of the measured spectra. While the optimization of reconstruction methods was addressed in several previous studies, here we introduce an important prerequisite when aiming for high resolution Bragg edge strain imaging - a well calibrated flight path across the entire field of view (FOV). Compared to e.g. powder diffraction, imaging often uses slightly different geometries and hence requires a calibration for each particular setup. We herein show the importance of this calibration across the entire FOV in order to determine the instrumental error correction for pulsed neutron beamlines.

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