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Journal Articles

Seismic classification of high temperature engineering test reactor

Ono, Masato; Shimizu, Atsushi; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Inoi, Hiroyuki; Tokuhara, Kazumi*; Nomoto, Yasunobu*; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Shinozaki, Masayuki

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 386, p.111585_1 - 111585_9, 2022/01

In the late 1980s during the design stage, the seismic classification of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) was formulated. Owing to the lack of operation experiences of the HTTR to sufficiently understand the safety characteristics of high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR) at that time, the seismic classification of commercial light water reactors (LWR) was applied to HTTR. However, the subsequent operation experiences and test results using HTTR made it clear that the seismic classification of commercial LWR was somewhat too conservative for the HTGR. As a result, Class S facilities were downgraded compared to the commercial LWR. Moreover, the validity of the new seismic classification is confirmed. In June 2020, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority approved that the result of the seismic classification conformed to the standard rules of the reactor installation change.

Journal Articles

High temperature gas-cooled reactors

Takeda, Tetsuaki*; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Aihara, Jun; Aoki, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Ho, H. Q.; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Imai, Yoshiyuki; et al.

High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors; JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation, Vol.5, 464 Pages, 2021/02

As a general overview of the research and development of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in JAEA, this book describes the achievements by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) on the designs, key component technologies such as fuel, reactor internals, high temperature components, etc., and operational experience such as rise-to-power tests, high temperature operation at 950$$^{circ}$$C, safety demonstration tests, etc. In addition, based on the knowledge of the HTTR, the development of designs and component technologies such as high performance fuel, helium gas turbine and hydrogen production by IS process for commercial HTGRs are described. These results are very useful for the future development of HTGRs. This book is published as one of a series of technical books on fossil fuel and nuclear energy systems by the Power Energy Systems Division of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Journal Articles

Establishment of integrity evaluation method for Reserved Shutdown System of High-Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)

Hamamoto, Shimpei; Kawamoto, Taiki; Kondo, Makoto; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Takada, Shoji; Shinozaki, Masayuki

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 15(2), p.66 - 69, 2016/06

High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) has the reactivity control system which is accompanied with the Reserved Shutdown System (RSS). The RSS consists of B$$_{4}$$C/C pellets, guide tube, electric plug, motor which contains brake and reducer, and so on. In accidents when the control rods cannot be inserted, an electric plug is pulled out by motor and the B$$_{4}$$C/C pellets fall into the core by gravity. It was revealed that the motor in the RSS drive mechanism did not work as the result of pre-start up checks as described followings: (1) The oil which was separated from a grease of motor reducer flowed down from gap of oil seal, (2) the separated oil penetrated into the brake, (3) the penetrated oil was mixed with abrasion powder released from brake disk, finally, (4) the adhesive mixture blocked the rotation of the motor. A new evaluation method was proposed to detect a sign of the motor sticking. Through the overhaul inspection of all RSS drive mechanisms of HTTR, it was revealed that the proposed method was effective to evaluate the integrity of the RSS drive mechanism.

Journal Articles

Improvement of exchanging method of neutron startup source of high temperature engineering test reactor

Sawahata, Hiroaki; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Yanagida, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Takada, Shoji; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Tochio, Daisuke

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2016/06

In the HTTR, $$^{252}$$Cf is loaded in the reactor core as a neutron startup source and changed at frequency. In this exchange work, there were two technical issues; slightly higher radiation exposure of workers by neutron leakage and reliability of neutron source transportation container in handling. To reduce the radiation dose by neutron leakage, detail numerical evaluations using PHITS code were carried out, the effective shielding method for fuel handling machine was proposed. Easily removable polyethylene blocks and particles were used as the neutron shielding, and installed in the cooling paths of the fuel handling machine. As a result, the collective effective dose by neutron was reduced from about 700 man-microSv to about 300 man-microSv. As to the neutron source transportation container, the handling performance was improved and the handling work was safety accomplished by downsizing.

Journal Articles

Development of operation and maintenance technology for HTGRs by using HTTR (High Temperature engineering Test Reactor)

Shimizu, Atsushi; Kawamoto, Taiki; Tochio, Daisuke; Saito, Kenji; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Homma, Fumitaka; Furusawa, Takayuki; Saikusa, Akio; Takada, Shoji; Shinozaki, Masayuki

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 271, p.499 - 504, 2014/05

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:36.81(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The long term high temperature operation using HTTR was carried out to establish the technical basis of HTGR in the high temperature test operation mode during 50-day since January till March, 2010. It is necessary to demonstrate the stability of plant during long-term operation in order to attain the stable supply of the high temperature heat to the planned heat utilization system of HTTR. Test data obtained in the operation were evaluated for the technical issues which were extracted before the operation. As the results, Stability and reliability of the components and facility was demonstrated by evaluating the heat transfer performance of high temperature components, the performance of pressure control to compensate helium gas leak, the reliability of the dynamic components such as helium gas circulators, the performance of heat-up protection of radiation shielding. Through the operation, the technical basis for the operation and maintenance technology of HTGRs was established.

Journal Articles

Development of operation and maintenance technology of HTTR (High Temperature engineering Test Reactor)

Shimizu, Atsushi; Kawamoto, Taiki; Tochio, Daisuke; Saito, Kenji; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Homma, Fumitaka; Furusawa, Takayuki; Saikusa, Akio; Shinozaki, Masayuki

Proceedings of 6th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2012) (USB Flash Drive), 8 Pages, 2012/10

To establish the technical basis of HTGR, the long term high temperature operation using HTTR was carried out during 50-day in 2010. It is necessary to demonstrate the stability of plant during long-term operation and the reliability of components and facilities special to HTGRs, in order to attain the stable supply of the high temperature heat to the planned hydrogen production system of HTTR. Test data obtained in the operation were evaluated for the technical issues which were extracted before the operation. As the results, stability and reliability of the components and facility special to HTGRs was demonstrated by evaluating the heat transfer performance of high temperature components, the helium gas leak tightness, the reliability of the dynamic components such as helium gas circulators, the performance of heat-up protection of radiation shielding. Through the operation, the technical basis for the operation and maintenance technology of HTGRs were established.

Journal Articles

High-temperature continuous operation of the HTTR

Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Hino, Ryutaro; Ogawa, Masuro; Komori, Yoshihiro; Nakazawa, Toshio*; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Nishihara, Tetsuo; et al.

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 10(4), p.290 - 300, 2011/12

A high temperature (950$$^{circ}$$C) continuous operation has been performed for 50 days on the HTTR from January to March in 2010, and the potential to supply stable heat of high temperature for hydrogen production for a long time was demonstrated for the first time in the world. This successful operation could establish technological basis of HTGRs and show potential of nuclear energy as heat source for innovative thermo-chemical-based hydrogen production, emitting greenhouse gases on a "low-carbon path" for the first time in the world.

Journal Articles

Long-term high-temperature operation in the HTTR, 1; Outline and main test results

Shinohara, Masanori; Tochio, Daisuke; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Inoi, Hiroyuki; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Iyoku, Tatsuo

Proceedings of 5th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2010) (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2010/10

HTTR constructed at the Oarai Research and Development Center of JAEA is the first HTGR in Japan. The reactor thermal power is 30 MW, the reactor maximum outlet coolant temperature is 850 $$^{circ}$$C in rated operation mode and 950 $$^{circ}$$C in high temperature test operation mode. Main objectives of the HTTR are to establish and develop HTGR technology and to demonstrate process heat application. 30-days operation in rated operation mode and 50-days operation in high-temperature operation mode were performed to obtain various characteristic data of HTGR. The main test results are as follows :(1) CPF of the HTTR has excellent confinement ability of fission product which is the highest performance in the world. (2) The measurement temperature of the core internals is good agreement with the design value so that their structural integrity is maintained. (3) The intermediate heat exchanger keeps excellent heat transfer performance from beginning of operation.

JAEA Reports

Maintenance of the emergency power generators and overhaul of the gas turbine engines in HTTR

Inoi, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kameyama, Yasuhiko; Kobayashi, Shoichi; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Ota, Yukimaru; Kubo, Tsukasa*; Emori, Koichi

JAEA-Technology 2009-048, 48 Pages, 2009/10

JAEA-Technology-2009-048.pdf:5.0MB

The emergency power feeders of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have gas turbine generators which are composed of gas turbin engines, generators and current breakers. The gas turbine generators have been overhauled and maintained to keep the performance. The maintenance technology was upgraded by improving their parts and surveillance method on the basis of the operational and maintenance experience. It can be clarified that the deterioration levels and the sudden deterioration timing are judged at an early stage by measuring the max exhaust temperature at the time of start in addition to check the starting time of the Gas Turbine Engines.

Journal Articles

Development and achievements on the high power ECRF system in JT-60U

Moriyama, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Isayama, Akihiko; Terakado, Masayuki; Sawahata, Masayuki; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Yokokura, Kenji; Shimono, Mitsugu; Hasegawa, Koichi; Hiranai, Shinichi; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 49(8), p.085001_1 - 085001_7, 2009/07

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:56.57(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

In the gyrotron development in JT-60U ECRF system, output power of 1.5 MW for 1 s has been achieved at 110 GHz. It is the world highest power oscillation $$>$$ 1 s. In addition to the carefully designed cavity and collector in view of thermal stress, an RF shield for the adjustment bellows, and a low-dielectric-loss DC break enabled this achievement. Power modulation technique by anode voltage control was improved to obtain high modulation frequency and 5 kHz has been achieved for NTM stabilizing experiments. Long pulse demonstration of 0.4 MW, 30 s injection to the plasma has been achieved with real time control of anode/cathode-heater. It has been confirmed that the temperature of cooled components were saturated and no evidence of damage were found. An innovative antenna having wide range of beam steering capability with linearly-moving-mirror concept has been designed for long pulse. Beam profile and mechanical strength analyses shows the feasibility of the antenna.

Journal Articles

Long pulse/high power ECRF system development in JT-60U

Moriyama, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Isayama, Akihiko; Terakado, Masayuki; Sawahata, Masayuki; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Yokokura, Kenji; Shimono, Mitsugu; Hasegawa, Koichi; Hiranai, Shinichi; et al.

Proceedings of 22nd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2008) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2008/10

In the gyrotron development in JT-60U ECRF system, output power of 1.5 MW for 1 s has been achieved at 110 GHz. It is the world highest power oscillation $$>$$ 1 s. In addition to the carefully designed cavity and collector in view of thermal stress, an RF shield for the adjustment bellows, and a low-dielectric-loss DC break enabled this achievement. Power modulation technique by anode voltage control was improved to obtain high modulation frequency and 5 kHz has been achieved for NTM stabilizing experiments. Long pulse demonstration of 0.4 MW, 30 s injection to the plasma has been achieved with real time control of anode/cathode-heater. It has been confirmed that the temperature of cooled components were saturated and no evidence of damage were found. An innovative antenna having wide range of beam steering capability with linearly-moving-mirror concept has been designed for long pulse. Beam profile and mechanical strength analyses shows the feasibility of the antenna.

JAEA Reports

Maintenance of gaseous radwaste treatment system in HTTR

Yamazaki, Kazunori; Kameyama, Yasuhiko; Inoi, Hiroyuki; Arakaki, Etsushi; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Ota, Yukimaru

JAEA-Testing 2008-002, 52 Pages, 2008/03

JAEA-Testing-2008-002.pdf:15.54MB

The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) has the Gaseous Radwaste Treatment System (GRTS). This system appropriately collects all potentially radioactive gases discharged from the plant. After the gases are decayed with the Decay tank and decreased with the Filtering system, the gases are discharged into the atmosphere under monitoring. This system is maintained every year for keeping the performance. The maintenance is very important. Furthermore, the maintenance is profitable for designing a new High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor. This report describes the newly developed, maintenance items and improvements of the GRTS.

JAEA Reports

Maintenance of the auxiliary component cooling water system and the general cooling water system in HTTR

Kameyama, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Shuji; Inoi, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Yasunori; Aragaki, Etsushi; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Ota, Yukimaru

JAEA-Testing 2008-001, 63 Pages, 2008/03

JAEA-Testing-2008-001.pdf:20.97MB

The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) has the Auxiliary Component Cooling Water System (ACCWS) and the General Cooling Water System (GCWS). ACCWS supplies the cooling water to the many facilities those are necessary to operate and cool the reactor. GCWS supplies the cooling water to the many facilities those are necessary to operate and cool the reactor in normal circumstances. Two kinds of the cooling water are cooled with the Cooling Tower. Each facility has the circulation pump, the cooling tower, the piping, the valve, the strainer and the injection system of the chemical solution. And these two facilities are operating all the year. This report describes maintenance items, improvements and management of the ACCWS and the GCWS.

JAEA Reports

Improvement of helium sampling system in HTTR

Sekita, Kenji; Kuroha, Misao; Emori, Koichi; Kondo, Masaaki; Ouchi, Hiroshi; Shinozaki, Masayuki

JAEA-Technology 2008-002, 49 Pages, 2008/03

JAEA-Technology-2008-002.pdf:9.21MB

Graphite structures are used as one of the HTTR core internal structures. Graphite structures have high heat resistant property but its mechanical strength degrades easily by oxidization. To prevent the oxidization of graphite structures, impurity concentrations in the coolant of helium are controlled strictly. The helium sampling system is installed to measure the impurity concentrations in the helium. At gas compressor in helium sampling system, seal-oil leak at rod seal mechanism was occurred. The causes are degradation of seal material and contaminant abrasion powder of grand-packing. As these countermeasure, material of seal material was changed and contaminant was decreased. As the result long term operation is enabled. Moreover, reliable data can be obtained and efficient impurity control is enabled due to renewal of data acquisition control computer of gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and improvement of liquid nitrogen trap.

JAEA Reports

Development of the power modulation technique in JT-60U ECH system

Terakado, Masayuki; Shimono, Mitsugu; Sawahata, Masayuki; Shinozaki, Shinichi; Igarashi, Koichi; Sato, Fumiaki; Wada, Kenji; Seki, Masami; Moriyama, Shinichi

JAEA-Technology 2007-053, 28 Pages, 2007/09

JAEA-Technology-2007-053.pdf:4.3MB

The electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system at 110 GHz are injected to JT-60U plasmas with pulse modulation at dozens to hundreds of Hz in order to measure heat conductivity of the plasma to investigate plasma confinement. The JT-60U ECH system has a unique feature to realize the pulse modulation by controlling the anode voltage of the triode gyrotron without chopping the main acceleration voltage. The typical depth of the modulation is 80 % at the modulation frequency range of 12.2 Hz to 500 Hz. However in the JT-60SA, higher modulation frequency of some kHz will be required to stabilize neoclassical tearing mode (NTM). The modulation techniques have been investigated and the modulation frequency of 3.5 kHz with the modulation depth of 84 % has been achieved. The modulation frequency up to 3 kHz is available in the pulse widths of the practical operation. As a next step, replacement of the parts in the anode voltage divider circuit is planned to achieve higher modulation frequency.

JAEA Reports

The Approaches of safety design and safety evaluation at HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor)

Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Saikusa, Akio; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Tochio, Daisuke; Homma, Fumitaka; Tachibana, Yukio; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Kawasaki, Kozo; Baba, Osamu*

JAEA-Review 2006-010, 90 Pages, 2006/07

JAEA-Review-2006-010.pdf:5.65MB

Gas Cooled Reactor has long history of nuclear development, and High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) has been expected that it can be supply high temperature energy to chemical industry and to power generation from the points of view of the safety, the efficiency, the environment and the economy. The HTGR design is tried to installed passive safety equipment. The current licensing review guideline was made for a Low Water Reactor (LWR) on safety evaluation therefore if it would be directly utilized in the HTGR it needs the special consideration for the HTGR. This paper describes that investigation result of the safety design and the safety evaluation traditions for the HTGR, comparison the safety design and safety evaluation feature for the HTGT with it's the LWR, and reflection for next HTGR based on HTTR operational experiment.

JAEA Reports

Test results of HTTR control system

Motegi, Toshihiro; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Saito, Kenji; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Hirato, Yoji; Kondo, Makoto; Shibutani, Hideki; Ogawa, Satoru; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Mizushima, Toshihiko; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2006-029, 67 Pages, 2006/06

JAEA-Technology-2006-029.pdf:3.07MB

The plant control performance of the IHX helium flow rate control system, the PPWC helium flow rate control system, the secondary helium flow rate control system, the inlet temperature control system, the reactor power control system and the outlet temperature control system of the HTTR are obtained through function tests and power-up tests. As the test results, the control systems show stable control response under transient condition. Both of inlet temperature control system and reactor power control system shows stable operation from 30% to 100%, respectively. This report describes the outline of control systems and test results.

Journal Articles

Performance of the LH antenna with carbon grill in JT-60U

Seki, Masami; Moriyama, Shinichi; Shinozaki, Shinichi; Hasegawa, Koichi; Hiranai, Shinichi; Yokokura, Kenji; Shimono, Mitsugu; Terakado, Masayuki; Fujii, Tsuneyuki

Fusion Engineering and Design, 74(1-4), p.273 - 277, 2005/11

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:25.79(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Operational progress of the 110GHz-4MW ECRF heating system in JT-60U

Fujii, Tsuneyuki; Seki, Masami; Moriyama, Shinichi; Terakado, Masayuki; Shinozaki, Shinichi; Hiranai, Shinichi; Shimono, Mitsugu; Hasegawa, Koichi; Yokokura, Kenji; JT-60 Team

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 25, p.45 - 50, 2005/00

The JT-60U electron cyclotron range of frequency (ECRF) is utilized to realize high performance plasma. Its output power is 4 MW at 110 GHz. By controlling the anode voltage of the gyrotron used in the JT-60U ECRF heating system, the gyrotoron output can be controlled. Then, the anode voltage controller was developed to modulate the injected power into plasmas. This low cost controller achieved the modulation frequency 12 - 500 Hz at 0.7 MW. This controller also extended the pulse width from 5s to 16 s at 0.5 MW. For these long pulses, temperature rise of the DC break made of Alumina ceramics is estimated. Its maximum temperature becomes $$sim$$ 140 deg. From the analysis of this temperature rise, DC break materials should be changed to low loss materials for the objective pulse width of 30 s. The stabilization of neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) was demonstrated by ECRF heating using the real-time system in which the ECRF beams are injected to the NTM location predicted from ECE measurement every 10 ms.

Journal Articles

Experience of HTTR construction and operation; Unexpected incidents

Fujimoto, Nozomu; Tachibana, Yukio; Saikusa, Akio*; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Isozaki, Minoru; Iyoku, Tatsuo

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 233(1-3), p.273 - 281, 2004/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

From a viewpoint of heat leakage, there were two incidents during HTTR power-rise-tests. One was a temperature rise of the primary upper shielding, and the other was a temperature rise of the core support plate. Causes of the both incidents were small amount of helium flow in structures. For the temperature rise of the primary upper shielding, countermeasures to reduce the small amount of helium flow, enhancement of heat release and installation of thermal insulator were taken. For the temperature rise of the core support plate, temperature evaluations were carried out again considering the small amount of helium flow and design temperature of the core support plate was revised. By these countermeasures, the both temperatures were kept below their limits.

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