Kitagaki, Toru; Yoshida, Kenta*; Liu, P.*; Shobu, Takahisa
npj Materials Degradation (Internet), 6(1), p.13_1 - 13_8, 2022/02
Shiro, Ayumi*; Okada, Tatsuya*; Shobu, Takahisa
Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 8(6), p.21-00106_1 - 21-00106_8, 2021/12
The objective of the present study was to carry out observations of deformation and annealing processes of aluminum single crystals using a synchrotron radiation X-rays at SPring-8. Al single-crystalline samples having a 111 orientation parallel to the longitudinal direction were grown by a Bridgman method. The samples were deformed in tension to a nominal strain of 0.08 at room temperature using an in-line tensioning apparatus. Post-deformation annealing at 480 C was subsequently carried out in the same apparatus. A two-dimensional detector was used to detect multiple diffracted beams from the sample during the deformation and annealing processes. The volume irradiated by the X-ray beam was found to be composed of three regions having a small orientation difference, which was attributable to sub-grained microstructures of the sample. Detailed analyses of a diffraction spot intensity showed that the sub-grained microstructures were surpassed by dislocated microstructures with the increase in the tensile strain. During the post-deformation annealing, diffraction spots from a recrystallized grain first appeared at 180 s after the temperature reached 480 C. Coexistence of diffraction spots from the deformation matrix and recrystallized grain lasted only for about 22 s in the irradiated volume. The migration rate of the boundary between the deformation matrix and recrystallized grain was estimated to be of the order of several micrometers/s.
Shobu, Takahisa; Shiro, Ayumi*; Muramatsu, Toshiharu*
SPring-8/SACLA Riyo Kenkyu Seikashu (Internet), 9(5), p.318 - 323, 2021/08
Laser welding has already been put into practical use for various metal materials because the irradiation area is very small and the control is easy. In this study, we evaluated strain, stress, deformation, etc. near the processing affected area by high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction method, which is one of the problems of laser welding of different materials that are expected to be put into practical use. As a result of internal deformation measurement of the bonding of dissimilar materials of copper and iron, it was confirmed that the copper side with a high coefficient of linear expansion was hardly deformed, strong tensile strain on the iron side, and a plastic deformation region on the heat-affected zone. In addition, a retained austenite phase, which is thought to be caused by the mixture of copper, was observed in the plastic deformation region of iron, and further problems were clarified in the evaluation of material strength in the mixed metallic materials.
Shobu, Takahisa; Shiro, Ayumi*; Kono, Fumiaki*; Muramatsu, Toshiharu; Yamada, Tomonori; Naganuma, Masayuki; Ozawa, Takayuki
Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 5(2), p.17_1 - 17_9, 2021/06
The automotive industries employ laser beam welding because it realizes a high energy density without generating irradiation marks on the opposite side of the irradiated surface. Typical measurement techniques such as strain gauges and tube X-rays cannot assess the localized strain at a joint weld. Herein high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction was used to study the internal strain distribution of laser lap joint PNC-FMS steels (2- and 5-mm thick) under loading at a high temperature. As the tensile load increased, the local tensile and compressive strains increased near the interface. These changes agreed well with the finite element analysis results. However, it is essential to complementarily utilize internal defect observations by X-ray transmission imaging because the results depend on the defects generated by laser processing.
Hojo, Tomohiko*; Akiyama, Eiji*; Saito, Hiroyuki*; Shiro, Ayumi*; Yasuda, Ryo*; Shobu, Takahisa; Kinugasa, Junichiro*; Yuse, Fumio*
Corrosion Science, 177, p.108957_1 - 108957_9, 2020/12
Hydrogen assisted cracking on hemispherically-stretch-formed specimens of transformation induced plasticity-aided martensitic steel was investigated. Hydrogen charging induced cracking around the foot of the impression formed on the steel sheet, and the cracks propagated along the radial direction toward the hillside and the plains. Distributions of stress, plastic strain and volume fraction of retained austenite were analyzed employing the energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction method utilizing the synchrotron X-ray radiation at SPring-8. It was notable that the crack initiation took place in the region where the measured tensile stress was the highest. Influences of plastic strain and resulted martensitic transformation were also suggested.
Suzuki, Kenji*; Shiro, Ayumi*; Toyokawa, Hidenori*; Saji, Choji*; Shobu, Takahisa
Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 4(3), p.25_1 - 25_14, 2020/09
It is difficult to evaluate stress by the strain scanning method using a conventional diffractometer and a point detector since the two-dimensional diffraction pattern of a material composed of coarse grains does not have a ring but a spotty. To solve this problem, we proposed a double exposure method using a two-dimensional detector and monochromatized X-rays. In this study, we have developed a technique to apply that technique to white X-rays. The diffraction obtained by irradiating white X-rays for a material with of coarse grains becomes a Laue spot. Therefore, we have carried out developing a CdTe pixel two-dimensional detector that can limit the energy to be detected, and we evaluated the stress using that detector. As a result, we succeeded to measure the strain distribution of a bending specimen made to austenitic stainless steel. In the future, we would like to improve this technology and apply it to actual machine materials.
Hojo, Tomohiko*; Kumai, B.*; Koyama, Motomichi*; Akiyama, Eiji*; Waki, Hiroyuki*; Saito, Hiroyuki*; Shiro, Ayumi*; Yasuda, Ryo*; Shobu, Takahisa; Nagasawa, Akihiko*
International Journal of Fracture, 224(2), p.253 - 260, 2020/08
In the study, the pre-strain effect on hydrogen embrittlement property of the ultra-high-strength transformation-induced plasticity -aided bainitic ferrite steel was investigated towards application for automobile frame parts. 3-10% tensile pre-strain suppressed hydrogen-induced mechanical degradation relative to total elongation while 12-15% pre-strained specimen did not exhibit elongation after hydrogen charging. The advantageous effect of the 3-10% pre-strain was attributed to the suppression of crack initiation related to retained austenite. The TRIP by pre-straining decreased the volume fraction of retained austenite before hydrogen charging, thereby reducing existing probabilities of preferential crack initiation sites and propagation paths. Conversely, high pre-strain such as 12-15% does not effectively work due to work hardening resulting in increases in hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility and a significant increase in hydrogen content due to the multiplication of dislocations.
Shobu, Takahisa; Shiro, Ayumi*; Yoshida, Yutaka*
Zairyo, 69(4), p.343 - 347, 2020/04
Dislocation density is a very important physical quantity in the evaluation of fatigue of metallic materials. Generally, the dislocation density is evaluated by a scanning electron microscope. Recently, a method generated the dislocation density from the width of the X-ray diffraction profile has been proposed. In this study, we report the application of this technology to synchrotron radiation. Five diffraction profiles were obtained with a two-dimensional detector during tensile loading of the austenitic stainless steel SUS316L, and the dislocation density was calculated from the line profile analysis. As a result, the dislocation density increased sharply after plastic deformation, and the value was in good agreement with the result separately measured with a scanning electron microscope. In the future, it is expected that the line profile analysis will contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of fatigue fracture by measuring the dislocation density from the local area in materials.
Miyakawa, Susumu*; Ito, Toshimasa*; Iwahori, Keisuke*; Aoyama, Yoshihiko*; Kubo, Ryosuke*; Murata, Shinji*; Shobu, Takahisa; Shiro, Ayumi*; Kajiwara, Kentaro*
Zairyo, 69(4), p.308 - 314, 2020/04
White etching area which looks white with nital corrosive liquid may be recognized at the flaking part of a rolling bearing on which high contact stress of several GPa is applied repeatedly. Up to now, studies of white etching area of a ball have been less than studies of white etching area of inner and outer rings. In this study, as part of the flaking mechanism explication with white etching area of a ball, internal residual stress distributions of ball by using high energy white X-ray of SPring-8 (A method) and laboratorial X-ray measurement equipment (B method) were investigated. The former was modified by surface residual stress according to B method. The latter was modified by releasing stress in the form of electrolytic polishing. The results showed modified residual stress distributions almost agree qualitatively.
Bae, S.*; Jee, H.*; Suh, H.*; Kanematsu, Manabu*; Shiro, Ayumi*; Machida, Akihiko*; Watanuki, Tetsu*; Shobu, Takahisa; Morooka, Satoshi; Geng, G.*; et al.
Construction and Building Materials, 237, p.117714_1 - 117714_10, 2020/03
Kumada, Takayuki; Oba, Yojiro; Motokawa, Ryuhei; Morooka, Satoshi; Tominaga, Aki; Tanida, Hajime; Shobu, Takahisa; Konno, Azusa; Owada, Kenji*; Ono, Naoko*; et al.
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 528, p.151890_1 - 151890_7, 2020/01
We have developed an anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS) diffractometer in SPring-8 to investigate irradiation-induced nanostructural change in ion-beam irradiated stainless steel. A thermally-aged MA956 stainless steel sample displays power-law scattering that follows the Porod law at the magnitude of scattering vector, Q, below 0.5 nm and an overlapped shoulder around 0.7 nm. After the ion-beam irradiation, the intensity of the shoulder remained unchanged, whereas that of the power-law scattering nearly doubled. This result indicates that none of the structural parameters of the Cr-rich nanoprecipitates, such as the number density, size, and interface roughness, were changed by the irradiation.
Yoneda, Yasuhiro; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Takeda, Yukiharu; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Matsumura, Daiju; Shobu, Takahisa; Tamura, Kazuhisa
Materia, 58(12), p.763 - 769, 2019/12
This is an introduction to the equipment provided for each implementation period belonging to the structure analysis platform in the nanotechnology platform.
Sano, Tomokazu*; Eimura, Takayuki*; Hirose, Akio*; Kawahito, Yosuke*; Katayama, Seiji*; Arakawa, Kazuto*; Masaki, Kiyotaka*; Shiro, Ayumi*; Shobu, Takahisa; Sano, Yuji*
Metals, 9(11), p.1192_1 - 1192_13, 2019/11
The purpose of the present study was to verify the effectiveness of dry laser peening (DryLP), which is the peening technique without a sacrificial overlay under atmospheric conditions using femtosecond laser pulses on the mechanical properties such as hardness, residual stress, and fatigue performance. After DryLP treatment of the laser-welded 2024 aluminum alloy, the softened weld metal recovered to the original hardness of base metal, while residual tensile stress in the weld metal and heat-affected zone changed to compressive stresses. The fatigue life almost doubled at a stress amplitude of 180 MPa and increased by a factor of more than 50 at 120 MPa. As a result, DryLP was found to be more effective for improving the fatigue performance of laser-welded aluminum specimens with welding defects at lower stress amplitudes.
Muramatsu, Toshiharu; Sato, Yuji; Kamei, Naomitsu; Aoyagi, Yuji*; Shobu, Takahisa
Nihon Kikai Gakkai Dai-13-Kai Seisan Kako, Kosaku Kikai Bumon Koenkai Koen Rombunshu (No.19-307) (Internet), p.157 - 160, 2019/10
no abstracts in English
Suzuki, Kenji*; Shobu, Takahisa; Shiro, Ayumi*
Zairyo, 68(4), p.312 - 317, 2019/04
Materials after thermal processing such as welding often have coarse grains. To understand the residual stress after processing is very important from the viewpoint of the soundness of the structure. In this study, we proposed a double exposure method that combines a two-dimensional detector and high-energy synchrotron radiation as an X-ray stress measurement method for materials with coarse grains, and confirmed its practicality. As a result of measuring the residual stress of the plastic bending specimen and the indentation specimen of the aluminum alloy (A5052), the effectiveness of this measurement method was clarified because the residual stress distribution was in good agreement with the finite element analysis.
Suzuki, Kenji*; Shobu, Takahisa
E-Journal of Advanced Maintenance (Internet), 10(4), p.9 - 17, 2019/02
In materials with an elastic anisotropy, a stress difference is generated between crystals when plastic deformation occurs, and it is known that this is deeply involved in material fracture. In this study, the residual stress for load direction in the plastically deformed material was investigated for each crystal orientation using the high-energy synchrotron radiation diffraction method. As a result, it was found that the residual stress is a tensile residual stress at an index with a high X-ray elastic constant (Young's modulus obtained for each diffraction surface) and a compressive residual stress at an index with a low X-ray elastic constant. We believe that this result will be useful for the technique of controlling the crystal orientation like the texture as improving the material strength.
Miyagi, Masanori*; Hongze, W.*; Yoshida, Ryohei*; Kawahito, Yosuke*; Kawakami, Hiroshi*; Shobu, Takahisa
Scientific Reports (Internet), 8(1), p.12944_1 - 12944_10, 2018/08
The behavior inside the metal during laser welding is very important because it greatly affects the material strength, defect generation, and so on. In this study, weld pool dynamics in laser welding of various series of aluminum alloys were investigated by the synchrotron radiation X-ray phase contrast imaging system. The experimental results showed that metal irradiated by laser was evaporated immediately, which generated the keyhole. Then metal surrounding the keyhole was melted gradually with the heat from keyhole. The growth rate of keyhole depth had a positive linear correlation with the total content of low boiling temperature elements (TCE), so did the keyhole depth and diameter at the stable stage. Then, by repeating the experiment, we succeeded in quantifying the effect of alloying elements on the dynamics of the weld pool in laser welding of aluminum alloys.
Sato, Yuji*; Tsukamoto, Masahiro*; Shobu, Takahisa; Yamashita, Yoshihiro*; Yamagata, Shuto*; Nishi, Takaya*; Higashino, Ritsuko*; Okubo, Tomomasa*; Nakano, Hitoshi*; Abe, Nobuyuki*
Applied Physics A, 124(4), p.288_1 - 288_6, 2018/04
The dynamics of titanium (Ti) melted by laser irradiation was investigated in a synchrotron radiation experiment. As an indicator of wettability, the contact angle between a selective laser melting (SLM) baseplate and the molten Ti was measured by synchrotron X-rays at 30 keV during laser irradiation. As the baseplate temperature increased, the contact angle decreased, down to 28 degrees at a baseplate temperature of 500C. Based on this result, the influence of wettability of a Ti plate fabricated by SLM in a vacuum was investigated. It was revealed that the improvement of wettability by preheating suppressed sputtering generation, and a surface having a small surface roughness was fabricated by SLM in a vacuum.
Bae, S.*; Jee, H.*; Kanematsu, Manabu*; Shiro, Ayumi*; Machida, Akihiko*; Watanuki, Tetsu*; Shobu, Takahisa; Suzuki, Hiroshi
Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 101(1), p.408 - 418, 2018/01
Despite enormous interest in calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), its detailed atomic structure and intrinsic deformation under an external load are lacking. This study demonstrates the nanostructural deformation process of C-S-H in tricalcium silicate (CS) paste as a function of applied stress by interpreting atomic pair distribution function (PDF) based on in situ X-ray scattering. Three different strains in CS paste under compression were compared using a strain gauge and the real and reciprocal space PDFs. PDF refinement revealed that the C-S-H phase mostly contributed to PDF from 0 to 20 whereas crystalline phases dominated that beyond 20. The short-range atomic strains exhibited two regions for C-S-H: I) plastic deformation (0-10 MPa) and II) linear elastic deformation (10 MPa), whereas the long-range deformation beyond 20 was similar to that of Ca(OH). Below 10 MPa, the short-range strain was caused by the densification of C-S-H induced by the removal of interlayer or gel-pore water. The strain is likely to be recovered when the removed water returns to C-S-H.
Akita, Koichi; Nakatani, Hayato*; Ogihara, Shinji*; Shobu, Takahisa; Shiro, Ayumi*; Igawa, Naoki; Shimojo, Yutaka
SPring-8/SACLA Riyo Kenkyu Seikashu (Internet), 6(1), p.105 - 108, 2018/01
no abstracts in English